Search found 40 matches

by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 11:42 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 6
Views: 13125

Re: Unhybridized orbitals

For instance, would we say that for dsp3, one of the 2s electrons is promoted to a 3d orbital, leading to 5 hybridized dsp3 orbitals? Does that mean that there are then 4 unhybridized d orbitals left over? what types of bonds do those empty 3 orbitals form?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 11:28 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 6
Views: 13125

Re: Unhybridized orbitals

Thanks, Divya! Your explanation was very thorough and helpful.

Can anyone walk through the same process / logic here for unhybridized/unhybridized orbitals when there are d orbitals involved (how many hybrid orbitals, how any unhybridized, number of sigma and number of pi bonds)?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 10:11 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Why does it minimize electron repulsion for lone pairs to be located on the equatorial axis in a t-shaped molecule?
Replies: 1
Views: 149

Why does it minimize electron repulsion for lone pairs to be located on the equatorial axis in a t-shaped molecule?

Why does it minimize electron repulsion for lone pairs to be located on the equatorial axis in a t-shaped molecule? I would think placing them at the "north" and "south" poles of the equator would minimize repulsion between the lone pairs since they would be 180 degrees apart
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 8:31 am
Forum: Naming
Topic: Homework 9C3(a)
Replies: 2
Views: 181

Re: Homework 9C3(a)

Thanks!
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 8:12 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Relative acidity of HClO vs HClO2 etc.
Replies: 1
Views: 340

Relative acidity of HClO vs HClO2 etc.

Can someone provide more of the "why" in this explanation pasted below for the relative acidity of HClo, HClo2, etc.? My comments/questions are in italics "In oxyacids, the H is always bonded to one of the oxygens. Any factor that weakens the O-H bond, makes the substance more acidic....
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 8:00 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Jonathan's Review
Replies: 2
Views: 205

Re: Jonathan's Review

Will answers be posted today? / If so, at what time? Thanks so much!
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 7:46 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Non-chelate polydentate [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 327

Re: Non-chelate polydentate [ENDORSED]

So the real difference between polydentate and chelate is that polydentate may form multiple bonds to either the same or different atoms (does this mean two different atoms in the same molecule, or the central atoms of two different molecules), whereas chelating ligands only form bonds multiple bond...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 30, 2019 7:43 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelating vs polydentate
Replies: 2
Views: 552

Re: Chelating vs polydentate

Following up on this older post. I have the same question -- can someone give an example of a polydentate ligand that is NOT a chelate to demonstrate why they are not actually the same in all cases?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 12:12 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: 6A.17 (admin?)
Replies: 2
Views: 201

Re: 6A.17 (admin?)

The question is: "State whether the following oxides are acidic, basic or amphoteric: (a) BaO (b) SO 3 (c) As 2 O 3 (d) Bi 2 O 3 I'm having trouble understanding the section in the textbook related to this question (6A3). Can someone walk me through how to begin approaching all of these, step-b...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 11:59 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: 6A.15(b) - Lewis structure for SO2 and SO2Cl-
Replies: 1
Views: 176

6A.15(b) - Lewis structure for SO2 and SO2Cl-

We are asked to draw the lewis structure for for Cl-, SO2, and their product. In the answer manual, S02 has S bonded to the first oxygen with a double bond, but to the second oxygen with only a single bond, and then a lone pair. Why would this be the case rather than 2 double bonds, which would mini...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 11:51 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Homework 6A15(a)
Replies: 1
Views: 169

Homework 6A15(a)

We are asked to identify the product for the Lewis acid-base reaction PF5 + F- ---> ? I don't understand why these would join together. While P has the capacity for an expanded octet, doesn't it "prefer" to have only 5 bonds? when the extra F- attaches to form PF6, it has a charge of -1 ov...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 11:39 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: 6A13(c): cations as lewis acids
Replies: 1
Views: 164

6A13(c): cations as lewis acids

We are asked whether Ag+ is a Lewis acid or a lewis base. I wanted to check my thought process on deciding that this was a Lewis acid, and test which conclusions can be generalized to other cations. The electron configuration for Ag is {Kr}4d 10 5s 1 . It will lose its electron from 5s to form {Kr}4...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 11:22 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Amphiprotic compounds
Replies: 1
Views: 135

Amphiprotic compounds

In 6A12, we are asked to write chemical equations of two proton transfer equilibria that demonstrate the amphiprotic character of NH3. However, in 6A13, we are told to identify NH3 as either an acid or a base. I would think if it is amphiprotic, the answer would be "both", or it depends on...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 10:56 am
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: 6a1(b)
Replies: 1
Views: 168

6a1(b)

Write the formulas of the conjugate acid of NH2NH2.

