Search found 52 matches

by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Wed Mar 21, 2018 7:01 am
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: rate proportions
Replies: 2
Views: 374

Re: rate proportions

If a reaction is first order then the rate will be doubled when the reactant is doubled. If the reaction is second order and only has one reactant, then doubling the reactant will cause the rate to be squared.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Wed Mar 21, 2018 6:59 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: k1 and k2
Replies: 2
Views: 1019

Re: k1 and k2

K of reaction step 2 can equal k2/k'2. The equilibrium applies to all equations and is a ratio of forward rate reaction constant to reverse rate reaction constant.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Wed Mar 21, 2018 6:57 am
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Arrhenius equation
Replies: 2
Views: 346

Re: Arrhenius equation

No, just make sure to match T1 with k1 and T2 with k2
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 11, 2018 11:25 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Units
Replies: 11
Views: 578

Re: Units

While these are common units for these types of problems, it does not have to be these units specifically. Use whatever is consistent with the problem.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 11, 2018 11:24 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: Finding n
Replies: 4
Views: 267

Re: Finding n

My TA mentioned that for problems in this class, n will always be close to a whole number.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 11, 2018 11:22 pm
Forum: Second Order Reactions
Topic: the slope
Replies: 12
Views: 527

Re: the slope

negative k for zero and first order reaction rates and positive k for second order reaction rates
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 04, 2018 9:46 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Stoichiometry coefficients
Replies: 3
Views: 155

Re: Stoichiometry coefficients

No the rate law is determined from experimental data.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 04, 2018 9:45 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: K limiting rate
Replies: 3
Views: 156

Re: K limiting rate

Each reaction has a unique rate. A higher k means a faster reaction and a lower k means a slower reaction. When you multiply k times the concentrations in the rate law, you get the unique reaction rate for the specific reaction.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Mar 04, 2018 9:41 pm
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: k
Replies: 16
Views: 624

Re: k

Most problems keep k in terms of seconds however it is ok to convert to other units if needed for the problem.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 25, 2018 11:51 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Rate of Reaction
Replies: 4
Views: 143

Re: Rate of Reaction

Since the stoichiometric coefficients are 2 for NO2 and 1 for O2, the rate of O2 production will be half of that of NO2 depletion.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 25, 2018 11:47 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: activation energy
Replies: 4
Views: 188

Re: activation energy

A higher activation energy means there is a higher energy barrier for the reaction. This means more energy is needed for the reaction to proceed which will require a longer amount of time in most cases.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 25, 2018 11:45 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Tangent line
Replies: 4
Views: 184

Re: Tangent line

Yes the reaction rate will change as the reaction proceeds. We will always take the instantaneous rate closest to t=0 since this is the maximum rate.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Feb 19, 2018 10:17 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic Cells vs Electrochemical Cells
Replies: 4
Views: 145

Re: Galvanic Cells vs Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemical cells generate electrical energy from chemical reactions. Galvanic cells are a type of electrochemical cell that generate electricity through redox reactions.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Feb 19, 2018 9:50 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidation Numbers
Replies: 6
Views: 256

Re: Oxidation Numbers

Oxidation number of an atom in a neutral compound is zero when the substance contains only one element. So O2 and O3 would have an overall charge of zero.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Feb 19, 2018 9:44 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: anode?
Replies: 5
Views: 234

Re: anode?

The anode is where oxidation occurs. In this case the Zinc is being oxidized. The Zinc is also referred to as the reducing agent since it is being oxidized
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Feb 08, 2018 9:37 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Intensive Property of Standard Cell Potential
Replies: 3
Views: 147

Re: Intensive Property of Standard Cell Potential

Specific heat capacity is an extensive value and depends on the amount of substance present. Standard cell potential is an intensive value and does not depend on the amount of substance present.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Feb 08, 2018 9:34 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 7
Views: 233

Re: Salt Bridge

Even if the diagram does not show a salt bridge, I think it is safe to assume that there is a salt bridge in all redox reactions. If there were no salt bridge there would be a buildup of elections in the cathode and after a certain point, electron flow would stop because of the charge buildup. By ha...
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Feb 08, 2018 9:31 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Standard Reduction Potentials Concept
Replies: 4
Views: 336

Re: Standard Reduction Potentials Concept

Yes, when you flip a reduction equation, you are basically running the reverse reaction, which is oxidation. You will also need to take the negative of the standard reduction potential.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 04, 2018 9:14 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: enthalpy and entropy when it comes to spontaneous reactions
Replies: 6
Views: 227

Re: enthalpy and entropy when it comes to spontaneous reactions

Spontaneity is determined by multiplying temperature (in kelvin) and enthalpy and subtracting this from entropy. If this value is negative, the reaction is spontaneous.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 04, 2018 9:11 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: combustion
Replies: 4
Views: 169

Re: combustion

Yes you can subtract the enthalpies of formation of reactants from the enthalpies of formation of reactants since enthalpy is a state function (path is independent from final and initial state).
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Feb 04, 2018 9:07 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Periodic Trends
Replies: 4
Views: 186

