## Search found 50 matches

Sun Mar 18, 2018 3:15 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Reducing vs Oxidizing Agents
Replies: 4
Views: 293

### Re: Reducing vs Oxidizing Agents

I just remember that the agent is opposite of what it is doing:

A species being oxidized is the reducing agent.
A species being reduced is the oxidizing agent.
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:54 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Correct Answer For Test 1 Question 7
Replies: 4
Views: 348

### Re: Correct Answer For Test 1 Question 7

For the set up for this problem, how did you get 16675.91565 for the first part of the equation? You're supposed to get the deltaH of fusion from the formula sheet and multiply it by the grams of ice, which you convert into moles: (50g H2O/18.02 g/mol H20) * (6.01 kJ/mol) = 16.6759kJ or 16675.91565J.
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:34 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Open, closed, or isolated test 1 question
Replies: 10
Views: 628

### Re: Open, closed, or isolated test 1 question

An ideal cooler won't allow matter to escape if it's closed. Moreover, it won't allow heat to escape because it is insulated. Thus, it is an isolated system.
Sat Mar 17, 2018 3:32 am
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Bomb Calorimeter
Replies: 6
Views: 432

### Re: Bomb Calorimeter

No, bomb calorimeters are not vacuums.
Wed Mar 07, 2018 4:15 am
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: 15.19c
Replies: 6
Views: 261

### Re: 15.19c

The x10^12 is correct if you convert the units from mmol to mol, but they seemed to have made a typo in the textbook since they kept the answer in mmol.
Wed Mar 07, 2018 4:14 am
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Homework Problem 15.19C
Replies: 5
Views: 222

### Re: Homework Problem 15.19C

I am getting the same answer. I have no idea how they managed to get x10^12 in the answer. It's most likely a typo since they kept the unit as mmol.
Wed Mar 07, 2018 12:32 am
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: Negative Order RXN?
Replies: 2
Views: 176

### Re: Negative Order RXN?

If a species has a negative order, it means that the more concentration it has, the slower the reaction is. An example given in the book is the decomposition of ozone, O3, in the upper atmosphere. Its rate law is: Rate = k[O3]^2*[O2]^-1 or k[O3]^2/[O2] This means that the reaction of decomposition i...
Wed Mar 07, 2018 12:20 am
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Reaction rates
Replies: 3
Views: 155

### Re: Reaction rates

The average rate of a reaction is the change in concentration of a species over some time. The unique average rate is just said average rate divided by the stoichiometric coefficient of the species being monitored.
Wed Mar 07, 2018 12:14 am
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Rate Constant Units
Replies: 9
Views: 497

### Re: Rate Constant Units

Overall order and their units of k:

1: 1/s
2: L/mol*s
3: L^2/mol^2*s
Wed Feb 28, 2018 2:17 am
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: 15.5 a /unique rate of reaction
Replies: 1
Views: 121

### Re: 15.5 a /unique rate of reaction

0.44 m/Ls represents the rate of C2H4's reaction. This would be the unique rate of reaction, and you can use it and the other reactants or products' coefficients to find their own rate of reactions. For example, for every one mole of C2H4 being reacted, 3 moles of O2 are being formed. So to find O2'...
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:51 pm
Forum: Interesting Applications: Rechargeable Batteries (Cell Phones, Notebooks, Cars), Fuel Cells (Space Shuttle), Photovoltaic Cells (Solar Panels), Electrolysis, Rust
Topic: Reducing Agent/ Oxidizing Agent
Replies: 6
Views: 491

### Re: Reducing Agent/ Oxidizing Agent

The best reduction agent has the most negative or lowest potential energy. The best oxidation agent has the most positive or highest potential energy.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:49 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic cell set up
Replies: 8
Views: 290

### Re: Galvanic cell set up

Yes, in the textbook it says that Reduction, which is the cathode, is Right to maintain clarity.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:45 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: calculating n
Replies: 9
Views: 458

### Re: calculating n

Yes, you need to work out both half reactions and balance them properly to get the same amount of electrons being gained and lost in both half reactions. The mutual number of electrons in both half reactions is the number for n.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:42 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Does order matter?
Replies: 7
Views: 296

### Re: Does order matter?

I am sure it doesn't really matter for this class, but I personally like to keep them in the order of importance. I tend to have them in the order of the species being reduced, the species being oxidized, then H2O and/or H+.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:37 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Writing and Balancing Half Reactions
Replies: 6
Views: 281

### Re: Writing and Balancing Half Reactions

There is actually a toolbox section in the textbook that you can use to easily follow along the steps and see them in action on page 563.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:34 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: 14.1 D
Replies: 3
Views: 181

### Re: 14.1 D

You need to balance both half reactions in order for them to have equal amount of electrons being gained and lost, so they can cancel out for the final redox reaction.
Sun Feb 25, 2018 6:30 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidation state
Replies: 4
Views: 202

