## Search found 54 matches

Thu Mar 12, 2020 4:59 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidizing and Reducing
Replies: 5
Views: 68

### Re: Oxidizing and Reducing

Use the equation Ecell = E(cathode) - E(anode). Plug the cell potentials of the half-reactions so that Ecell > 0. When Ecell > 0, then you know what the reduction and oxidation half-reactions are by looking at the equation.
Thu Mar 12, 2020 4:48 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: 7A.9
Replies: 4
Views: 78

### Re: 7A.9

The units of the rate is M/s^-1 (concentration/time). For a first-order reaction, rate = k[A]^1. To make the rate be in units of M/s^-1, k must be s^-1 (remember that the unit of [A] is M).
Thu Mar 12, 2020 4:37 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Slow step of reaction?
Replies: 5
Views: 74

### Slow step of reaction?

Is the slow step of an overall reaction determined experimentally? Can you know what the slow step is by looking at its chemical reaction?
Thu Mar 12, 2020 4:17 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Molecule names on the final
Replies: 2
Views: 84

### Molecule names on the final

Are we supposed to know certain molecules and compounds for the final?
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:46 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Cell Diagram
Replies: 16
Views: 244

### Re: Cell Diagram

If the cell potential is not given, then assume the right is the cathode and the left is the anode. You might have to look up the cell potentials and add them up to give a positive standard cell potential to determine the anode and cathode.
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:38 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Replies: 73
Views: 4018

I read the textbook and take notes, then do sapling problems, and then do the textbook problems listed on the syllabus.
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:30 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Figuring out n
Replies: 15
Views: 251

### Re: Figuring out n

n is the number of electrons transferred in the reaction. Unless the number of e- transferred are clear from the reaction, you can always find the number of e- by balancing the half-reactions.
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:27 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: e- amount
Replies: 9
Views: 108

### Re: e- amount

Multiply the reaction(s) so that the number of e- are the same.
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:25 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: calculating Q
Replies: 12
Views: 142

### Re: calculating Q

Q is [Products]/[Reactants] so it depends on the chemical equation.
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:09 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs free energy and K
Replies: 3
Views: 38

### Gibbs free energy and K

How does the Gibbs free energy relate to K and Q?
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:04 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: instantaneous rate
Replies: 16
Views: 204

### Re: instantaneous rate

The instantaneous rate is for finding the entire area under the curve, while the average rate gives an approximation.
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:55 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: 6K.5 part b
Replies: 4
Views: 84

### Re: 6K.5 part b

Notice the Br2(l) is both the oxidizing and reducing agent. Therefore, you have two half-reactions: Br2(l) -> BrCO3-(aq) and Br2(l) -> Br-(aq). To balance Br2(l) -> Br-(aq), all you need to is balance Br-. For Br2(l) -> BrCO3-(aq), notice the oxygen. You need to add H2O and H+ to balance this half-r...
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:44 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs free energy equations
Replies: 5
Views: 102

### Gibbs free energy equations

Can all the gibbs free energy equations be used for electrochemistry problems?
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:33 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Kinetics in Test 2?
Replies: 13
Views: 153

### Re: Kinetics in Test 2?

From what I remember, only thermodynamics and electrochemistry.
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:22 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 4
Views: 64

### Re: Test 2

Unless the standard cell potential is given, we will probably need to look it up from a table. A lot of electrochemistry questions need the standard cell potential.
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:19 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: half reaction
Replies: 10
Views: 143

### Re: half reaction

In acidic solutions, balance the half equation with H+ and H20. For basic solutions, balance the half reaction with OH- and H20. For some cases, like the reaction (H+) + (OH-) -> H20, you might need to look for the reduction/oxidation potentials given in the book.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 9:03 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Work
Replies: 5
Views: 93

### Re: Work

Work is done in an electrochemical cell when electrons move across a circuit from the anode to the cathode.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 8:53 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Calculating pH using Nernst Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 51

### Calculating pH using Nernst Equation

How do you find the pH of solution using the Nernst equation? I read the chapter on it, but it is unclear to me.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 8:43 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Determining direction of flow
Replies: 15
Views: 228

### Re: Determining direction of flow

The oxidation reaction (e.g. Zn ---> (Zn^2+) + (2 e^-) in the cell diagram Zn|Zn^2+||Cu^2+|Cu) in the anode releases electrons that flow via a circuit to the cathode where the reduction reaction ((Cu^2+) + (2 e^-) ---> Cu in the cell diagram Zn|Zn^2+||Cu^2+|Cu) takes place.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 8:31 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Half Reactions
Replies: 12
Views: 192

### Re: Half Reactions

The "redox" in "redox reaction" is short for reduction-oxidation. The half-reaction of a reduction-oxidation reaction is the reduction reaction and the other half-reaction is the oxidation reaction.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 8:24 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Standard vs Non
Replies: 3
Views: 65

