Search found 50 matches

by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Mar 15, 2018 10:52 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: delta U
Replies: 2
Views: 231

Re: delta U

Delta U in an isolated system when there is no heat change or work being done.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Mar 15, 2018 10:50 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Relationship between K and G
Replies: 1
Views: 272

Re: Relationship between K and G

Why is it that when K<1, G is + and when K>1, G is -? I know that this is because of the equation G = -RTlnK, but what does it mean conceptually? When K is less than 1, reactants are more favored in the reaction than products. Therefore, G is not spontaneous (positive) because spontaneous forward re...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Mar 06, 2018 10:25 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Integrating
Replies: 2
Views: 112

Re: Integrating

Lavelle has something on his website to help with integrating if you still need clarification!
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Mar 06, 2018 10:16 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: Units of k
Replies: 12
Views: 686

Re: Units of k

If you are having trouble figuring out the units of k, write out the entire rate law with the units. You know that the rate must be in mol/Ls, so the units of k must cancel out the units of concentration of the reactants until you get mol/Ls.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Mar 06, 2018 10:09 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Writing rate laws
Replies: 4
Views: 162

Re: Writing rate laws

Also, when you have a zero order reaction, the rate is equal to the equilibrium constant k, so you don't need to include the reactant.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Feb 27, 2018 8:55 pm
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: Difference between 1st and 2nd order reactions
Replies: 3
Views: 7546

Re: Difference between 1st and 2nd order reactions

In a first order reaction, there will be one reactant present in the rate law. For a second order reaction, you can either have a rate law with one reactant to the second order, or with two reactants both to the first order. Two examples of second order reactions are rate=k[CO2]^2 or rate=k[CO2][H2O...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Feb 27, 2018 8:34 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: 15.15 Rate Law
Replies: 4
Views: 351

Re: 15.15 Rate Law

When the OH- concentration doubles, the rate increased by the same factor, and when the CH3Br concentration increases by a factor or 1.2, the rate increased by the same factor as well. Therefore, both reactants form a 1:1 ratio with the rate law, yielding the rate above. If, for example, when the co...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Feb 27, 2018 8:25 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Half life
Replies: 3
Views: 127

Re: Half life

You would first want to calculate the equilibrium constant (k) for the reaction, and then you plug that into the equation for half life.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Feb 22, 2018 8:02 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: 14.43
Replies: 1
Views: 139

14.43

In 14.43, why are we able to mix the concentrations and the pressures given to us when calculating Q?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Feb 22, 2018 2:11 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: K and Q at equilibrium
Replies: 5
Views: 236

Re: K and Q at equilibrium

K is equal to 1 at equilibrium, which would make Ecell 0 because there are no more electrons being transferred in the cell. I'm not sure whether Q is equal to 1 at equilibrium though.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 21, 2018 10:51 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: E and Eo
Replies: 2
Views: 156

Re: E and Eo

Eo is at standard state (25 degrees C and 1 atm) while E is the cell potential at anything other than standard state.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 21, 2018 9:50 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: H+ in cell diagram
Replies: 1
Views: 108

H+ in cell diagram

In questions like 23 part a and c, why is H+ included in the cell diagram on the reduction side?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:07 am
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: reversible system
Replies: 9
Views: 432

Re: reversible system

Delta S total is zero when a process is reversible.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:04 am
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Third Law Clarification/ Practice Midterm Question 3E
Replies: 2
Views: 158

Re: Third Law Clarification/ Practice Midterm Question 3E

Its true that the entropy of a perfect crystal is 0 at T=0 K. This is because perfect crystals only have one micro state, so using Boltzmann's equation and plugging in 1 for W, you get zero. However, most substances are not perfect crystals, so for these substances entropy is not 0 at T=0 K.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 14, 2018 8:59 am
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: sign of delta S
Replies: 1
Views: 104

Re: sign of delta S

You want to look at the change as a whole and see if there are phase changes between reactants and products to determine the entropy.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sun Feb 11, 2018 2:44 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: 9.13
Replies: 3
Views: 137

Re: 9.13

I believe it is a typo and I would trust the formula sheet.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sat Feb 10, 2018 8:06 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: 9.15
Replies: 3
Views: 163

9.15

For 9.15 part a, the answer book gives the heat of fusion as -6.01 kJ/mol. How do we know that the heat of fusion should be negative?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Feb 07, 2018 10:49 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Molar Entropy
Replies: 2
Views: 86

Re: Molar Entropy

Larger molecules have more atoms, and therefore have more ways in which they can be arranged. Since entropy measures disorder, larger molecules have larger entropy.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Feb 01, 2018 6:55 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: units conversion for entropy
Replies: 6
Views: 207

