Search found 50 matches

by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Mar 16, 2018 8:15 pm
Forum: *Aldehydes
Topic: Carbonyl -> Aldehydes and Ketones [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 859

Re: Carbonyl -> Aldehydes and Ketones [ENDORSED]

Leah Savage 2F wrote:Are ketones only made up of C bound to O and two C groups? Could it be bound to a C group and something other than H?

No, because then it would be an aldehyde. Aldehydes end the carbon chains and while ketones are located in the middle.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Mar 16, 2018 11:00 am
Forum: *Amines
Topic: Heterocyclic amines
Replies: 1
Views: 337

Re: Heterocyclic amines

Basically, heterocyclic amines are produced when protein-rich meats like beef, fish, and poultry are cooked at high temperatures (basically well-done meat). They're carcinogenic in that they produce DNA adducts (segments of DNA bound to a cancer-causing chemical) through the formation of N-C bonds a...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Mar 16, 2018 10:45 am
Forum: *Alkanes
Topic: How much Org Chem do we need to know for the final
Replies: 1
Views: 377

Re: How much Org Chem do we need to know for the final

We'll probably only be expected to know what was covered in class, i.e. identifying the different functional groups based on given structures.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Mon Mar 05, 2018 1:32 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Half Life
Replies: 6
Views: 228

Re: Half Life

Half lives can be very useful in determining the approximate age of organic objects via radiometric dating.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Mon Mar 05, 2018 1:30 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: catalytic reaction
Replies: 5
Views: 179

Re: catalytic reaction

The catalytic converter in a car contains platinum, which serves as a catalyst to change carbon monoxide, which is toxic, into carbon dioxide.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Mon Mar 05, 2018 1:25 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: k units [ENDORSED]
Replies: 7
Views: 313

Re: k units [ENDORSED]

As a reminder:

the units for k in a 0 order reaction are: mol/L*s , for a 1st order reaction are: 1/s, for a 2nd order reaction are: L/mol*s.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Mar 03, 2018 10:53 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: half-life
Replies: 8
Views: 275

Re: half-life

In regards to applications, half lives can be very useful in determining the approximate age of organic objects via radiometric dating!
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Mar 03, 2018 10:29 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Activation Energy???
Replies: 7
Views: 278

Re: Activation Energy???

The rate of reaction is dependent upon the amount of activation energy the reaction requires. A high activation energy means a slower rate of reaction, and vice versa. Catalysts work to increase the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Mar 03, 2018 10:24 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Q vs. K
Replies: 8
Views: 426

Re: Q vs. K

Q is the quotient calculated at non equilibrium conditions while K is the quotient calculated at equilibrium.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 20, 2018 10:18 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic Cells vs Electrochemical Cells
Replies: 4
Views: 145

Re: Galvanic Cells vs Electrochemical Cells

A galvanic cell is simply a type of electrochemical cell.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 20, 2018 10:13 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic vs. Voltaic
Replies: 5
Views: 149

Re: Galvanic vs. Voltaic

Galvanic cells are also known as voltaic cells; they are electrochemical cells that in which a spontaneous chemical reaction is used to generate an electric current.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 20, 2018 9:54 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidation Agents
Replies: 4
Views: 140

Re: Oxidation Agents

Oxidizing agents cause other species to be oxidized by accepting their electrons, themselves being reduced in the reaction.
Reducing agents cause other species to be reduced by donating their electrons, themselves being oxidized in the reaction.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Feb 16, 2018 2:10 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Acidic Conditions
Replies: 2
Views: 86

Re: Acidic Conditions

The question usually specifies whether the conditions are acidic or basic if that information is pertinent to the solution.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 13, 2018 11:09 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Gibbs free energy
Replies: 3
Views: 124

Re: Gibbs free energy

The value of ΔG changes as a reaction proceeds but the value of ΔG° is a fixed quantity throughout the reaction.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 13, 2018 11:06 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: ΔG° vs ΔG
Replies: 5
Views: 215

Re: ΔG° vs ΔG

Additionally, the value of ΔG changes as a reaction proceeds while ΔG° is a fixed quantity throughout the reaction.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 06, 2018 10:16 am
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Micro states
Replies: 5
Views: 185

Re: Micro states

Microstates are the number of possible positions and motions a molecule can take on in a given system. As entropy increases, so does the number of positions and motions available to the molecule. For example, in the case of the expansion of a gas, given more space, the molecules of the gas are less ...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 06, 2018 10:02 am
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy -/+
Replies: 4
Views: 141

