Search found 54 matches

by Ava Harvey 2B
Tue Mar 13, 2018 11:06 am
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Distinguishing Different Types of Constants
Replies: 3
Views: 171

Distinguishing Different Types of Constants

How can we distinguish between the different types of constants when using the pre-equilibrium approach? Because there's the equilibrium constant, K, the constant for the forward reaction, k, the constant for the reverse reaction, k', and the constant in the rate law. I'm not sure how to distinguish...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 11, 2018 2:48 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: The Slow Step of a Reaction
Replies: 2
Views: 115

The Slow Step of a Reaction

I understand that the slow step of a reaction is the step that ultimately determines the overall rate and rate law. However, I was just wondering if the slow step in a reaction mechanism can ever be a step that is in equilibrium? Or are the fast steps the only ones that can be in equilibrium? Thanks...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 11, 2018 2:45 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: HW 15.45
Replies: 2
Views: 116

Re: HW 15.45

Yes, you are correct, AB is the intermediate because it is formed as a product in one step of the reaction mechanism and then used up as a reactant in another step of the reaction mechanism. The product A2B is a different compound than AB, thus AB is completely consumed in the reaction. A2B is forme...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 11, 2018 2:41 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: born haber cyle
Replies: 1
Views: 369

Re: born haber cyle

No, I don't believe so! In the outline for Chapter 8, it says to omit Section 8.18 which is the section that discusses the Born-Haber Cycle
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 04, 2018 4:42 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Homogenous vs. Heterogenous Catalyst and Rate Law
Replies: 2
Views: 133

Homogenous vs. Heterogenous Catalyst and Rate Law

I understand that the difference between a homogenous and heterogenous catalyst lies in the phase of the catalyst. However, the book mentions that the concentration of a homogeneous catalyst does appear in the rate law, but it doesn't mention whether a heterogenous catalyst appears in the rate law. ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 04, 2018 4:39 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Catalyst, Equation, and Rate Law
Replies: 4
Views: 671

Catalyst, Equation, and Rate Law

I understand that a catalyst speeds up a reaction by providing an alternative pathway, however, I don't understand why it doesn't appear in the balanced equation for a reaction, yet it does appear in the rate law. If someone wouldn't mind explaining that to me, that would be great! Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Mar 04, 2018 4:31 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Arrhenius Behavior
Replies: 3
Views: 173

Arrhenius Behavior

What exactly does it mean to exhibit Arrhenius Behavior, and why is it helpful to know if a certain reaction exhibits it? Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Mon Feb 26, 2018 4:44 pm
Forum: Experimental Details
Topic: Collision Theory
Replies: 2
Views: 404

Collision Theory

I understand the concepts of the collision theory pretty well, however I was just wondering if the collision theory only applies to gas-phase reactions, or if there are any instances in which it can be applied to a solid or liquid-phase reaction? Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Mon Feb 26, 2018 4:40 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Activation Energy and Temperature Dependence of Rates
Replies: 2
Views: 112

Activation Energy and Temperature Dependence of Rates

Why is it that reactions with low activation energies have rates that increase only slightly with temperature, while reactions with high activation energies have rates that depend strongly on the temperature? I am a little confused on this relationship between activation energy and temperature depen...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Mon Feb 26, 2018 4:36 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Slowest Elementary Step
Replies: 4
Views: 159

Slowest Elementary Step

I understand that the slowest elementary step in a sequence of reactions governs the overall rate of formation of products. However, I am still a bit confused as to the reasoning behind this and as to why this is this case. If someone wouldn't mind explaining that to me, that would be great. Thanks ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Feb 21, 2018 7:29 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Reduction Half-Reactions
Replies: 2
Views: 129

Re: Reduction Half-Reactions

I was a bit confused on this concept as well, but Lavelle mentioned two different methods in lecture for solving for the standard cell potential. So all of the half-reactions are given in the reduction form, and thus so are the corresponding standard potentials. Once you have determined which half-r...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Feb 21, 2018 7:17 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: NO2 Example from Lecture
Replies: 2
Views: 124

NO2 Example from Lecture

I was a bit confused in lecture today during the example that Lavelle was walking us through regarding the chemical reaction 2NO2 --> 2NO + O2. I understand the concept that the concentration of NO2 is decreasing at a rate that is equal to the rate at which the concentration of NO is increasing (as ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Mon Feb 19, 2018 2:40 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Balancing Acidic, Basic, or Non-Acidic/Non-Basic [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 108

Balancing Acidic, Basic, or Non-Acidic/Non-Basic [ENDORSED]

