Search found 62 matches

Mon Mar 11, 2019 3:34 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: Half-life
Replies: 4
Views: 698

Re: Half-life

The half life is the amount of time that it takes for half of a sample to die off. This can be taken with respect to radioactive isotopes or even (like in our case) the amount of time for a certain reactant to decrease by half.
Mon Mar 11, 2019 3:32 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Rate constant
Replies: 4
Views: 385

Re: Rate constant

No, the rate constant will not be negative.
Mon Mar 11, 2019 3:31 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Frequency Factor
Replies: 5
Views: 167

Re: Frequency Factor

I believe it is the frequency of collisions between two molecules that are at the correct orientation. If they collide with an incorrect orientation, no reaction will occur.
Mon Mar 04, 2019 2:22 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: 1st and 2nd order
Replies: 6
Views: 299

Re: 1st and 2nd order

You must calculate this by using experimental data as shown in class on Friday. This is found by comparing the reaction rates at different initial concentrations for the same reaction.
Mon Mar 04, 2019 2:20 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: The value of K
Replies: 5
Views: 165

Re: The value of K

k is unique for each individual reaction as it changes with temperature.
Mon Mar 04, 2019 2:18 pm
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: First Order Reactions
Replies: 6
Views: 194

Re: First Order Reactions

First order reaction graphs are only straight lines when the graph is time vs. ln[A]
Thu Feb 28, 2019 1:12 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: speed of reaction based on activation energy
Replies: 6
Views: 212

Re: speed of reaction based on activation energy

Typically this is the case. To have a reaction occur, you have to meet a set amount of energy (the activation energy) to have a reaction proceed. Typically the higher the activation energy is, the more energy will be needed to be put into the system.
Thu Feb 28, 2019 1:10 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: stoichiometric coefficients
Replies: 2
Views: 80

Re: stoichiometric coefficients

No, coefficients do not because cell potential is an intensive property. This is like how density of a substance is not determined by the actual amount that you have.
Thu Feb 28, 2019 1:09 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: H2O in Cell Diagrams
Replies: 4
Views: 123

Re: H2O in Cell Diagrams

The fact that they are aqueous implies that water is there.
Fri Feb 22, 2019 6:02 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Positive E means Favorable
Replies: 2
Views: 544

Re: Positive E means Favorable

Yes, you heard Lavelle correctly. Basically, when E is positive, the equation, deltaG = -nFE is negative. When deltaG is negative, the reaction is spontaneous.
Fri Feb 22, 2019 5:59 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 5
Views: 181

Re: Salt Bridge

At the anode, there is a buildup of positively charged ions and at the cathode, there is a buildup of negatively charged ions. To prevent this buildup of charge from being too great and stopping the reaction, a salt bridge adds positively charged ions to the cathode and negatively charged ions to th...
Fri Feb 22, 2019 5:57 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Phase changes and Entropy
Replies: 4
Views: 323

Re: Phase changes and Entropy

Entropy always increases as substances go from the solid to the liquid phase. This is because the IMFs between the molecules break and the molecules are now able to occupy more positions than before.
Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:53 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: delta U [ENDORSED]
Replies: 10
Views: 634

Re: delta U[ENDORSED]

deltaU can equal 0 when there is no temperature change or q is equal to -w.
Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:50 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Irreversible vs Reversible
Replies: 3
Views: 135

Re: Irreversible vs Reversible

Irreversible reactions occur at constant pressure.
Tue Feb 12, 2019 1:49 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: temp units
Replies: 3
Views: 120

Re: temp units

I believe that it needs to be calculated in Kelvin.
Mon Feb 04, 2019 9:10 am
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Work Formula
Replies: 5
Views: 236

Re: Work Formula

Area times distance is considered a change in a volume. Depending on how long the distance is that the area is going through, your volume will be different.
Mon Feb 04, 2019 9:08 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Work
Replies: 6
Views: 238