Re: Gibbs Free Energy -/+

A negative deltaG is favored because then the reaction will proceed spontaneously and exothermically, releasing heat and increasing the entropy of its surroundings. Reactions that increase entropy are usually more favorable than reactions that require energy and do the opposite.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Feb 06, 2018 9:40 am
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: "Favorability"
Replies: 5
Views: 249

Re: "Favorability"

Beza, generally I would say yes because "favorable" reactions refer to spontaneous exergonic reactions which tend to occur without an input of energy.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Jan 30, 2018 11:28 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Definition of Entropy
Replies: 10
Views: 312

Re: Definition of Entropy

Another way to think about entropy is to consider the number of possible positions and motions (microstates) a molecule can take on in a given system. As entropy increases, so does the number of positions and motions available to the molecule. For example: in the expansion of a gas, the molecules of...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Jan 30, 2018 11:19 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 510

Re: Gibbs Free Energy [ENDORSED]

DeltaG is a measure of the change in free energy of a reaction, whereas deltaS is a measure of the change in entropy. The equation deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS uses the changes in enthalpy (deltaH) and entropy (deltaS) at constant temperature to calculate change in free energy (deltaG). A negative delt...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Jan 30, 2018 11:11 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Graph of G
Replies: 2
Views: 96

Re: Graph of G

When the slope is negative, G is negative, indicating an exergonic reaction (releases energy - spontaneous). When the slope is positive, G is positive, indicating an endergonic reaction (requires energy).
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Wed Jan 24, 2018 2:41 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Combustion of liquids
Replies: 4
Views: 201

Re: Combustion of liquids

Also, in combustion, it's almost always the vapor burning- not the liquid.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Wed Jan 24, 2018 2:35 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Adiabatic vs. Isolated
Replies: 3
Views: 187

Re: Adiabatic vs. Isolated

Yup- adiabatic systems have 0 heat transfer and isolated systems have 0 energy transfer at all.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Wed Jan 24, 2018 2:29 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Energy of systems
Replies: 4
Views: 155

Re: Energy of systems

Of course, this also depends on the type of system. For instance, isolated systems cannot exchange energy or matter with their surroundings.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Jan 23, 2018 1:04 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Isolated system
Replies: 8
Views: 292

Re: Isolated system

Nope - an isolated system can exchange neither matter nor energy with its surroundings.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Tue Jan 23, 2018 12:57 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Adiabatic [ENDORSED]
Replies: 8
Views: 366

Re: Adiabatic [ENDORSED]

It's also important to note that a system with adiabatic walls is not necessarily a closed system- energy can be transferred as work!
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Jan 21, 2018 4:43 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: 8.3
Replies: 3
Views: 129

Re: 8.3

Work is positive because it is being done ON the system (energy is added), whereas if the pump expanded (energy is expended) work would be negative because it is being done BY the system.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Jan 21, 2018 4:39 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Heat vs. Thermal Energy
Replies: 3
Views: 126

Re: Heat vs. Thermal Energy

I agree with Sophia. I think of thermal energy as the total internal energy while heat is the form of energy that flows between two objects due to a temperature difference.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Wed Jan 17, 2018 11:48 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Extensive vs. Intensive
Replies: 3
Views: 122

Re: Extensive vs. Intensive

Some examples of extensive properties include length, weight, size, mass, and volume. Some intensive properties include boiling/melting point, density, odor, color, ductility, and malleability.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Wed Jan 17, 2018 11:30 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Adiabatic vs Isolated Systems
Replies: 2
Views: 110

Re: Adiabatic vs Isolated Systems

It's important to note that a system with adiabatic walls is not necessarily an isolated system; energy can be transferred to or from the system as work.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 11:05 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configuration of Br-
Replies: 6
Views: 3013

Re: Electron Configuration of Br-

Definitely make sure to ask your instructors which notation they prefer beforehand.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:28 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electron Affinity
Replies: 2
Views: 273

Re: Electron Affinity

Chlorine does. One would expect it to be fluorine, but fluorine is a pretty small atom with a very small amount of space in its 2p orbital.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:18 am
Forum: Naming
Topic: (en) (dien)
Replies: 1
Views: 282

Re: (en) (dien)

I'm not quite sure, but knowing the full formulas does help in determining the denticity of these ligands, which is essential.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:16 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Paramagnetic vs diamagnetic
Replies: 2
Views: 163

Re: Paramagnetic vs diamagnetic

Diamagnetism indicates that all electrons are paired; such molecules tend to move out of a magnetic field.
Paramagnetism refers to molecules that possess unpaired electrons; such species tend to move into a magnetic field.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:09 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: CONJUGATE
Replies: 3
Views: 204

Re: CONJUGATE

Yes, the conjugate base produced is basic.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sun Dec 10, 2017 12:06 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: What part of ligand attached
Replies: 2
Views: 180

Re: What part of ligand attached

Yes, you would attach the C to the central atom.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Dec 09, 2017 10:52 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Memorizing all the names???
Replies: 4
Views: 380

Re: Memorizing all the names???