If a question does not specify whether the solution is acidic or basic, yet the equation involves hydrogen or oxygen atoms, how do you know whether to balance the equation using H20 and H+ molecules or H20 and OH- molecules? In other words, how do you know how to balance a redox reaction involving h...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Feb 15, 2018 10:51 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Electrolytically Refined
Replies: 1
Views: 55

Electrolytically Refined

What does it mean to be electrolytically refined? For example, the book says that when copper metal is refined electrolytically, the anode is impure copper, the cathode is pure copper, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of CuSO4. I was a little unsure as to what being refined electrolyticall...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Feb 15, 2018 10:46 am
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Glass Electrode vs. Hydrogen Electrode
Replies: 1
Views: 93

Glass Electrode vs. Hydrogen Electrode

The book mentioned that a glass electrode is much easier to use than a hydrogen electrode, however, it didn't really provide an explanation as to why this was the case and so I was a little confused. If someone doesn't mind explaining to me, as well as what the difference between the two is, that wo...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Feb 15, 2018 9:56 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Variation of Standard Potential in the Periodic Table
Replies: 1
Views: 86

Variation of Standard Potential in the Periodic Table

I was wondering if someone wouldn't mind explaining to me the variation of standard potentials through the main groups of the periodic table. I wasn't quite sure why the most negative values are in the S block and why the most positive values are close to fluorine in the top right of the P block. An...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Feb 04, 2018 11:31 am
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Energy Free to do Useful Work
Replies: 2
Views: 130

Energy Free to do Useful Work

So I understand that the change in Gibbs Free Energy, G, for a spontaneous process represents the energy that is free to do useful work. However, I was a bit confused on this concept because technically not all of the energy can be readily available to do work and will not necessarily be used to do ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Feb 04, 2018 11:30 am
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: Change in Entropy Remains Constant
Replies: 3
Views: 169

Change in Entropy Remains Constant

In lecture, Lavelle explained why the change in entropy in the Van’t Hoff equation remained constant, however I was a bit confused as to why this was the case. If someone could explain this reasoning to me, that would be great! Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Feb 04, 2018 10:50 am
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Reversible reactions
Replies: 1
Views: 140

Re: Reversible reactions

I don’t believe reverse reactions are necessarily always at equilibrium. Unlike irreversible reactions, reversible reactions can lead to equilibrium: in reversible reactions, the reaction proceeds in both directions whereas in irreversible reactions the reaction proceeds in only one direction. If th...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Jan 28, 2018 2:18 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Thermal Disorder vs. Positional Disorder
Replies: 2
Views: 78

Thermal Disorder vs. Positional Disorder

I was just wondering what the difference is between thermal disorder and positional disorder, and if there's any relationship between the two? Thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Jan 28, 2018 2:14 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: change in entropy
Replies: 2
Views: 107

Re: change in entropy

For question 9.5, the equation you use is Change in S=q/T. We know all the values we need: First Reservoir: -the heat removed from the first reservoir is qrev= - 40.0x10^3 kJ -the temperature of the first reservoir is T=800 K -entropy change in the first reservoir, Change in S1=(- 40.0x10^3 kJ)/(800...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Jan 28, 2018 1:57 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Entropy Change of Phase Changes
Replies: 1
Views: 153

Re: Entropy Change of Phase Changes

Page 327 in the textbook has a really good explanation for the entropy change of phase changes. I have copied some of the information below! Point Number 3 answers the first part of your question. Using the equation, Change in S = qrev/T, to calculate the entropy change for a substance undergoing a ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sat Jan 27, 2018 2:50 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Calculating S [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 93

Re: Calculating S [ENDORSED]

The term kB is the Boltzmann constant (also written with just k), which is equal to 1.38065 × 10^-23 J/K. This value will be given to us on our formula sheet!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Fri Jan 26, 2018 8:14 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Entropy of gas vs liquid vs solid
Replies: 7
Views: 1550

Re: Entropy of gas vs liquid vs solid

The basic idea of why gases have a greater entropy than liquids or solids has to do with the spacing of particles. Gases have a higher entropy because they occupy a greater volume in comparison to liquids and solids. Gas molecules move freely at high speeds and are more spread out, thus they have mo...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Mon Jan 22, 2018 3:16 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat Capacity at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure
Replies: 1
Views: 85

Heat Capacity at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

I was just wondering why the heat capacity at constant volume is Cv=deltaU/deltaT, while heat capacity at constant pressure is Cp=deltaH/deltaT? Why is there the difference between the two? Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Jan 18, 2018 5:48 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: enthalpy of formation
Replies: 2
Views: 125

Re: enthalpy of formation

If I remember correctly from lecture, in the case of natural elements in their most stable state, no change in enthalpy takes place because the reactants and the product are exactly the same. The element is already formed, so a formation reaction is not necessary. Thus, the standard enthalpy of form...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Jan 18, 2018 5:44 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat Capacity for Constant Pressure and Constant Volume
Replies: 2
Views: 90

