Search found 29 matches

by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:23 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: expanded octet
Replies: 12
Views: 452

Re: expanded octet

We know that only the elements that are in Group 3 or below can form an expanded octet, as they have unfilled d-orbitals, which Groups 1 and 2 do not have. This is absolutely correct. keep in mind that these elements dont necessarily always have an expanded octet and are completely happy with 8 ele...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:22 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Energies
Replies: 4
Views: 191

Re: Energies

bond length most greatly affects its strength, double and triple bonds are shorter and therefore stronger than a single bond but when comparing two single bonds it is important to look at electronegativity a greater difference in electro negativity between atoms suggests a stronger bond.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:19 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: 2 lone pairs
Replies: 5
Views: 176

Re: 2 lone pairs

lone pairs should be placed as far apart from each other as possible since they have a very strong repulsion this would mean they should be placed on opposite sides (top and bottom)
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:16 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Polarizability
Replies: 7
Views: 258

Re: Polarizability

A polarizable atom/ion is one that has an electron cloud that readily undergoes large distortions meaning the shape of the cloud is changed and influenced by other atoms pull. Larger atoms are more polarizable because the nucleus does not have as strong of an attraction on the farther electrons and ...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:11 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: determining dipole moment
Replies: 3
Views: 219

determining dipole moment

What is the easiest way to identify dipole interactions to be able to determine the polarity of a molecule?
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:08 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: strength of sigma and pi bonds
Replies: 10
Views: 358

Re: strength of sigma and pi bonds

sigma bonds are able to rotate on their axis and are a stronger where as pi bonds would break if they were rotated
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 7:02 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 177

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

Jonghwee Park 1K wrote:Why are sigma and pi bonds distinguished? More specifically, what makes something a sigma bond and what makes something a pi bond?


sigma and pi bonds differ in shape and the distribution of electron density.

for more see page 121 of the textbook
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Jun 04, 2018 6:55 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angle [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 242

Bond Angle [ENDORSED]

How do you determine the exact bond angle? I understand that based of lone pairs we can determine whether or not an angle will be less than 109.5 but is there a way to know the exact angle/ make a close estimate or do you have to look up the number.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 10:01 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond strength of molecules [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 99

Bond strength of molecules [ENDORSED]

When given two molecules that each have varying numbers of both single and double bonds how do you find out which molecule has greater bond lengths?
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:55 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Sig Figs
Replies: 3
Views: 191

Sig Figs

I was marked down on the midterm for using incorrect number of significant figures and I was hoping someone could give me a quick overview of the rules so it doesnt happen again. Thanks!
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:44 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Stability
Replies: 3
Views: 110

Stability

Whats the easiest way to determine the most stable resonance structure?
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:41 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Radicals
Replies: 13
Views: 575

Re: Radicals

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules with an unpaired electron, they attack stable molecules in an attempt to "steal" an electron and are neutralized by antioxidants which donate an electron
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:35 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole causes
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Dipole causes

What causes a dipole moment?
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:28 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Trends in periodic table
Replies: 6
Views: 653

Re: Trends in periodic table

Trends don't apply to noble gasses and therefore F is the most electronegative atoms
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:26 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity of atoms
Replies: 3
Views: 255

Re: Electronegativity of atoms

Group number does not directly correlate to electronegativity, electronegativity is calculated using other methods however a general trend can be seen where atoms become more electronegative as you travel across a period and become less electronegative as you travel down a group
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:20 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Isoelectronic atoms and their relative electronegativities
Replies: 2
Views: 189

Isoelectronic atoms and their relative electronegativities

Since isoelectronic atoms have the same electronic configuration and valence electron number but different atomic radii do they have the same of different electronegativities?
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun May 20, 2018 9:17 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Expanded Octet Rules
Replies: 7
Views: 448

Re: Expanded Octet Rules

For the third row of the periodic table, we don't put any d-orbital electrons in their ground state configurations as they don't have any in the d orbital. However, since their energy level is 3 (n=3), they are able to have more electrons. They have a whole new shell rather than be just n=2, so the...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun Apr 29, 2018 5:34 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: # of electrons for a given orbital (homework 2.25)
Replies: 3
Views: 103

Re: # of electrons for a given orbital (homework 2.25)

Only 2 electrons can occupy a single orbital, one electron will be spinning up while the other spins down.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun Apr 29, 2018 5:33 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electrons in an Orbital [ENDORSED]
Replies: 8
Views: 187

Re: Electrons in an Orbital [ENDORSED]

The fourth quantum number tells us the spin of the electron, it is called the spin magnetic quantum number. This correlates to the fact that two electrons in the same orbital cannot have the same spin.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun Apr 29, 2018 5:29 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: does everything have a wavelength
Replies: 10
Views: 336

Re: does everything have a wavelength

Everything does have a wavelength that can be calculated using the DeBroglie equation. However large objects have such small wavelengths that they cannot be observed or detected (If a wavelength is smaller than 10^-18 it is considered undetectable)
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Apr 23, 2018 11:38 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Application of different formulas [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 129

Re: Application of different formulas [ENDORSED]

Honestly as long as you know E=hv and v=c/λ you can manipulate them to get most of the formulas you need to solve the problems
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Apr 23, 2018 11:27 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: What is work function? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 15
Views: 1081

Re: What is work function? [ENDORSED]

The work function is the amount of energy required to expel a single electron from the metal
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Mon Apr 23, 2018 11:26 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Memorizing formulas test 2
Replies: 16
Views: 539

Re: Memorizing formulas test 2

I would recommend doing all the assigned hw problems as opposed to doing only 7, this way after all the repetition you should have formulas memorized and know how to better approach all problems. All formulas and constants should be given though.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun Apr 15, 2018 4:40 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Photoelectric Effect Expirement [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 140

Re: Photoelectric Effect Expirement [ENDORSED]

The experiment was key in discovering the one to one interaction between one photon and one electron. The experiment showed that electrons will only be expelled from the metal if the energy of each individual photon is high enough to remove an individual electron. More photons does not necessarily m...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Sun Apr 15, 2018 4:35 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: When to use MiVi=MfVf
Replies: 8
Views: 462

Re: When to use MiVi=MfVf

Are there some cases where you'll have to use both the M=n/v and MiVi=MfVf equations in a problem? This wouldn't be likely to happen because the first equation is used to find molarity when given the moles and volume of a solution. If you know the moles of the solution then you wouldn't need to use...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Fri Apr 13, 2018 10:53 am
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Different ways of determining limiting reactants
Replies: 2
Views: 147

Re: Different ways of determining limiting reactants

Honestly you can do whatever works best for you. Personally I calculate the mass of the product for both reactants and compare which one is larger because typically after finding the limiting reactant you are asked to find the theoretical yield and this way you have already done that calculation. So...
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Thu Apr 12, 2018 9:20 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Mass percentage
Replies: 8
Views: 348

Re: Mass percentage

It should always add to 100% but I remember Dr. Lavelle stating that it is a combustion reaction and the mass percentages given do not add up to 100 then it is likely the oxygen that is being left out and will make up the difference.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Thu Apr 12, 2018 9:17 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: writing out conversions in one long line vs. steps
Replies: 16
Views: 562

Re: writing out conversions in one long line vs. steps

I would recommend writing it out in a chain that way it is easy to see what units are being cancelled out. This is also easy because it allows you to start with the given and work until you reach the desired units and you know you have come to your answer.
by Chiara Berruto 1K
Thu Apr 12, 2018 9:13 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Order of elements in molecule
Replies: 1
Views: 117

Order of elements in molecule

I was wondering how to determine the order of elements in a molecule when given its components?

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