### Re: Standard vs Non

Standard conditions are when the gases involved are at 1 bar, the participating solutes are at 1 mol L^-1 (1 M), and the liquids and solids involved are pure. The temperature is usually 298K.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 8:06 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Reversible Reaction
Replies: 6
Views: 164

### Re: Reversible Reaction

A reaction is reversible when there is an infinitely small change in a variable (e.g. pressure) that changes the reaction back to its original state.
Sun Feb 23, 2020 7:55 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Van't Hoff Eq
Replies: 8
Views: 223

### Re: Van't Hoff Eq

For this class, I don't think we really need to derive most equations since we haven't done so so far. However, for the van't Hoff equation we need understand it usage.
Sun Feb 16, 2020 8:38 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Work without volume
Replies: 5
Views: 147

### Re: Work without volume

The only types of work we need to know for thermodynamics are expansion work and non-expansion work, which involve volume change.
Sun Feb 16, 2020 6:39 pm
Forum: Biological Examples (*DNA Structural Transitions, etc.)
Topic: organic reactions, and environmental and biological examples
Replies: 4
Views: 134

### Re: organic reactions, and environmental and biological examples

Thermodynamics are relevant in biological processes that need to use energy, like photosynthesis (an endothermic reaction). There is also complicated research on entropy and its relationship to the evolution of life.
Sun Feb 16, 2020 6:28 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Autoprotolysis
Replies: 6
Views: 180

### Re: Autoprotolysis

Another example is the autoprotolysis of ammonia (NH3). The reaction is 2NH3 (l) <-> NH4+ (aq) + NH2- (aq)
Sun Feb 16, 2020 6:22 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Meaning of q=-w
Replies: 14
Views: 314

### Re: Meaning of q=-w

The heat supplied to the system is equivalent to the energy leaving the system as work.
Sun Feb 16, 2020 6:12 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K
Replies: 12
Views: 161

### Re: K

For a gas (g) and solutes in solutions (aq), their activity is included for solving for K. For pure solids (s) and liquids (l), their activities are 1.
Sun Feb 16, 2020 6:06 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Delta S
Replies: 8
Views: 222

### Re: Delta S

Delta S (sys) is the entropy of the system, Delta S (surr) is the entropy of the surroundings. Delta S (sys) + Delta S (surr) = Delta S(total), where Delta S (total) is the total entropy of both the surroundings and the system.
Sun Feb 09, 2020 10:35 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Specific Heat Capacity
Replies: 5
Views: 46

### Re: Specific Heat Capacity

Specific heat capacity is needed because certain things require more energy to raise its temperature than other things.
Sun Feb 09, 2020 9:58 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: equations
Replies: 4
Views: 55

### Re: equations

You can write down the information given (e.g. m = 6782 g, T 53 K, q = 6783 J,...) and see what you can do with them to get to where the question is asking of you.
Sun Feb 09, 2020 9:42 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Vacuum
Replies: 3
Views: 43

### Re: Vacuum

Usually, the question will tell you that the reaction is happening in a vacuum. Other than that, a keyword for knowing that a system is a vacuum is if the system is outer space.
Sun Feb 09, 2020 9:36 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Ka Kb
Replies: 11
Views: 191

### Re: Ka Kb

Ka is for acids, so the equation would have [H3O+]. Kb is for bases, so the equation would have [OH-].
Sun Feb 09, 2020 9:19 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: problem 4A9
Replies: 2
Views: 71

### Re: problem 4A9

You first set up the equation (heat lost by the copper) = -(heat gained by the water), which is q = -q. Therefore, you are solving m*C*(T(final) - T(initial)) = - m*C*(T(final) - T(initial)). You have all the values execpt T(final).
Sun Feb 09, 2020 9:07 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Delta U
Replies: 7
Views: 105

### Re: Delta U

delta U = 0 for isothermal expansion or compression of an ideal gas. delta U = 0, when q = 0 and w = 0 (since delta U = 0 + 0 = 0). q = -w when delta U = 0, then 0 = q + w, which is q = -w.
Sun Feb 09, 2020 8:52 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Second Law Thermodynamics
Replies: 4
Views: 69

### Re: Second Law Thermodynamics

The total entropy of a system either increases or stays constant, but never decreases. Entropy is always increasing in the universe until thermodynamic equilibrium (look up "the heat death of the universe").
Sun Feb 09, 2020 8:20 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond Enthalpies
Replies: 6
Views: 90

### Re: Bond Enthalpies

You can list all bonds on the reactant's side and the product's side, and then see if there are bonds on the product side that are not featured in the reactant side (the bonds formed) and then see if there are bonds that appeared in the reactant side but no longer appear in the product side (the bon...
Sun Feb 02, 2020 9:43 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Open vs Isolated System
Replies: 15
Views: 690

