Search found 31 matches

by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 10, 2018 8:48 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Central atom and octet rule?
Replies: 12
Views: 496

Re: Central atom and octet rule?

is there a rule to know when some atoms are okay with having less than 8 electrons? or should we just memorize some of them and hope for the best?
by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 10, 2018 5:35 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: strength of sigma and pi bonds
Replies: 10
Views: 352

Re: strength of sigma and pi bonds

since pi bonds are caused by side-to-side overlapping where there is much less overlap due to the orbital paths being parallel, they are easier to break than sigma bonds that overlap head-to-head.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 10, 2018 5:23 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: basics of hybridization
Replies: 18
Views: 567

Re: basics of hybridization

also, the only options for hybridization are sp (2 groups), sp^2 (3 groups), sp^3 (4 groups), sp^3d (5 groups), sp^3d^2(6 groups).
by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 03, 2018 11:20 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Phosphate Lewis structure?
Replies: 4
Views: 179

Re: Phosphate Lewis structure?

the atoms in the 3rd row and below on the periodic table can break the octet rule since they have additional orbitals.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 03, 2018 11:17 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Polarizability
Replies: 7
Views: 257

Re: Polarizability

the size of the electron cloud is determined by the energy of the atom's electrons, I believe.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Jun 03, 2018 10:41 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: delocalized and localized pi bond
Replies: 3
Views: 342

Re: delocalized and localized pi bond

Localized electrons exhibit normal behavior, a localized lone pair remains close to one atom, and a localized bond pair travels between two atoms. Resonance hybrids necessarily contain some "abnormal" electrons. In a delocalized pi bond, instead of sticking near one atom, it visits two ato...
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 27, 2018 7:08 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma and pi
Replies: 12
Views: 599

Re: Sigma and pi

sigma bonds result from the formation of a molecular orbital by the head-to-head overlap of atomic orbitals, and pi bonds result by side-to-side overlap (with p orbitals). pi bonds can only happen when the head to head overlapping of orbitals has also already occurred. however, a sigma bond can happ...
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 27, 2018 6:56 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR and Lewis
Replies: 4
Views: 150

Re: VSEPR and Lewis

first, identify the central atom and its valence electrons. Then, add an electron for each bonding atom, and add or subtract for the charge (- or +) to get the total number of electrons. Divide the total by 2 to find the total number of electron pairs and use that to identify the basic VSEPR shape.
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 27, 2018 6:44 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Logic behind Sigma and Pi bonds?
Replies: 2
Views: 176

Re: Logic behind Sigma and Pi bonds?

A sigma bond is a covalent bond which is formed by the head on overlap of two atomic orbitals. A Pi bond is a covalent bond which is formed by the side-to-side overlap of two atomic orbitals.Sigma bonds are relatively stronger when compared with pi bonds.There can be only one sigma bond between two ...
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 20, 2018 9:00 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity difference
Replies: 3
Views: 227

Re: Electronegativity difference

if the electronegativity difference is less than 1.5, it's a covalent bond. Larger than that is typically an ionic bond.
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 20, 2018 8:35 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Octet rule
Replies: 17
Views: 459

Re: Octet rule

you can break the octet rule with atoms that are lower than the 3rd row on the periodic table since they have additional d orbitals as well.
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 20, 2018 8:30 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Which charge is more favorable?
Replies: 2
Views: 164

Re: Which charge is more favorable?

I was told the goal is to have all the atoms with a charge between -2 and 2 (so only -1,0,1), so I think having a -1 charge on two atoms would be better than -2 on one.
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 13, 2018 8:08 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: formal charge equation
Replies: 3
Views: 168

Re: formal charge equation

the formal charge equation is VE-LPE-(1/2)BE or valence electrons - lone pair electrons - (1/2) bonded electrons valence electrons refer to the number of electrons in the outermost shell of an electron that can participate in bonding lone pair electrons refer to the number of valence electrons that ...
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 13, 2018 7:49 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal charge purpose
Replies: 33
Views: 1177

Re: Formal charge purpose

yes, you would need to find the most stable bonding of that molecule by making the formal charges of the atoms zero or as close to zero as possible
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 13, 2018 12:44 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: octect rule
Replies: 4
Views: 128

Re: octect rule

we can break the octet rule when when there are available d or f orbitals (3rd row and below of the periodic table) and to get the most stable bonding (or get the formal charges of the atoms in the molecule closest to zero). I think on the tests, we are required to draw the most stable molecule, and...
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 06, 2018 7:04 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Trends to Know
Replies: 12
Views: 450

Re: Trends to Know

what would the specific exceptions be or what trend do the exceptions follow? or are they not relevant to what we would need to know for the midterm?
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 06, 2018 6:59 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Largest in Atomic Radii?
Replies: 5
Views: 105

Re: Largest in Atomic Radii?