Re: Work

If work is done on the system it is positive. If work is done by the system it is negative. This is kind of like temperature changes in a system being endothermic and exothermic. If heat is being given into a system it’s positive and if heat is leaving the system it’s negative.
Mon Feb 04, 2019 9:06 am
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Isolated System (Water bottle)
Replies: 6
Views: 386

Re: Isolated System (Water bottle)

It is considered isolated because there is no matter transfer between it and the environment. Since the water bottle is insulated that means that no heat would be able to be transferred.
Tue Jan 29, 2019 10:29 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Phase changes
Replies: 14
Views: 579

Re: Phase changes

The reverse reactions would be exothermic because you would be losing heat to go from liquid to solid.
Tue Jan 29, 2019 10:25 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond Enthalpies
Replies: 7
Views: 244

Re: Bond Enthalpies

Bond enthalpies are less accurate because they are a general average of the bond enthalpies taken from many different molecules for that specific type of bond.
Tue Jan 29, 2019 10:24 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: eq constants for acids
Replies: 4
Views: 211

Re: eq constants for acids

Strong acids completely dissociate in solution. Because of this, their Ka value would be so large that for this class we just approximate that to be infinity.
Mon Jan 21, 2019 11:38 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: buffer questions on test
Replies: 7
Views: 255

Re: buffer questions on test

Buffer equations are mentioned on the second outline under calculations with salts so I'd know them just to be safe for the test.
Mon Jan 21, 2019 11:36 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: The Conjugate Seesaw
Replies: 13
Views: 394

Re: The Conjugate Seesaw

Basically, if there is an acid base reaction, the base (on the reactants side) will have a conjugate acid (on the products side), and vice versa. Since this is the case, it may be necessary to convert Ka to Kb (or the other way around) depending on what way you are looking at the reaction.
Mon Jan 21, 2019 11:35 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ICE chart
Replies: 3
Views: 120

Re: ICE chart

Either can be used, however, it should be consistent throughout the entire problem.
Sun Jan 20, 2019 12:24 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Assuming X value
Replies: 3
Views: 107

Re: Assuming X value

The Ka or KB should be less than 10^-3 in a reaction just to be safe and apply the 5% approximation.
Sun Jan 20, 2019 12:23 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Ka and Kb as Inverses?
Replies: 7
Views: 425

Re: Ka and Kb as Inverses?

Since we know KaxKb = Kw that is what should be used to be safe.
Sun Jan 20, 2019 12:21 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Stoichiometric Coefficients
Replies: 4
Views: 169

Re: Stoichiometric Coefficients

I don’t know if we will for this class but basically what you’d do is balance the equation first. Second in the ice table you will want to add/subtract the stoichiometric coefficient times x from your initial value.
Wed Jan 09, 2019 10:49 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Equilibrium Constant
Replies: 2
Views: 47

Re: Equilibrium Constant

You should convert all of the concentrations or partial pressures to whatever you have more of. This can be done with the Ideal gas law.
Wed Jan 09, 2019 10:45 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K
Replies: 4
Views: 121

Re: K

Wed Jan 09, 2019 10:44 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Difference between brackets and parentheses?
Replies: 4
Views: 624

Re: Difference between brackets and parentheses?

Brackets are used for concentrations and will be used to calculate Kc. Parentheses are used for the partial pressures and will be used to calculate Kp.
Sat Dec 08, 2018 4:12 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: Calculating pH/Concentration
Replies: 3
Views: 334

Re: Calculating pH/Concentration

He never said if we were going to be required to know this in class. However, I would still be familiar with the concept in case it does come up since he did do an example of this in class.
Sat Dec 08, 2018 4:11 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: polydentate
Replies: 4
Views: 364

Re: polydentate

Monodentate is when a ligand only binds to the metal in one location. Polydentate is when a ligand binds in more than one location.
Sat Dec 08, 2018 4:09 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Acids and Bases
Replies: 5
Views: 436