Re: units conversion for entropy

It doesn't matter what unit you use as long as you use the same unit for any other steps in the problem
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Feb 01, 2018 6:49 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Spontaneous
Replies: 14
Views: 424

Re: Spontaneous

Dr. Lavelle gave us guidelines to help determine when a reaction is spontaneous (deltaG is negative): Positive deltaS and negative deltaH = spontaneous at all temperatures Positive deltaS and positive deltaH = spontaneous at high temperatures Negative deltaS and negative deltaH = spontaneous at low ...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Feb 01, 2018 6:39 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Homework 9.13
Replies: 2
Views: 131

Re: Homework 9.13

On the class website, there is a correction to this problem that used Cv (5/2R)
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 23, 2018 10:39 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: units of enthalpy
Replies: 1
Views: 96

Re: units of enthalpy

The enthalpies of formation for the reactants and products are in kJ/mol because they depend on the number of moles of the reactant or product in the balanced chemical equation. When calculating enthalpy of a reaction from the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products, you multiply the e...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 23, 2018 10:32 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: relation between internal energy and enthalpy
Replies: 1
Views: 74

Re: relation between internal energy and enthalpy

When work is done by the system, the sign for work is negative. Therefore, by subtracting the negative amount of work from the change in internal energy (so basically adding), the enthalpy will be greater than the change in internal energy. When work is done on the system, the sign for work is posit...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Mon Jan 22, 2018 11:07 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond enthalpies
Replies: 1
Views: 93

Bond enthalpies

In lecture on Wednesday of week 2, Dr. Lavelle made the comment that tables of bond enthalpies refer to breaking bonds in gases and therefore we need to add enthalpy of phase change for liquids and solids. I'm confused about what this means/how you would do this, can someone explain or give an examp...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 16, 2018 9:08 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Heat Capacities
Replies: 6
Views: 136

Re: Heat Capacities

Molar heat capacities and specific heat capacities are virtually the same thing, just with different units. If you are given moles of a substance, you can easily convert to grams of the substance and vice versa.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 16, 2018 9:00 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: K vs C
Replies: 6
Views: 209

Re: K vs C

If you are finding the difference from the final to the initial temperature, you can use C and K interchangeably because both will give the same difference. However, if you are using the ideal gas equation (PV=nRT) you want to make sure that your temperature is in K because using C instead of K will...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 16, 2018 9:00 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: K vs C
Replies: 6
Views: 209

Re: K vs C

If you are finding the difference from the final to the initial temperature, you can use C and K interchangeably because both will give the same difference. However, if you are using the ideal gas equation (PV=nRT) you want to make sure that your temperature is in K because using C instead of K will...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 16, 2018 8:53 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: What does R stand for?
Replies: 13
Views: 737

Re: What does R stand for?

Going off of what everyone else said, there are several different gas constants so its important to use the one that ensures the correct units cancel out.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Jan 16, 2018 8:51 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Calorimeter
Replies: 10
Views: 446

Re: Calorimeter

Calorimeters are used to find unknown variables in the q=mCΔT equation, such as specific heat or energy of the reaction.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Jan 12, 2018 2:40 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Question 8.3
Replies: 2
Views: 105

Re: Question 8.3

Yes, since the equation to find work is w=-PdeltaV, we know we need to use the volume of the pump which we can assume to be a cylinder. The equation we use for volume would vary by problem and the container we're working with.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Dec 08, 2017 10:41 am
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Strength of acids and bases
Replies: 3
Views: 143

Strength of acids and bases

Does electronegativity have anything to do with the strength of acids or bases?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Dec 07, 2017 12:25 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Strength of ionic v covalent bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 163

Re: Strength of ionic v covalent bonds

Ionic bonds have higher dissociation energy that covalent bond because the polarity of ionic compounds makes it easier for them to break apart in solution. For example, NaCl is highly dissociative in water because of its polarity.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sat Dec 02, 2017 4:04 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: 12.17 [ENDORSED]
Replies: 9
Views: 854

12.17 [ENDORSED]

State whether the following oxides are acidic, basic, or amphoteric: a) BaO b) SO3 c) As2O3 d) Bi2O3

How do you tell what these are, particularly how do you know when they're amphoteric?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Dec 01, 2017 10:24 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Changes in K
Replies: 4
Views: 199

Re: Changes in K

There is a temperature associated with every K value, which is what allows us to use the K value for all reactions at a given temperature. But, when the temperature changes, we must use the K value associated with that new temperature.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Dec 01, 2017 10:22 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Exothermic vs. Endothermic?!
Replies: 5
Views: 728

Re: Exothermic vs. Endothermic?!

Sometimes it helps me to think of heat as a reactant or product. If heat is added to the reactant side (endothermic) then more products will be produces, and if heat is added to the product side (exothermic) then more reactants will be produced.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Dec 01, 2017 10:20 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Exothermic vs. Endothermic?!
Replies: 5
Views: 728

Re: Exothermic vs. Endothermic?!

