Search found 42 matches

by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 9:35 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Kinetic control vs. Thermal control
Replies: 1
Views: 236

Kinetic control vs. Thermal control

Can someone explain the concept of kinetic control? I understand that thermal control is a reaction that is dependent on the temperature that it occurs, but how would you be able to differentiate between the two by looking at a phase diagram?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:26 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Factors Affecting Entropy
Replies: 4
Views: 1104

Re: Factors Affecting Entropy

In terms of the complexity of molecules, would a more complex molecule (with more electrons) have higher entropy than a number of smaller molecules (who, in their more numerous state, have more possible arrangements)?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:24 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Monatomic vs. Diatomic
Replies: 2
Views: 452

Re: Monatomic vs. Diatomic

I was confused about this too. If all containers have 1 mol of gases, there would be 6.22x20^23 molecules in each container, regardless if they are monatomic or diatomic. However, since each diatomic molecule can have two distinct orientations while the monatomic can only have one, shouldn't the dia...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:20 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: S and delta S
Replies: 4
Views: 283

Re: S and delta S

S as described by the Boltzmann equation describes positional entropy. That is, the total entropy or disorder as a result of the orientations of the molecules, rather than their thermal entropy, which is determined by their motion. Delta S usually combines both these quantities to describe how entro...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:17 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Overall Reaction
Replies: 1
Views: 112

Re: Overall Reaction

I would say to do it just to be safe. Technically phases are supposed to be part of every reaction, although they are more important in some cases (like when calculating Q) than others.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:15 pm
Forum: *Enzyme Kinetics
Topic: Catalysts in a reaction
Replies: 7
Views: 572

Re: Catalysts in a reaction

Intermediates are produced by one of the reaction steps, meaning it first appears as a product. It then acts as a reactant in subsequent steps, ensuring that it is cancelled out in the overall reaction.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 2:43 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Rule when writing cell diagrams?
Replies: 5
Views: 203

Re: Rule when writing cell diagrams?

From what I understand H+ and OH- ions are included in the diagram, but their product (H2O) is not included since the reactions occur in aqueous conditions and water is the solute.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 2:39 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: cell diagram
Replies: 4
Views: 157

Re: cell diagram

Cell diagrams are written in the order of electron flow. By that logic, the order of species should always go from oxidized to reduced, regardless of which side the electrodes are on in the drawing.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 2:37 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Anode and cathode in cell diagram
Replies: 3
Views: 160

Re: Anode and cathode in cell diagram

With this question, since both beakers will have aqueous solutions, wouldn't the chrome conductor be required in both beakers? How would you construct the cell with just a single chrome piece?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Mar 17, 2018 2:35 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Cell Diagram: Porous Disk and Salt Bridge
Replies: 5
Views: 211

Re: Cell Diagram: Porous Disk and Salt Bridge

I think for the most part the question will tell you which one is used. Overall, if the question asks what its function is, both essentially perform the same functions by allowing for the movements of solutes to prevent charge buildup.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Fri Mar 16, 2018 9:16 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Porous Disk
Replies: 2
Views: 128

Re: Porous Disk

Porous disks also perform the same role as salt bridges by allowing solutes to recycle back and prevent charge from building up.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Fri Mar 16, 2018 9:02 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Weird Cell Diagram
Replies: 1
Views: 110

Re: Weird Cell Diagram

I was confused about this too?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Mar 14, 2018 3:55 pm
Forum: *Enzyme Kinetics
Topic: Catalysts and Intermediates
Replies: 5
Views: 628

Re: Catalysts and Intermediates

Both catalysts and intermediates get cancelled out during the elementary steps of a reaction and do not appear in the overall reaction equation. Catalysts speed up the reaction by providing an alternate pathway (or reaction mechanism) with a lower activation energy, allowing the reaction to proceed ...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Mar 14, 2018 3:40 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Chapter 15.12?
Replies: 4
Views: 175

Re: Chapter 15.12?