Re: Acids and Bases

I think we need to the Lewis definition and the Bronsted definition. Also, we need to know strong acids and bases and how to calculate the pH. This would include using it for a neutralization reaction.
Sat Dec 08, 2018 4:08 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: H bonding
Replies: 14
Views: 702

Re: H bonding

The presence of H-bonding increases both the melting and boiling points.
Sun Dec 02, 2018 3:23 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong acids and strong bases
Replies: 5
Views: 168

Re: Strong acids and strong bases

For this course, we assume that strong acids and bases completely ionize in water for calculations.
Sun Dec 02, 2018 3:21 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Final Exam Q: Memorizing Polyatomic Ions
Replies: 2
Views: 296

Re: Final Exam Q: Memorizing Polyatomic Ions

I don't think that we are going to have to memorize the polyatomic ions for the final as up to this point Professor Lavelle has not given off that impression. Also, on all of the past tests we have taken this has not been the case.
Sun Dec 02, 2018 3:19 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Acid vs base [ENDORSED]
Replies: 15
Views: 560

Re: Acid vs base[ENDORSED]

A lewis base donates electrons while the lewis acid accepts electrons.
Fri Nov 23, 2018 4:10 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Double Bonds
Replies: 9
Views: 557

Re: Double Bonds

Double bonds have both a sigma bond and a pi bond. The way that this works is that the first bond (the single bond) in the molecule is a sigma bond. All bonds after that are pi bonds.
Fri Nov 23, 2018 4:09 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: H bonding
Replies: 14
Views: 702

Re: H bonding

The presence of a hydrogen bond will increase the melting point and boiling point of a substance because there is a stronger attraction between the molecules of the substance.
Fri Nov 23, 2018 4:08 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Ionic & covalent character
Replies: 6
Views: 475

Re: Ionic & covalent character

In a bond, usually there will be characteristics of both a covalent and ionic bond. Despite this, the bond will usually have a character of one type of bond more so than another.
Fri Nov 16, 2018 9:41 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: AX3E2 Shape
Replies: 6
Views: 376

Re: AX3E2 Shape

The geometric shape of this molecule would be called "T-shaped".
Fri Nov 16, 2018 9:39 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma and Pi
Replies: 5
Views: 220

Re: Sigma and Pi

Sigma bonds must occur first before a pi bond will form. This has to do with the orientation of the electrons in the bonding pairs.
Fri Nov 16, 2018 9:35 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Vectors for Dipole Moments
Replies: 1
Views: 99

Re: Vectors for Dipole Moments

When a molecule has two elements that are bonded together with an electronegativity difference, the electrons will tend to "hang around" the atom with the higher electronegativity. This means that the area around that atom will be slightly more negative and will thus create a dipole. In th...
Fri Nov 09, 2018 11:09 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Placement of Elements?
Replies: 5
Views: 232

Re: Placement of Elements?

At this point in time, the placement of atoms in the Lewis Structures doesn't matter. It will in the future though.
Fri Nov 09, 2018 11:06 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Bond Lenghts
Replies: 7
Views: 527

Re: Bond Lenghts

This would require you to draw the lewis structures and to calculate the formal charge. This way you can take a look and see if the structure has resonance. It is tough to know the exact bond lengths though without doing experiments.
Fri Nov 09, 2018 11:02 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: octet exceptions
Replies: 4
Views: 224

Re: octet exceptions

The first four elements and group 13 elements all can have less than a completed octet. If an element is in period 3 or lower on the periodic table, then they can have greater than 8 electrons because of the d suborbital.
Wed Oct 31, 2018 3:19 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: octet rule
Replies: 11
Views: 373

Re: octet rule

The octet rule is a guideline where each atom in a covalent bond should have 8 electrons (noble gas configuration) connected to it either through lone pairs or through bonds. There are exceptions to this rule.
Wed Oct 31, 2018 3:15 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Octet Rule
Replies: 7
Views: 295

Re: Octet Rule

The octet rule is more of a guideline because there are exceptions to the rule like the first 4 electrons and the expanded octet if elements are in the third period or higher.
Wed Oct 31, 2018 3:11 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge variables?
Replies: 2
Views: 111

Re: Formal Charge variables?