When naming a compound, you can definitely just use (en) or (dien) or whatever the shorthand may be; however you should probably also know the whole name just in case.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Dec 09, 2017 3:47 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Biological Importance of Coordination Compounds [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 363

Re: Biological Importance of Coordination Compounds [ENDORSED]

Organic coordination compounds probably have the most relevance to biological structures.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Sat Dec 09, 2017 3:42 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Paramagnetism
Replies: 3
Views: 311

Re: Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism refers to molecules that possess unpaired electrons; such species tend to move into a magnetic field.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Thu Nov 16, 2017 4:58 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: atomic structure of HOCO
Replies: 8
Views: 342

Re: atomic structure of HOCO

Another (organic) approach to this problem is to recognize that HOCO is simply a rearrangement of -COOH, the general formula of a carboxylic acid (an organic functional group). Knowing that organic molecules are chains or rings of C, we can conclude that the radical is placed on the carbon atom.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Thu Nov 16, 2017 4:50 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Organic vs inorganic molecules
Replies: 3
Views: 168

Re: Organic vs inorganic molecules

Organic molecules are usually found in living systems; they always consist of carbon in the form of chains or rings. Organic molecules will usually consist of C, H, O, or N. Inorganic molecules don't really consist of C and are not normally found in living things.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Thu Nov 16, 2017 4:35 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Cis- vs. Trans-
Replies: 4
Views: 266

Re: Cis- vs. Trans-

These terms don't directly refer to the orientation of dipoles around the molecule. Cis- and trans- are used to describe geometric isomerism (isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of individual atoms in space). If two groups are located on the same side of ...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Thu Nov 16, 2017 4:22 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: When looking at at molecule how can I determine when they will form sigma and pi bonds?
Replies: 3
Views: 175

Re: When looking at at molecule how can I determine when they will form sigma and pi bonds?

Once you determine the Lewis structure of the molecule, all you have to do is determine the amount of single, double, and triple bonds. Remember: a single bond consists of 1 sigma bond; a double bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond; a triple bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds. CO2 h...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Thu Nov 16, 2017 4:11 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: the number of pi bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 177

Re: the number of pi bonds

In benzene, each carbon atom contributes one unhybridized 2p electron, giving us a total of 6 unhybridized 2p electrons. These 2p electrons bond together to form pi bonds; thus (6 2p electrons)/(2 electrons per bond) = 3 pi bonds. These 3 pi bonds are the double bonds involved in benzene's structure.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 2:32 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electropositivity
Replies: 3
Views: 632

Re: Electropositivity

Yes, given that electropositivity is the opposite of electronegativity, it can be defined as the ability of an element to lose electrons and form positive ions (cations).
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 2:25 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Noble Gases
Replies: 3
Views: 254

Re: Noble Gases

Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gaseous state. Because noble gases have a full octet, their ionization energies are actually quite high. Electron affinity is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom. Because noble ga...
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 12:08 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Highly Polarizable
Replies: 4
Views: 301

Re: Highly Polarizable

Larger anions have a higher polarizability due to their larger size, which allows for electrons to be held more loosely. This in turn allows for them to be more easily distorted by smaller cations.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 11:59 am
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: More Polarizable/Polarizing Power
Replies: 6
Views: 338

Re: More Polarizable/Polarizing Power

Smaller cations have a higher polarizing power due to their greater concentrations of positive charge; likewise larger anions have a higher polarizability due to the fact that they have a larger size so electrons are then more loosely held.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 11:50 am
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Negative Sign in Bohr's Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 3793

Re: Negative Sign in Bohr's Equation

Bohr assumed that when an electron is removed completely, the energy of the system is 0. However, when the electron is still around the nucleus, the system is more stable and thus at a lower energy. Thus, there is a negative sign in front of the equation.
by Jessica_Singh_1J
Fri Nov 10, 2017 11:37 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Radius
Replies: 6
Views: 298

Re: Radius

All radii generally follow the same trend on the periodic table.

Go to advanced search