More protons would lead to a greater nuclear pull and a smaller atomic radius since the greater nuclear charge pulls the electrons closer to the nucleus.
So fewer protons would lead to a lower nuclear pull and a larger atomic radius due to the lower nuclear charge.
by Amanda 1A
Sun May 06, 2018 6:49 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: half full?
Replies: 5
Views: 145

Re: half full?

I don't know if I heard this right, but why are half-filled orbitals more stable?
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 29, 2018 4:06 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: What does electron spin actually mean? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 9
Views: 309

Re: What does electron spin actually mean? [ENDORSED]

Electrons have an intrinsic angular momentum known as electron spin. There's two spin states, up (spinning counterclockwise) and down (clockwise), both of which are at the same rate. The Pauli exclusion principle states that these particles cannot have the same quantum numbers. The only way to occup...
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 29, 2018 3:49 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Quantum Number
Replies: 3
Views: 130

Re: Quantum Number

The quantum numbers describes the orbitals. The principal quantum number (n) describes the size of the orbital.The angular quantum number (l) describes the shape of the orbital. Since orbitals that have shapes not like a sphere can point in different directions, we have the magnetic quantum number (...
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 29, 2018 3:44 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: The concept of Orbitals
Replies: 12
Views: 286

Re: The concept of Orbitals

A nodal plane is a plane in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 22, 2018 5:07 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: HW Question 1.57
Replies: 3
Views: 97

Re: HW Question 1.57

The question usually specifies if it wants it in nm. If it doesn't, I'm sure both answers will get full credit.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 22, 2018 3:58 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Rydberg [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 216

Re: Rydberg [ENDORSED]

The Rydberg formula is used to predict the wavelength of light resulting from an electron moving between energy levels.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 22, 2018 3:50 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Problem 1.15 Textbook
Replies: 6
Views: 254

Re: Problem 1.15 Textbook

in the solutions manual for the textbook, it says the transition is n1=1 to n2=3. If 1 is considered n(final) since it's an emission of energy, do we have to say the transition is from n1=3 to n1=1 in order to get the answer correct? or is it still correct to answer it like the solution manual?
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:26 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Whole numbers
Replies: 7
Views: 297

Re: Whole numbers

Changing subscripts would change the reaction. The only thing that can be changed would be the coefficients but you would have to maintain the ratios of the original formula.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:20 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Determining Formulas Based on Molecule
Replies: 4
Views: 155

Re: Determining Formulas Based on Molecule

Adding on to this! I'm not sure if it matters, but how do you arrange the elements in a chemical formula? As in, is there an order to put the elements in while answering a question where you're asked to write the molecular and empirical formulas?
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:15 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Reagent vs. Reactant [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 377

Re: Reagent vs. Reactant [ENDORSED]

I'm not exactly sure, but I think the terms are used interchangeably. However, I believe a reactant is a substance that is consumed during a chemical reaction whereas a reagent is simply a substance added to cause or test a chemical reaction.
by Amanda 1A
Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:07 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Extensive vs. Intensive Properties?
Replies: 3
Views: 172

Re: Extensive vs. Intensive Properties?

An extensive property is one that depends on the size of the object. For example, Dr. Lavelle talked about volume as an extensive property since it's directly proportional to the amount or size of the object that's being described. An intensive property is one that does not depend on the size or amo...
by Amanda 1A
Sat Apr 14, 2018 11:49 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Study Group
Replies: 8
Views: 392

Re: Study Group

I could totally use the extra practice! Is there a groupme or groupchat of current students who would like to form a group?
by Amanda 1A
Sat Apr 14, 2018 11:46 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Combustion Reaction [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 223

Re: Combustion Reaction [ENDORSED]

So the combustion element will not be present in the products side of the reaction? it would just be H2O and CO2?
by Amanda 1A
Sat Apr 14, 2018 10:06 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Energy (photon) - Energy (remove e-???) [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 440

Re: Energy (photon) - Energy (remove e-???) [ENDORSED]

I have the same question. To clarify, does the energy of the photon come from the frequency of its oscillations, which the photon then, according to the textbook, "flings off as a packet of electromagnetic radiation of energy (hv)"? So the energy of a single photon is related to the freque...

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