Sometimes it helps me to think of heat as a reactant or product. If heat is added to the reactant side (endothermic) then more products will be produces, and if heat is added to the product side (exothermic) then more reactants will be produced.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Nov 21, 2017 8:12 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Unequal Reactant
Replies: 3
Views: 184

Re: Unequal Reactant

When there are more reactants than products, the equilibrium sits to the left. This is because the denominator of the K expression is larger than the numerator, which leads to a K value that is less than one meaning that the equilibrium sits to the left.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Tue Nov 21, 2017 8:08 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: HCN
Replies: 2
Views: 141

Re: HCN

hydrogen cyanide, because CN is a compound known as cyanide.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Mon Nov 13, 2017 10:17 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybrid orbitals
Replies: 2
Views: 97

Re: Hybrid orbitals

To add to this, if the shape of the molecule is linear, the number of hybrid orbitals is 2 (sp) since there are 2 regions of electron density. If a molecule is trigonal planar, the number of hybrid orbitals is 3 (sp^2) since there are 3 regions of electron density. It helps to draw the Lewis structu...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Mon Nov 13, 2017 10:10 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: 4.23
Replies: 1
Views: 103

Re: 4.23

In the answer book, there is a not with this problem that says that other Lewis structures are possible and more stable, like the ones you are talking about, but that they don't change the shape of the molecule. You're right about the double bonded structures being more stable, but I think for the s...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Nov 08, 2017 3:37 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Beryllium Octet Rule
Replies: 6
Views: 1295

Re: Beryllium Octet Rule

To add to this, you can tell that beryllium will now have a full octet because of formal charge. In BeCl2, Be has 2 shared bonds, making its formal charge 0, and Cl has 6 unshared electrons and 1 shared bond, making the formal charge of both Cl atoms in BeCl2 0. This proves to be the most stable str...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Thu Nov 02, 2017 5:07 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: first and second ionization energies [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 288

first and second ionization energies [ENDORSED]

According to my notes from lecture, removing the second electron is always harder (second ionization energy is larger), but what about with elements like Mg? Wouldn't the first ionization energy for Mg be larger than the second since Mg has a full s orbital, therefore making it harder to remove the ...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Wed Nov 01, 2017 11:58 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: electron configuration
Replies: 6
Views: 326

electron configuration

When writing electron configuration, should the d orbital electrons of lower energy come before the s and p orbital electrons of higher energy? For example, in the electron configuration for gallium, should the configuration be [Ar]3d^10 4s^2 4p^1 or [Ar]4s^2 3d^10 4p^1 ?
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sat Oct 28, 2017 5:04 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Chemical Bonds Lewis Structure: Octet Rule Violation [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 610

Re: Chemical Bonds Lewis Structure: Octet Rule Violation [ENDORSED]

This exception is like the one we talked about in class when we discussed radical exceptions to the octet rule, which is when there is a compound with an unpaired electron.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Mon Oct 16, 2017 9:59 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: λ=c/v VS. λ=h/mv
Replies: 9
Views: 1294

Re: λ=c/v VS. λ=h/mv

I think you are correct that you want to use λ=c/v when dealing with a photon of light, and λ=h/mv for other particles. What also helps is that when you are given a velocity in the problem, you know you must use λ=h/mv, but if you are not given a velocity, you can assume that the velocity is the spe...
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sat Oct 14, 2017 9:07 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: How to use the Rydberg Formula? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 408

Re: How to use the Rydberg Formula? [ENDORSED]

You want n1 to be the energy level that the electron drops to, and n2 to be the energy level that the electron drops from, so n1 will be the smaller n value and n2 will be the larger n value.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Sat Oct 14, 2017 9:02 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Units for HW Problem 1.23 [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 188

Re: Units for HW Problem 1.23 [ENDORSED]

In this problem it makes sense to convert the wavelength to picometers because one picometer is equal to 1x10^-12 meters. Since the wavelength was calculated as 8.8237x10^-12 m, 8.8237 pm expresses this wavelength in the simplest form.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Oct 13, 2017 8:23 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Wave Properties of Electrons [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 303

Re: Wave Properties of Electrons [ENDORSED]

To add to that, diffraction occurs because of the different wavelengths of the waves passing through the crystal. Since electrons passing through a crystal show diffraction, this proves that instead of being a uniform stream of energy, electrons behave like waves.
by Sarah Rutzick 1L
Fri Oct 13, 2017 8:16 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Energy Level Change
Replies: 5
Views: 304

Re: Energy Level Change

I think that an excited electron in a hydrogen atom will always drop back down to the first energy level because that is where electrons are most stable, especially since hydrogen only has one electron and that electron exists naturally in the first energy level.

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