Heat Capacity for Constant Pressure and Constant Volume

Do we need to know the equations for heat capacity in relation to constant pressure and constant volume where Cp=5/2*R and Cv=3/2*R? I don't remember going over these in lecture, but there were included in one of the homework problems so I just wanted to clarify! Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Jan 18, 2018 5:41 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Most Stable Form
Replies: 3
Views: 114

Most Stable Form

I was just wondering, but are there any patterns or is there an easy way to figure out what the most stable form is for each element? I know that the standard enthalpy of formation of an element in its most stable form is zero, but what if you're not sure what the most stable form is? Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Jan 14, 2018 8:27 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Test #1
Replies: 1
Views: 124

Test #1

Just out of curiosity, but does anyone know what Test #1 will cover? Will it cover all of Chapter 8 (excluding 8.18 and 8.20) or will it only cover a portion of Chapter 8? Thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Jan 10, 2018 6:25 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: The Process of Sublimation [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 177

The Process of Sublimation [ENDORSED]

Can someone please explain to me the process of sublimation and what exactly occurs? I know that when solids turn into liquid and liquids turn into gas they have to go through a phase transition first in which the temperature doesn't change. How does this happen for the sublimation process?
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Jan 10, 2018 6:22 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Enthalpy and Entropy
Replies: 2
Views: 94

Enthalpy and Entropy

Can someone please explain to me the difference between enthalpy and entropy, and if there's any relation between the two? Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Jan 10, 2018 6:21 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat Capacity vs. Specific Heat Capacity
Replies: 6
Views: 217

Heat Capacity vs. Specific Heat Capacity

I was just wondering if someone could clarify for me the difference between heat capacity and specific heat capacity. Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Dec 07, 2017 1:46 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Determining the Stronger Acid
Replies: 2
Views: 205

Determining the Stronger Acid

I'm a bit confused on question 12.51 from the homework. So for part a, I understand that HCl is a stronger acid than HF because its bond strength is much weaker (it has a larger atomic radius). However, for part c, the solutions manual says that HClO2 is a stronger acid than HBrO2. Yet, when compari...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Dec 03, 2017 12:11 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Identifying Conjugates
Replies: 2
Views: 143

Identifying Conjugates

Can someone please explain to me the process of identifying a conjugate acid or a conjugate base? I'm a bit confused on how exactly to do this. Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Dec 03, 2017 12:06 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Lewis Acid & Base vs. Bronsted Acid & Base [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 175

Lewis Acid & Base vs. Bronsted Acid & Base [ENDORSED]

Can someone please explain to me the difference between a Lewis acid and base compared to a Bronsted acid and base? I'm still confused. Any help would be much appreciated, thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Nov 29, 2017 3:53 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: K with Respect to Change in Pressure & Temperature [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 133

K with Respect to Change in Pressure & Temperature [ENDORSED]

Can someone please explain why the equilibrium constant, K, does not change when there is a change in pressure but it does change when there is a change in temperature?
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:43 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Q vs. K
Replies: 3
Views: 186

Q vs. K

What exactly is the difference between the reaction quotient, Q, and the equilibrium constant, K? Also, what’s the difference in terms of solving for them?
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sat Nov 25, 2017 1:31 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone Pairs vs. Bonding Pairs
Replies: 6
Views: 328

Lone Pairs vs. Bonding Pairs

Can someone please explain to me a little more in depth the reasoning behind why lone pairs have greater repelling effect than that of bonding electrons? I was a little confused on this concept. Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sat Nov 25, 2017 1:26 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Equitorial vs. Axial Lone Pair
Replies: 2
Views: 253

Equitorial vs. Axial Lone Pair

Hi! I hope everyone's having a wonderful short break off from school! Can someone please explain to me when choosing to place a lone pair in the structure of a molecule, in order to determine its shape, why is it preferable to place it as an equatorial lone pair versus an axial lone pair? Or does it...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Fri Nov 17, 2017 9:59 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Radical Question
Replies: 4
Views: 314

Radical Question

Hi! I was just wondering why exactly the radical electron goes on the least electronegative atom when drawing and figuring out the best Lewis structure. If someone could help clarify, that would be great! Thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Fri Nov 17, 2017 9:36 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Radicals and Shape
Replies: 2
Views: 172

Radicals and Shape

Hi! I was just wondering what role radicals play in affecting the molecular shape of a compound. Like are single electrons considered a region of electron density that significantly influences the shape? Anything would be appreciated, thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sat Nov 11, 2017 3:48 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Expanding an Octet [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 205

Expanding an Octet [ENDORSED]