Why is the answer NH2NH3 instead of NH3NH3? Why does this compound only gain one proton instead of 2? How would you generalize the underlying reason to apply in other contexts?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 10:52 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: (am)
Replies: 3
Views: 200

(am)

If a formula as (am) written after each compound, indicating the solution is ammonia based, is there any impact on how we solve the problem (vs that solution simply being aqueous)? If so, what are the differences?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 28, 2019 10:51 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: 7th edition 6A.9 a and c
Replies: 1
Views: 179

7th edition 6A.9 a and c

In 6A.9, we are asked to identify the acid and base in the following chemical equations: (a) NH4I (aq) + H20 (l) --> NH3 (aq) + H30+ (aq) +I- (aq) (c) CH3COOH (aq) + NH3 (aq) --> CH3CONH2 (aq) + H20 (l) In part a, why do we say that NH4+ is the acid, rather than Nh4I? In part c, there is no acid or ...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sat Jul 27, 2019 5:39 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 1
Views: 187

Unhybridized orbitals

I'm not completely clear on unhybridized orbitals. Can someone walk through a succinct explanation of how to predict which orbitals will be unhybridized, and why that is the case? Also, why are unhybridized orbitals always perpendicular/90 degrees to the the hybridized orbitals?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sat Jul 27, 2019 5:29 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: "Salt with a base"
Replies: 2
Views: 190

"Salt with a base"

In lecture this week, we talked about "salts with a base" (e.g., that contain OH-). Are the salts themselves not considered to be bases? Is it erroneous to refer to the entire compound, including the salt, as a base? In Section J1A of the textbook, there is a note that says "sodium hy...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sat Jul 27, 2019 5:24 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Strong acids
Replies: 1
Views: 176

Strong acids

I understand that acids are stronger generally going down the periodic table. Why for instance is H-At not considered a strong acid, but H-I is?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Wed Jul 24, 2019 8:43 pm
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: Why can h20 only donate 1 lone pair?
Replies: 5
Views: 399

Why can h20 only donate 1 lone pair?

If the oxygen on H2O has 2 lone pairs, why can it only donate one? Similarly, why is it that the oxygens in C2O2 can only donate 1 lone pair? Why can the oxygen with the double bond in C2O2 not donate any at all?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Wed Jul 24, 2019 8:25 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Polydentate
Replies: 8
Views: 812

Re: Polydentate

Have a further question on this 9C5(a). I tried drawing the lewis structure for HN(CH2CH2NH2)2 and don’t see how it generate three line pairs on the N molecules. Can someone draw and upload the proper structure and point out where the lone pairs are?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Wed Jul 24, 2019 5:29 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Homework 9C3(a)
Replies: 2
Views: 181

Homework 9C3(a)

Can someone walk me through step by step how to write the formula for the following compound: potassium hexacyanidochromate(III) I understand that the K goes first for potassium because it is a cation, and is outside the brackets because it is a separate word. I understand "hexacyanido" me...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 23, 2019 8:18 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Xenon -- why is it the only noble gas that can form bonds?
Replies: 4
Views: 203

Xenon -- why is it the only noble gas that can form bonds?

It was mentioned in section today that Xenon is the only noble gas that can form covalent bonds. Why is this so? Why are other noble gases with d and f orbitals unable to do this?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 23, 2019 8:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Does polar bonds affect bond angles?
Replies: 1
Views: 168

Does polar bonds affect bond angles?

Are bond angles only a function of repulsion between lone pairs and bonded atoms? Or are they also affected by dipole moments? Why or why not? I would think if electrons tended to spend more time closer to one atom than another, it could have an effect.
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 23, 2019 8:02 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Order of atoms about the central atom
Replies: 1
Views: 176

Order of atoms about the central atom

I'm not clear on the guidelines for determining the arrangement of atoms of different elements around a central element. For instance, in E25(a), we are asked to draw the lewis structure and determine the shape of CH2Cl2. How do we know whether the H or Cl is the one at the top of the tetrahedron, o...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Mon Jul 22, 2019 8:04 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Why is AX3E2 linear?
Replies: 8
Views: 292

Why is AX3E2 linear?

I'm having a hard visualizing / conceptualizing why AX3E2 is linear. Can someone walk me through the logic?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Mon Jul 22, 2019 8:00 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Problem 2E13 (7th edition) part d
Replies: 1
Views: 164

Problem 2E13 (7th edition) part d

Hello, As part of question 2E13 (part d), we are asked to draw the Lewis structure for N^2O. Two answers are given. For both, N is the central atom. In the first version, there are three bond with the other N atom (which also has a lone pair), and one bond with the O atom (which has 3 lone pairs). I...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Thu Jul 18, 2019 6:30 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Notation of electron configurations of ions
Replies: 5
Views: 283

Notation of electron configurations of ions

In 2A3(b), we are asked to give the electron configuration for As3+. The configuration for As is normally [Ar]4s 2 4p 3 . However, when As loses three electrons, the configuration is [Ar]3d 10 4s 2 . I am comfortable with the idea that it loses 3 electrons from 4p 3 . However, I don't understand why...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Thu Jul 18, 2019 6:19 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipoles N, O, and F, etc.
Replies: 3
Views: 275

Dipoles N, O, and F, etc.