### Re: Oxidation state

Yes, even if there's multiple of the same molecule, their charges add up.
Wed Feb 21, 2018 5:46 am
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Determining n in G=-nFE
Replies: 4
Views: 8394

### Re: Determining n in G=-nFE

As for part b, it is much simpler than it looks. All you need to do is make: 6 Fe(3+) --> 6 Fe(2+) From here, the charges on both sides are +18 vs +12. Just add 6 electrons to the left side, and you'll have equal charges. This means that n for this part is 6. There is no real need to focus on the ot...
Wed Feb 21, 2018 5:36 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: 14.5a
Replies: 4
Views: 204

### Re: 14.5a

In my opinion, it's easier to start with the Br part of the question first. It'll end up being the oxidation half of the reaction, and you can just assume that the O3 part will be the reduction half.
Wed Feb 21, 2018 4:55 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: redox agent
Replies: 5
Views: 204

### Re: redox agent

I just remember the difference by noting that the agent is the opposite of what's happening to them

e.g. The reducing agent is getting oxidized.
Wed Feb 14, 2018 3:46 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: W
Replies: 3
Views: 325

### Re: W

You may need to make the exponent Avogadro's number when there is 1 mole of particles involved--changing the exponent to n * Avogadro's number if there are n moles involved. However, I don't think it will be necessary on the midterm. (I hope)
Tue Jan 23, 2018 10:45 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Open systems
Replies: 6
Views: 280

### Re: Open systems

I think we might be focusing on closed systems more because we should be focusing on work/heat and not just matter.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 10:42 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Table of bond enthalpies
Replies: 4
Views: 201

### Re: Table of bond enthalpies

The bond enthalpies are positive when the bonds are being broken because they require energy. However, they are negative when the bonds are being formed again because they release energy.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 7:50 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Internal Energy
Replies: 3
Views: 237

### Re: Internal Energy

The formula requires the delta V because we are trying to calculate how much the system changed overall.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 7:44 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Is there a way specific way to approach into seeing if open closed or isolated?
Replies: 9
Views: 365

### Re: Is there a way specific way to approach into seeing if open closed or isolated?

I think the only real way to tell is if it's a concealed system or not. Then if it's thermally-insulated or the like. It's hard to determine it with any "specific way" or any tricks.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 6:01 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Replies: 8
Views: 795

### Re: Isolated vs. Adiabatic system

In an adiabatic process, energy is transferred to its surroundings only as work while an isolated system cannot transfer energy at all.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:42 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Entropy of an Isolated System
Replies: 4
Views: 221

### Re: Entropy of an Isolated System

The entropy of an isolated system must remain constant or increase because of the number of possible states/configurations it has can only increase or remain the same, never decrease. This is because the system cannot lose energy or matter, so no molecules or energy are being lost; thus, no possible...
Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:29 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: System Types
Replies: 7
Views: 287

### Re: System Types

If you want specific examples, there are some in the textbook:

Open: an open flash
Closed: a flask with a cork
Isolated: a plugged flask in a thermally-insulated material
Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:28 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Difference between Closed and Isolated
Replies: 10
Views: 840

### Re: Difference between Closed and Isolated

While a closed system can exchange heat with its surroundings, an isolated system cannot exchange energy. Of course, both cannot exchange matter either.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:22 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: system of vacuum
Replies: 4
Views: 210

### Re: system of vacuum

Yes. I think a very easy example to think of would be the universe itself. There is no exchange of heat with any surroundings because there are no surroundings.
Tue Jan 23, 2018 4:20 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Isolated system
Replies: 8
Views: 327

### Re: Isolated system

No. No work can be done with an isolated system. Also, its internal energy is constant, which is the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Thu Dec 07, 2017 9:53 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Strength of an Acid
Replies: 5
Views: 357

### Re: Strength of an Acid

The strength of an acid increases across the periodic table with electronegativity but also downwards with the size of elements.
Thu Dec 07, 2017 9:50 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong vs. Weak
Replies: 5
Views: 249

### Re: Strong vs. Weak

It also relates to the fact that the ions of elements on the right and lower side of the periodic table grow progressively larger and result in longer, weaker bonds with H. Hence, HF is a weaker acid than HCl and HI. The strength of acidity increases across with electronegativity but downwards with ...
Mon Nov 27, 2017 6:57 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole arrows
Replies: 2
Views: 212

### Re: Dipole arrows

I am certain we will be drawing the arrows pointing towards the negative δ. A good rule of thumb is to remember that Lavelle taught us that beginning side of the arrow can be drawn with a "+" symbol to represents that it is δ+.
Mon Nov 27, 2017 6:55 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole Moments
Replies: 3
Views: 225