Collision theory essentially states that molecules (usually in a gaseous phase) will bond if the three requirements are satisfied: 1) whether the molecules are of the right size and traveling at the right speed (this is affected by temperature) 2) whether they have greater than the minimum energy to...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Mar 14, 2018 3:36 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Catalysts vs Intermediates
Replies: 2
Views: 149

Catalysts vs Intermediates

When given the elementary steps of a reaction, both intermediates and catalysts are cancelled out when writing the overall reaction. In problems like 15.71, how can you tell if a cancelled out species is an intermediate or a catalyst?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Mar 14, 2018 3:34 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: catalysts
Replies: 5
Views: 226

Re: catalysts

Wait I thought catalysts could appear in the rate law if they are part of the slow step that determines the overall rate law? I think pages 651 and 652 of the textbook mention this.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Thu Feb 22, 2018 11:37 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: 14.41
Replies: 4
Views: 461

Re: 14.41

Helen Shi 1J wrote:When would you use the equation with E=E-RT/NF lnQ vs E=E-.05916V/N logQ?


These are the same equation. 0.05916 is the value of (RT/F) at 298.15 K with ln converted to log.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Thu Feb 22, 2018 8:33 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Hydrogen Electrode
Replies: 1
Views: 83

Re: Hydrogen Electrode

Converting H+ to H2 is reduction, since the charge of the H goes from +1 to 0. Cathodes undergo reduction, which would mean that this half reaction should be placed on the right side of the salt bridge of the cell diagram. Converting H2 to H+ is oxidation, since the charge of the H goes from 0 to +1...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Thu Feb 22, 2018 8:21 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Cell Diagrams
Replies: 1
Views: 73

Re: Cell Diagrams

Cell diagrams are written in the order in which the electrons flow. This means that the reduction half reaction (or the cathode) will be on the right side of the diagram while the oxidation half reaction (or the anode) will be on the right. If Fe3+ is being reduced, it will be written before Fe2+. I...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Feb 14, 2018 11:59 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Cp and Cv
Replies: 2
Views: 139

Re: Cp and Cv

When temperature is changing and volume is constant (isochoric), you use Cv. When temperature is changing and pressure is constant (isobaric), you use Cp.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Tue Feb 13, 2018 9:28 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: About total entropy change for reversible processes
Replies: 1
Views: 93

Re: About total entropy change for reversible processes

In reversible processes, the entropy change for the system is the opposite of the entropy change for the surroundings. This means that the total entropy change will be 0. However, this does not mean dG for reversible expansion is always 0. dG = dH - TdS, so if the enthalpy change is negative enough ...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Tue Feb 13, 2018 9:20 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: DeltaG spontaneous
Replies: 1
Views: 86

Re: DeltaG spontaneous

The book defines spontaneous change as "change that has a tendency to occur without being driven by an external influence." Essentially a spontaneous reaction doesn't require an additional input of energy to occur. It's important to remember that just because it is spontaneous doesn't mean...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Fri Feb 09, 2018 10:35 am
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Cv,m vs Cp,m vs R
Replies: 4
Views: 736

Re: Cv,m vs Cp,m vs R

For the example you gave, we are calculating change in temperature with constant pressure, since the volume is also changing, right? So then why would you use Cv,m instead of Cp,m?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Fri Feb 09, 2018 9:31 am
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Cv,m vs Cp,m vs R
Replies: 4
Views: 736

Cv,m vs Cp,m vs R

I'm not completely clear on when to use which constant to calculate entropy change. Does it matter whether you're calculating entropy due to a change in volume vs. temperature vs. pressure?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Thu Feb 08, 2018 7:45 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Heat Capacity when cooling
Replies: 1
Views: 83

Heat Capacity when cooling

In Example 9.6 in the textbook, it uses the given heat capacity when measuring the entropy change from heating the liquid. However, when calculating entropy change for cooling the vapor back down, it uses Cp,m, which multiplies the given heat capacity by 4. When do you use each one?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Tue Jan 23, 2018 6:31 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Concepts and Equations
Replies: 2
Views: 85

Re: Concepts and Equations

This formula is essentially a derivation of the original formula deltaH=q+w. By plugging in deltaU and PdeltaV, it is possible to achive the given formula.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Tue Jan 23, 2018 6:27 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat Capacities of Gas
Replies: 1
Views: 90

Heat Capacities of Gas

What are the concepts behind the heat capacities of gas ratios (monatomic, linear, nonlinear molecules)? Why do they have different ratios based on their atomic structures?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Tue Jan 23, 2018 6:13 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Hess's Law Details
Replies: 2
Views: 108