Hello, I'm trying to make sure my understanding of dipoles is comprehensive. I understand that generally: H + N, O, F or Cl = hydrogen bond Anything else + N, O, F, or Cl = dipole I'm not clear if I dipole exists in the following cases between the highly electronegative atoms: N +O ? N + F ? O + F ?...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Wed Jul 17, 2019 7:42 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Expanded octet
Replies: 3
Views: 270

Re: Expanded octet

While I follow the idea that d orbitals create more space for additional bonds, I'm having trouble tracking exactly which electrons are populating those d orbitals that are completely empty. For example BrF 3 in question 2B.5(a) in the 7th edition -- Can someone please let me know where I'm thinking...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 16, 2019 8:17 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Order of electron loss in ion formation
Replies: 4
Views: 267

Order of electron loss in ion formation

If an element has d electrons and tends to lose electrons when it forms an ion, that element will first lose electrons from its np orbital, followed by its ns orbitals, followed by its (n-1)d orbitals? Is that correct? Or there any exceptions to that order?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 16, 2019 7:48 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Number of valence electrons - including d electrons [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 287

Number of valence electrons - including d electrons [ENDORSED]

In problem 2A.1 (7th edition), we are asked to "give the number of valence electrons (including d electrons)." Are we supposed to include or not include d electrons in the number of valence electrons by default when not specified in general (e.g. if they had not specifically asked for d el...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 10:00 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Number of orbitals given quantum numbers
Replies: 3
Views: 202

Number of orbitals given quantum numbers

How many orbitals can have the following quantum numbers in an atom: n=2,, l=1. ml=0?

The solutions manual says the answer is 4. Can someone walk me through why / how to get there?
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 8:31 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Atomic vs molecular electron transitions / spectroscopy
Replies: 1
Views: 197

Atomic vs molecular electron transitions / spectroscopy

Can someone give a succinct explanation of the important differences? This is from the learning outcomes. • With respect to electron transitions that give rise to a UV or visible spectrum: understand the difference between electronic transitions in atomic orbitals (atomic spectroscopy) and electroni...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 6:33 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Finding the initial energy level given frequency of emitted photon
Replies: 1
Views: 188

Finding the initial energy level given frequency of emitted photon

I'm not getting an sensible answer using the Rydberg equation to solve this problem. Can someone walk me through the solution? 42. An excited hydrogen atom emits light with a frequency of 1.14 x 1014 Hz to reach the energy level n = 4. In what principle quantum level did the electron begin? A. n = 5...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 6:01 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: 1 photon excites 1 electron?
Replies: 1
Views: 181

1 photon excites 1 electron?

I know that in the photoelectric effect, theoretically, there would be 1:1 ratio between the number of entering photons and number of ejected electrons. However, I'm not sure if this this same idea applies in spectroscopy-- i.e., that one photon would excite exactly one electron. I would think, but ...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 5:56 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Spectral lines
Replies: 1
Views: 194

Spectral lines

This question is from the audio-visual module. Pretty sure a spectral line represents a wavelength, but the redundancy of this question threwme off a bit. I also see spectral lines being described by their frequency in the text. Obviously one easily found from the other, but wondering what the corre...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 1:26 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Homework Problems
Replies: 2
Views: 195

Re: Homework Problems

(A) first identify that you need to use the De Broglie equation to find the wavelength, since an electron is a particle with mass. The wavelength of the electron = h / ( mass of electron * velocity of the electron). Plug in 6.626 * 10^-34 for h, 9.1095 * 10^31 kg for mass of electron, and the given ...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Tue Jul 09, 2019 12:58 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Indeterminacy principle
Replies: 3
Views: 195

Re: Indeterminacy principle

Hello, The best answer is that there is a limit to the accuracy with which both position and momentum can be known. If you look at the equation for Heisenberg’s Uncertainty, you’ll see that the uncertainty in X (position) multiplied by uncertainty in P (momentum) can never be zero, and that the cert...
by Katherine Fitzgerald 1A
Sun Jul 07, 2019 9:57 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Calculating Kinetic Energy
Replies: 1
Views: 203

Re: Calculating Kinetic Energy

Hello! I believe the solution is as follows: Kinetic energy of an ejected electron = 1/2 (mass of electron) * (velocity of ejected electron) ^2 See page 14 of the 7th edition of the textbook for this formula for reference. Mass of electron = 9.109 * 10^(-31) kg (generally known value) Velocity = 6.6...

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