From what I understand, when expanding an octet, if there must be a negative charge it is it placed on the most electronegative atom. I wasn't quite sure if this correct, and if so, I'm confused as to the reason behind this. If anyone could explain this to me, I would appreciate it more than anythin...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Sat Nov 11, 2017 3:41 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Determining Best Lewis Structure [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 224

Determining Best Lewis Structure [ENDORSED]

When drawing out Lewis structures for a particular compound, I understand that we have to find multiple resonance structures and calculate the formal charges on the atoms to see which is the best one. Is the most stable structure considered the one where the central atom has a formal charge of 0? I ...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Nov 02, 2017 8:00 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Homework Problem 2.37
Replies: 2
Views: 164

Homework Problem 2.37

In the textbook, Question #2.37 asks to select the statements that are true for many-electron atoms. Part (b) states that electrons in an s-orbital are more effective than those in other orbitals at shielding other electrons from the nuclear charge because an electron in an s-orbital can penetrate t...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Nov 02, 2017 7:51 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Carbon vs. Nitrogen Ionization Trend
Replies: 3
Views: 205

Carbon vs. Nitrogen Ionization Trend

Based on trends in the periodic table for ionization energy, I would've guessed that Nitrogen would have a higher ionization energy than Carbon, as it is further to the right on the periodic table. However, Carbon actually has a higher ionization energy than Nitrogen, and this confused me because it...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Oct 25, 2017 9:38 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Exceptions to Electron Configuration [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 782

Exceptions to Electron Configuration [ENDORSED]

Hi! I was just wondering if the two exceptions that Lavelle mentioned in lecture regarding electron configuration (for Copper and Chromium) continue and carry on the same pattern going down groups 6 and 11 on the periodic table. Thanks so much!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Oct 25, 2017 9:33 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy
Replies: 3
Views: 275

Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy

Hi! I was just wondering if someone could please explain to me the relationship between electron affinity and ionization energy. I know that their trend is the same or very similar throughout the periodic table, but I'm confused on what that relationship actually is and what it means. Thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Oct 25, 2017 9:33 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy
Replies: 4
Views: 348

Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy

Hi! I was just wondering if someone could please explain to me the relationship between electron affinity and ionization energy. I know that their trend is the same or very similar throughout the periodic table, but I'm confused on what that relationship actually is and what it means. Thanks!
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Oct 19, 2017 10:18 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Hydrogen Series
Replies: 4
Views: 270

Re: Hydrogen Series

Yes, I agree. I don't think we're expected to know the Paschen or Brackett series. However, I would memorize that for the Lyman series, all of the spectral lines go down to the energy level of n=1. For the Balmer series, all of the spectral lines go down to the energy level of n=2. Therefore, when s...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Oct 19, 2017 8:53 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: Question about Ek
Replies: 3
Views: 251

Re: Question about Ek

For the equation Ek = (1/2)m*v^2, the ^2 only applies to v (v^2). If we take a look at the units this make sense. Kinetic energy is given in the units of Joules (J), which translates to kg*m^2*s^-2. Thus, when looking at the units of the equation (1/2)m*v^2 we get kg*m^2*s^-2. If we were to square t...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Oct 12, 2017 8:23 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Balmer vs Lyman series [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 486

Re: Balmer vs Lyman series [ENDORSED]

For the Lyman series, all of the spectral lines go down to the energy level of n=1. For the Balmer series, all of the spectral lines go down to the energy level of n=2. Therefore, when solving problems with the Rydberg equation, you will plug in 1 (for the lower energy n) for the Lyman series and yo...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Wed Oct 11, 2017 10:39 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Determining the Series [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 226

Determining the Series [ENDORSED]

I just have a general question regarding certain problems from Chapter 1. How are you supposed to figure out what series (i.e. Lyman series, Balmer series, Paschen series, etc.) a certain problem is? A few questions from the homework asked about this, and I'm a little confused on how we determine th...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Oct 05, 2017 6:07 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Question M19 (Molecular Formula)
Replies: 5
Views: 322

Re: Question M19 (Molecular Formula)

What also helps to remember is that typically for combustion reactions, for every 1 mole of CO2 produced, 1 mole of C was in the initial compound; for every 1 mole of H2O produced, 2 moles of H were in the initial compound; and for every 1 mole of N2 produced, 2 moles of N were in the initial compou...
by Ava Harvey 2B
Thu Oct 05, 2017 5:44 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Net Ionic Equation
Replies: 4
Views: 870

Re: Net Ionic Equation

Can someone please elaborate a little more on what happens to the sodium and nitrate ions? I'm still a little bit confused because in the net ionic equation the sodium and nitrate ions are not there, but they're still used in the calculations and mole ratios. So I'm not sure what ratios to use if th...

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