Re: Periodic Trends

Heat capacity is an extensive property and does not necessarily have trends in the periodic table. It is the amount of heat required to raise 1 mole/gram of substance by 1 degree Celsius/Kelvin. Therefore, it depends on intermolecular forces
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Jan 29, 2018 12:56 am
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Entropy vs. Degeneracy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 208

Re: Entropy vs. Degeneracy [ENDORSED]

Degeneracy is the amount of states a particles can exist in. Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system. While they both may seem similar, degeneracy is describing the actual number of states and entropy is measured in J/K
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Jan 29, 2018 12:52 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Entropy vs. Enthalpy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 113

Re: Entropy vs. Enthalpy [ENDORSED]

Entropy is calculated by dividing the heat lost/gained in a reversible reaction divided by the temperature of the system. If this reaction occurs at constant pressure then you can substitute q for delta H, or enthalpy change.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Mon Jan 29, 2018 12:49 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: degeneracy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 7
Views: 220

Re: degeneracy [ENDORSED]

Degeneracy is the number of ways of achieving a given energy state. An example given in class was that a quarter has a degeneracy of 2 since it can either land on heads or tails. The higher the entropy, the higher amount of possible energy states.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 21, 2018 11:36 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Heating Curve Calculation Confusion
Replies: 3
Views: 167

Re: Heating Curve Calculation Confusion

This depends on the initial and final temperatures of the system. If the system goes from -10 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius, you need to calculate
mCdeltaT for -10 degrees to 0 degrees + phase change from ice to liquid + mCdeltaT for 0 degrees to 50 degrees
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 21, 2018 11:31 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond enthalpies
Replies: 4
Views: 176

Re: Bond enthalpies

We will be given bond enthalpies and we will have to determine reaction enthalpy depending on which bonds are broken and which bonds are formed.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 21, 2018 11:29 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: ΔU vs. ΔH
Replies: 10
Views: 475

Re: ΔU vs. ΔH

Delta U is a summation of the work done in the system and the heat in the system. In other words, it is a measure of the internal energy of the system. When pressure is constant, there is no work being done. Therefore delta U is equal to delta H under these circumstances.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 14, 2018 9:50 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Standard Reaction Enthalpy Definition
Replies: 7
Views: 180

Re: Standard Reaction Enthalpy Definition

No it does not have to be at this temperature but most reactions happens at 25 degrees Celsius
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 14, 2018 7:35 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Methods of Enthalpy
Replies: 8
Views: 311

Re: Methods of Enthalpy

Yes we learned three methods. The first one involves Hess's Law, the second one uses bond enthalpies, and the third one uses standard enthalpies of formation. The method you use depends on the information given.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Jan 14, 2018 7:28 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Constant temperature
Replies: 3
Views: 128

Re: Constant temperature

Temperature stays constant during a phase change because the heat is being used to break/make bonds between the molecules.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sat Dec 09, 2017 8:45 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong vs. Weak
Replies: 5
Views: 234

Re: Strong vs. Weak

Strong acids will have more electronegative/electron withdrawing atoms in their formulas. This will allow the proton to break away more easily and for the resulting anion to be stable.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 10:15 am
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Bases
Topic: CH3COOH
Replies: 3
Views: 400

Re: CH3COOH

Acetic acid only loses the hydrogen that is attached to the oxygen because of oxygen's electronegativity. The nonpolar bond between carbon and hydrogen prevents the hydrogens from being donated since electrons are equally shared.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 10:13 am
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Ka and Concentration
Replies: 3
Views: 236

Re: Ka and Concentration

Ka is the acidity constant, or the equilibrium constant of an acid dissociation equation. It is a ratio of the products concentration to the reactants concentration. On the other hand, [H3O+] is the concentration of hydronium ions and is measured by pH.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 10:10 am
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Electron Withdrawing Power
Replies: 3
Views: 168

Re: Electron Withdrawing Power

In respect to oxacids, acids with a greater amount of oxygen will be stronger because the electrons of the resulting anion are more delocalized. This is due to the high electronegativity of oxygen.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 10:08 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: % dissociation
Replies: 3
Views: 248

Re: % dissociation

You can calculate %dissociation of an acid by dividing the conjugate base concentration by the initial acid concentration. This is a measurement of how much the acid dissociates.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 2:49 am
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Determining Amphoteric Compounds
Replies: 3
Views: 333

Determining Amphoteric Compounds

How do you determine whether is amphoteric by looking at its formula? Are all compounds with metalloids considered amphoteric?
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 2:46 am
Forum: Naming
Topic: Finding Coordination Number
Replies: 6
Views: 320

Re: Finding Coordination Number

Coordination Number is simply the number of ligands attached to the transition metal. The transition metals contain s,p, and d orbitals and can therefore accommodate many ligands.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Dec 08, 2017 2:44 am
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Equilibrium Composition
Replies: 4
Views: 317