### Re: Dipole Moments

Keep in mind that the arrows for dipole moments should be labeled accordingly. If the dipole arrow is pointing towards one atom, that atom should have δ-. Meanwhile the base of the arrow, which is labeled for the bonding atom, should have δ+.
Sun Nov 26, 2017 11:01 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Superscript
Replies: 3
Views: 263

### Re: Superscript

The superscript states how many orbitals of that subshell is hybridized.
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:57 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: 3 regions of e- density
Replies: 3
Views: 256

### Re: 3 regions of e- density

Pretty sure you accidentally wrote the wrong number. It's supposed to b 2sp^3.
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:54 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma Bond
Replies: 3
Views: 235

### Re: Sigma Bond

There can't be two sigma bonds because one sigma bond is already very strong and causes too much repulsion for another sigma bond, which is along a internuclear axis, to be possible. Two atoms cannot be arranged in a way that two sigma bonds are possible.
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:42 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Why do lone pairs take up more space than bonds?
Replies: 5
Views: 2586

### Re: Why do lone pairs take up more space than bonds?

Lone pairs have a stronger repulsion than bonding pairs because bonding pairs are farther away from the central atom since it needs to be connected to the sharing atom. Meanwhile, lone pairs are closer to the nucleus as it doesn't need to be shared with any other atoms, so they will give off more re...
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:35 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 4
Views: 232

### Re: Bond Angles

I don't think Lavelle expects us to know how to calculate or remember the bond angles, but try to at least remember how to work out every AXE formation. Also keep in mind that lone pairs, E, will repel electron densities more, which will make their bond angles lesser than usual since they are gettin...
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:32 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Hybridization
Replies: 3
Views: 367

### Re: Hybridization

Hybridization involves the promotion of electrons and making multiple orbitals from different subshells "equal" in energy (such as 2s and 2p), so that electrons can follow the Hund's rule in their newly-created hybridized-subshell to form more bonds. Basically, hybridization involves promo...
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:18 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma and pi
Replies: 12
Views: 695

### Re: Sigma and pi

Yes because the first bond is always a sigma bond and any other subsequent bonds are pi bonds.
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:17 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Pi bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 578

### Re: Pi bonds

So does that mean that if there is a sigma bond, there will always be a pi bond as well? No this is not the case. In fact, it's backwards. If there is a pi bond, there is always a sigma bond. This is because sigma bonds are ALWAYS the first bond to be made between two atoms. Any others will result ...
Sun Nov 26, 2017 10:15 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: double bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 445

### Re: double bonds

The first bond between two atoms IS ALWAYS a sigma bond. Any other extra bonds are pi bonds.
Tue Nov 14, 2017 1:38 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: different types of bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 376

### Re: different types of bonds

A bond is nonpolar if the total dipole moment in a bond is zero. For example, CO2 is a nonpolar molecule. A polar molecule is one that has a nonzero dipole moment. For example, H2O. Both hydrogens have equal dipole moments, but they aren't exactly opposite, so the molecule still has a nonzero dipole...
Thu Nov 09, 2017 5:26 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Quantum Mechanics
Replies: 4
Views: 348

### Re: Quantum Mechanics

Why is it that carbon has a higher affinity than nitrogen when nitrogen is at the right of the carbon? I thought that as you go more right, there is a higher electron affinity. What is the exception with carbon that makes it have a higher electron affinity? Carbon has a higher electronic affinity t...
Wed Nov 08, 2017 1:32 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron Affinity - P, Na, Ar
Replies: 4
Views: 274

### Re: Electron Affinity - P, Na, Ar

Ar has lower electron affinity because it's a noble gas with 8 full valence electrons. It would require energy to add another electron since its full and repulsion will play a factor.
Wed Nov 01, 2017 11:47 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Problem 2.67 from textbook
Replies: 2
Views: 161

### Re: Problem 2.67 from textbook

I was a bit confused at first myself, but I think I understand why now after some research. It's due to the fact that carbon has an empty orbital for an electron to enter in the p-subshell, which means there will be no repulsion when trying to add an electron to its last orbital. Meanwhile, nitrogen...
Wed Oct 18, 2017 10:56 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Atomic Spectra Module Q28
Replies: 2
Views: 193

### Re: Atomic Spectra Module Q28

So one meter fits 1,650,763.73 wavelengths. This means that it's a very high frequency wave (there's a LOT of squiggles in one meter). To find the wavelength of krypton-86 radiation, you just need to simply divide 1 meter by 1,650,763.73. This equals to 6.058 x 10^-7 m (simplified to 605.8 nm). So o...
Sun Oct 08, 2017 9:17 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Combustion [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 314

### Re: Combustion[ENDORSED]

Combustion always uses O2 from the atmosphere, so with butane, the equation would be something of the sort:

C4H10(g) + O2(g) --(delta for "heat")--> CO2(g) + H2O(l)

This equation is unbalanced, so don't forget to balance with stoichiometric coefficients!