### Re: Open vs Isolated System

An open system allows matter and energy to leave (or enter). For example, a cup of tea would be an open system because matter is leaving (i.e. water in the form of gas) and energy is leaving (i.e. the heat is leaving from the tea into the surroundings). A closed system does not allow matter to leave...
Sun Feb 02, 2020 9:24 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Phase changes
Replies: 3
Views: 56

### Re: Phase changes

Phase changes are relevant for problems that want the enthalpy. That is because the energy needed to be supplied for a phase change in a substance is different depending on the current phase of a substance. For example, the energy needed to change a liquid to a gas (the enthalpy of vaporization) is ...
Sun Feb 02, 2020 8:47 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Temperature
Replies: 14
Views: 178

### Re: Temperature

Since deltaH = Hfinal - Hinitial and if the reaction is exothermic (heat is released into the surroundings), then Hfinal < Hinitial (e.g. 3 kJ/mol - 4 kj/mol = -1 kJ/mol) which would yield a negative deltaH.
Sun Feb 02, 2020 8:36 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Pressure in an open beaker
Replies: 12
Views: 108

### Re: Pressure in an open beaker

The pressure in an open beaker would be the pressure of the surroundings. The surroundings is typically at a constant pressure.
Sun Feb 02, 2020 8:26 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: 4A.9
Replies: 2
Views: 44

### Re: 4A.9

Plug the final temperature into the equation and if mCdeltaT = -mCdeltaT is true, then the final temperatures are the same.
Sun Jan 26, 2020 10:27 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Gas Constant
Replies: 13
Views: 84

### Re: Gas Constant

Use the constant that includes the unit that is the same as the P in PV=nRT (so units cancel out nicely).
Sun Jan 26, 2020 10:06 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Weak acid/base
Replies: 14
Views: 160

### Re: Weak acid/base

If the conjugate base of an acid is very stable, the reaction would favor the production of the conjugate base. If the conjugate base of an acid is not very stable, then the production of the conjugate base is not favored. This hints at the acid being weak. Same idea with bases and their conjugate a...
Sun Jan 26, 2020 9:50 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Finding Ka from pH
Replies: 5
Views: 60

### Re: Finding Ka from pH

Giving pH or pOH, then [H3O+] = 10^(-pH) and [OH-] = 10^(-pOH).
Sun Jan 26, 2020 9:41 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Why does steam cause burns?
Replies: 29
Views: 279

### Re: Why does steam cause burns?

Steam causes burns worst than water because the phase change from liquid to gases requires more energy
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:58 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Meaning of State Function
Replies: 8
Views: 64

### Re: Meaning of State Function

A state function is a property that does not depend on the path taken. An example of a state function is temperature. For example, a pot of boiling water at 212 F could be boiled for hours or minutes, in a microwave or an oven, etc., it would still be at 212 F. The path taken does not matter. You mo...
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:34 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Pressure & temperature in chemical equilibria
Replies: 3
Views: 32

### Pressure & temperature in chemical equilibria

How does pressure and temperature shift a reaction?
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:31 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Exothermic and Endothermic
Replies: 11
Views: 425

### Exothermic and Endothermic

Why is the value of an exothermic reaction negative and why is the value of an endothermic reaction positive?
Sun Jan 19, 2020 8:01 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Test 1 Acids and Bases Topic
Replies: 9
Views: 121

### Re: Test 1 Acids and Bases Topic

Will Test 1 include any questions on ideal gases?
Sun Jan 19, 2020 7:53 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Acidity and Basicity
Replies: 4
Views: 69

### Re: Acidity and Basicity

Acids and bases in solution are examples of chemical equilibria. pH and pOH are measures of the molar concentration of H3O+ and OH- in a solution respectively.
Sun Jan 19, 2020 7:31 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ice boc
Replies: 7
Views: 67

### Re: ice boc

Professor Lavalle gave a great analogy about approximations. Basically, let's you have 1,000,000 dollars and you subtract it by x amount. If x is very small, like 10 dollars, then x is negligible because 1,000,000 - 10 = 999,990, which is almost the same as 1,000,000. In acids and bases, a weak acid...
Sun Jan 19, 2020 7:17 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: reactants and products in dynamic equilibria
Replies: 3
Views: 46

### reactants and products in dynamic equilibria

Why is it that in chemical equilibria there is typically a greater concentration (or partial pressure) on one side of the reaction?
Wed Jan 15, 2020 7:05 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Water in Acid-Base Equilibria
Replies: 3
Views: 29

### Water in Acid-Base Equilibria

In lecture, the professor went over a question involving the reaction $CH_{3}COOH(aq) + H_{2}O(l)\leftrightharpoons CHCOO^{-}(aq) + H_{3}O^{+}(aq)$ and used the ICE table. Why is the intial value of H2O zero and not 10-7?