Hess's Law Details

When using Hess's law to find the enthalpy of formation for a compound, is it necessary for all the other reactants and products to have the same coefficients as the original equation? Also, can the final equations have fractions as coefficients?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Nov 25, 2017 10:59 am
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming (steps)
Replies: 6
Views: 280

Re: Naming (steps)

Since some transition metals can vary in charge, how do you determine what Roman numeral to place after the transition metal?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Nov 25, 2017 10:51 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Finding The Direction of Reaction
Replies: 5
Views: 232

Re: Finding The Direction of Reaction

What does favoring one side of the reaction mean? Can a reaction at equilibrium favor a certain side?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Mon Nov 13, 2017 4:37 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Trigonal Bipyramidal
Replies: 2
Views: 138

Re: Trigonal Bipyramidal

Trigonal bipyramidal is just the ideal structure when there are 5 regions of electron density. Which atoms compose those regions does not matter as much.
by YashDeshmukh1D
Mon Nov 13, 2017 4:26 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Sigma vs. Pi Bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 254

Sigma vs. Pi Bonds

Why can atoms in sigma bonds rotate, but those in pi bonds unable to do so? Why does the cylindrical region of electron density only form in sigma bonds but not in pi bonds?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Nov 11, 2017 4:06 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: H20 and Bent Shape Molecules [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 111

H20 and Bent Shape Molecules [ENDORSED]

If molecules take on bent shapes as a result of the lone pair electrons taking up far more space than the bond pair electrons, why are the lone pairs directly adjacent to one another? In the case of H20 for example, wouldn't O's lone pairs be on either side of the atom, resulting in an overall linea...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Sat Nov 11, 2017 3:49 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar Bonds vs. Polar Molecules [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 273

Re: Polar Bonds vs. Polar Molecules [ENDORSED]

Can a molecule have all polar bonds but still not be a polar molecule due to the symmetry of its structure?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Nov 01, 2017 11:32 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Hybrid bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 212

Hybrid bonds

What does the textbook mean when it describes resonance structures as having the average bond from among all its possible variants?
How is it possible to have 1.5 bonds as compared to a single or double bond?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Nov 01, 2017 11:30 pm
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition
Replies: 3
Views: 638

Re: Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition

How does the final atom just relinquish its lone pair electrons like that, especially if it does nothing to fulfill its own octet? Does the electronegativity of the central atom have to be significantly high for that attraction to occur?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Oct 25, 2017 9:44 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Across a period vs. Down a group
Replies: 3
Views: 228

Across a period vs. Down a group

If we can understand that going across a period from left to right results in an increase of nuclear attraction (since no energy levels are being added to offset the increased number of protons) and that going down a group results in a decrease of nuclear attraction (since the increased energy level...
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Oct 25, 2017 9:35 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: P_xyz axis
Replies: 3
Views: 180

Re: P_xyz axis

How are the lobes of the p orbitals oriented around the axis? Are they "straddling" the axes or are they on opposite sides of each plane?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Mon Oct 16, 2017 12:53 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Photon vs. Energy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 300

Re: Photon vs. Energy [ENDORSED]

Is it possible to calculate the number of photons in a beam of light of a specified amount of energy?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Oct 11, 2017 10:29 am
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: question on how to determine if something has wavelike properties.
Replies: 6
Views: 902

Re: question on how to determine if something has wavelike properties.

Does this mean that even large objects like cars and balls still demonstrate wavelike behavior even though we can't visibly detect it?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Oct 11, 2017 10:28 am
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Deriving the function [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 408

Re: Deriving the function [ENDORSED]

Does de Broglie's equation apply to particles of matter as well as photons of electromagnetic radiation?
by YashDeshmukh1D
Wed Oct 11, 2017 10:21 am
Forum: *Black Body Radiation
Topic: Ultraviolet Catastrophe
Replies: 3
Views: 822

Re: Ultraviolet Catastrophe

How exactly does Planck's hypothesis solve the ultraviolet catastrophe? Even if bodies require a minimum threshold of energy to emit certain frequencies (quantum theory), why would that imply a maximum limit that stops bodies from emitting high energy radiation that "lays waste to the countrysi...

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