V is the valence electrons that can be known by looking at the periodic table L is the number of lone pair electrons S is the number of electrons involved in bonding For H2O, Oxygen is bonded to hydrogen with two single bonds. Oxygen (from the periodic table) has 6 valence e- It has 2 bonds (each wi...
Mon Oct 22, 2018 11:15 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Confused about Copper and Chromium [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 172

Today in class, Professor Lavelle was saying that the electron configurations for the elements copper and chromium are abnormal and will take an electron from the 4s level to fill some of the 3d level. Does this have something to do with the energy levels of the elements?
Mon Oct 22, 2018 11:08 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configuration
Replies: 5
Views: 148

Re: Electron Configuration

Since there are so many electrons for this electron configuration I don't think that it will be necessary to draw out. Rather I believe what you did and what is written in the back of the textbook should be okay. I would ask your TA if this question comes up on the test.
Mon Oct 22, 2018 11:07 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Orbitals on the test
Replies: 6
Views: 241

Re: Orbitals on the test

Soyoung Park 1H wrote:The pictures that Professor Lavelle had on the presentation on Friday about d orbitals had cones and planes surrounding the orbitals while pictures in google images don't include them. What do they mean?

This just means that these are the nodal planes, or where there is no electron density.
Tue Oct 16, 2018 10:22 am
Forum: *Particle in a Box
Topic: Hw assignment?
Replies: 7
Views: 793

Re: Hw assignment?

We are still in the Quantum section for homework. My TA said to do homework questions that were relevant to the topics that are currently being addressed in class so that your practice would be most beneficial to what is being taught in the course.
Tue Oct 16, 2018 10:17 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Threshold energy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 17
Views: 853

Re: Threshold energy[ENDORSED]

The threshold energy is the minimum amount of energy that is required to remove an electron from the surface of the metal.
Tue Oct 16, 2018 10:16 am
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Formula
Replies: 3
Views: 144

Re: Formula

When an electron is still around the nucleus, the system is more stable and at a lower energy than if it were to not be there at all. Because of this, there is a negative sign in the equation.
Tue Oct 16, 2018 10:13 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Vocab
Replies: 5
Views: 236

Re: Vocab

Something that is quantized can only have discrete values or quantities of something. In our case, that would be energy.
Wed Oct 10, 2018 11:19 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Quantum Jumps
Replies: 3
Views: 101

Re: Quantum Jumps

The way that electrons take in energy is that they must have a specific amount of energy taken in in order to go from one energy level to the next. My high school chem teacher explained it to me like an elevator that automatically took you to the desired floor. You can go from one floor to the next ...
Wed Oct 10, 2018 11:04 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Light acts as a wave or not?
Replies: 10
Views: 253

Re: Light acts as a wave or not?

Depending on the experiment and on the situation, light has the ability to act both as a wave and as a particle. It can get cloudy and confusing at times, but light is able to do both depending on how you are collecting the data.
Wed Oct 10, 2018 11:00 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Packets of Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 90

Re: Packets of Energy

Quanta basically means that energy is going to be released or gained in discrete "whole numbers." In other words it is not a continuous spectrum.
Thu Oct 04, 2018 2:43 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Replies: 9
Views: 575

You can use Avogadro's number to convert between molecules and moles.
Thu Oct 04, 2018 2:31 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Q L7
Replies: 1
Views: 90

Re: Q L7

To solve this, you are first going to use the given conversion of 1.00 pounds to grams (454g). Make sure that the equation they give you in the book is balanced (if not balance it). Then, you will want to convert the grams of the fat to moles by using the molar mass of the fat. Once you do this you ...
Thu Oct 04, 2018 2:21 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: H3, coefficients
Replies: 7
Views: 321

Re: H3, coefficients

I believe that you should be fine. The textbook only says this because when you count up everything that is the whole number. I personally would have simplified it to be the lowest whole numbers as well.