Re: Equilibrium Composition

When calculating the concentrations of products/reactants, we can approximate if the equilibrium constant is very small (<10^-5). This does not x is zero, but that x is very small and has a negligible effect.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Dec 07, 2017 2:02 am
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Difference between pH and pKa?
Replies: 4
Views: 312

Re: Difference between pH and pKa?

pKa and pH are different. Ka is the equilibrium constant for a reaction that involves an acid. pKa = -log(Ka). pH is a measure of how strong the acid is (how much it disassociates. pH = -log[H+]
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Dec 07, 2017 1:58 am
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 12.29C
Replies: 1
Views: 129

Re: 12.29C

Since Ba(OH)2 is a strong base, we know it completely disassociates. For every one mole of Ba(OH)2 that is diasassociated, there will be one mole of Ba+ and two moles of OH-. Therefore we multiply the base's concentration by two to get the concentration of OH-. From here we can calculate pOH
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Thu Dec 07, 2017 1:53 am
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Reason for not including water
Replies: 6
Views: 300

Re: Reason for not including water

Since water is the solvent, it's concentration will barely be affected. Therefore it is not included in the equilibrium ratio.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Nov 05, 2017 10:18 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Ionization Energy / Lewis Dot Structures
Replies: 2
Views: 186

Re: Ionization Energy / Lewis Dot Structures

Since the atomic radius decreases across a period, the energy required to remove an electron becomes higher. Therefore, ionization energy increases from left to right across a periodic table. Chlorine is to the right of beryllium and so it has a higher ionization energy.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sun Nov 05, 2017 10:12 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Which one do I draw?
Replies: 5
Views: 334

Re: Which one do I draw?

I think we will mostly be asked to draw lewis structures to figure out the bonds and areas of high electron density. From VSEPR we will probably be asked to identify molecular structure and bond angles.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sat Oct 28, 2017 5:41 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Filling electron shells [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 302

Re: Filling electron shells [ENDORSED]

The 4s orbital is filed first because it is lower in energy compared to the 3d orbital. The lowest energy state is always preferred. Another example of this is with the Chromium and copper examples. The electron in the 4s orbital will move to the 3d orbital in order to the evenly fill the orbitals, ...
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 27, 2017 3:12 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Orbital Shape
Replies: 3
Views: 217

Re: Orbital Shape

We don't need to know the shapes since we will not be asked to draw them, but it helps to be able to visualize them. For example, the p orbitals have nodes, where no electrons will be found (probability density is zero here). The s orbitals do not have any nodes and electron density is more evenly s...
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sat Oct 21, 2017 9:49 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Electron Spin Quantum Number [ENDORSED]
Replies: 12
Views: 828

Re: Electron Spin Quantum Number [ENDORSED]

The electron spin number can be either +1/2 or -1/2. This just tell us whether the electron is spinning clockwise or counterclockwise.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Sat Oct 21, 2017 9:43 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Hund's Rule [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 420

Re: Hund's Rule [ENDORSED]

Hund's Rule states that due to electron repulsion, electrons in the same subshell occupy different orbitals with parallel spin. This allows for the lowest possible energy state. There are no more than two electrons per orbital. If 2 electrons are in the same orbital they are spin paired.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 13, 2017 3:40 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Converting Between keV and Joules
Replies: 3
Views: 644

Re: Converting Between keV and Joules

1.6022 x 10^-19 J/eV is a ratio that is used to convert between the two units since most equations use Energy in Joules. Also I think k stands for kilo in this case. Therefore it would be 1.6022 x 10^-16J/ keV
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 13, 2017 3:33 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Exercise 1.9 Sig Fig
Replies: 3
Views: 210

Re: Exercise 1.9 Sig Fig

I agree, technically the answer should be 6.0 x 10^-7 so that the the number of sig figs remains two. They wrote it as 600 nm so that we can see the wavelength is part of the visible light spectrum.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 06, 2017 7:10 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: 3 Sig Figs 1795.507? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 392

Re: 3 Sig Figs 1795.507? [ENDORSED]

1800. only has 4 sig figs if there is a decimal. Without the decimal, there are only two sig figs. In this case, it would be 1.80 x 10^3 for 3 sig figs.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 06, 2017 7:06 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Empirical Coefficients [ENDORSED]
Replies: 12
Views: 862

Re: Empirical Coefficients [ENDORSED]

If the answer is .1 away from a whole number, round accordingly. If it isn't then multiply all mole ratios so they are close enough to whole numbers. For example, if one ratio is 2.25, multiply all the ratios by 4 to get whole numbers.
by AnuPanneerselvam1H
Fri Oct 06, 2017 6:52 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Reactant vs. Reagent [ENDORSED]
Replies: 23
Views: 9587

Re: Reactant vs. Reagent [ENDORSED]

A reactant is a substance that is consumed in the creation of a product in a chemical reaction. A reagent is used to detect, measure, or produce other substances. In other words, a reagent is a more passive reactant (could be a catalyst?). But for the most part, I believe these words can be used int...

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