Search found 60 matches

by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Mar 13, 2019 2:19 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Rate law vs rate constant vs overall rate of reaction
Replies: 1
Views: 35

Re: Rate law vs rate constant vs overall rate of reaction

The rate law gives the overall rate of the reaction by using the rate constant and the concentrations of the reactants.

Rate law: rate = k{R]^n.

Here, the rate law refers to the whole expression. rate is the overall rate of the reaction, and k is the rate constant.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Mar 13, 2019 2:17 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Activation Energies
Replies: 3
Views: 65

Re: Activation Energies

These are both the same expression, with T' = T2. If you simplify the expression by combining the fractions, you will get the same expression. I would suggest using the 1/T1-1/T2 because it's easier to keep track of everything.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Mar 13, 2019 2:14 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Balancing basic redox reactions
Replies: 7
Views: 166

Re: Balancing basic redox reactions

For redox reactions in basic solutions, you should first balance it using H+, assuming an acidic solution. Then, you should add OH- to both sides, creating H2O on the side with H+ and OH- on the other. This will result in a redox reaction in basic solutions. There's a table on this in the textbook i...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Mar 10, 2019 3:07 am
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: in lecture
Replies: 1
Views: 116

Re: in lecture

Zero order reactions essentially mean that they don't depend on the reactants actually colliding. This can occur in one notable situation: catalysts. In reactions that depend on catalysts, the reaction depends only on the catalysts and not the reactants.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Mar 10, 2019 3:05 am
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: Fractional Rate Constants
Replies: 2
Views: 35

Re: Fractional Rate Constants

Yes, it is possible to have fractional rate constants. Most rate constants are going to be a decimal, so I would suggest just rounding for significant figures.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Mar 10, 2019 3:04 am
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: negatives in the equation
Replies: 2
Views: 43

Re: negatives in the equation

deltaG = -nfe. This means that if the standard electric potential of a cell is positive, deltaG will be negative. Essentially, an electrolytic cell will only be spontaneous if it has a positive Eº.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Mar 03, 2019 12:04 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: liquid and gaseous states in a cell diagram
Replies: 3
Views: 67

Re: liquid and gaseous states in a cell diagram

In a cell diagram, the single line | means that two species in different phases are in contact, the comma separates species of the same phase, and the double line signifies the salt bridge.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Mar 03, 2019 12:00 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: H+ and OH
Replies: 3
Views: 75

Re: H+ and OH

Because H+ and OH- are not being reduced or oxidized, they are normally left out of the skeleton equation. However, they are still present in the aqueous solutions which is why they are included in cell diagrams.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sat Mar 02, 2019 11:57 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Test #2
Replies: 10
Views: 176

Re: Test #2

we always get our tests back in discussion a week later! if there are issues with grading, it might be a little later.
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Feb 21, 2019 8:46 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy
Replies: 4
Views: 68

Re: Gibbs Free Energy

If deltaG is negative, the reaction is spontaneous. That means that the reaction will proceed without the need for outside energy, therefore the forward reaction will be favored. The opposite holds for the reverse reaction.
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Feb 21, 2019 8:41 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy Decreasing
Replies: 2
Views: 65

Re: Gibbs Free Energy Decreasing

I believe that that depends on deltaH and deltaS. Because deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS, the change in deltaG in response to temperature will depend on the signs of deltaH and deltaS. If deltaS is negative, deltaG will become more positive as T increases. If deltaS is positive, deltaG will become less p...
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Feb 21, 2019 8:39 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: salt bridge
Replies: 5
Views: 81

Re: salt bridge

The salt bridge facilitates electron flow between the two electrodes. Essentially, as the reaction progresses, electrons will move from the anode to the cathode. Without a salt bridge, all the electrons would be transferred to the cathode, stopping the reaction. With the salt bridge, electrons can f...
by Mona Lee 4L
Tue Feb 19, 2019 11:47 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gr and Gp from lecture
Replies: 2
Views: 52

Re: Gr and Gp from lecture

Yes. In chemistry, r and p will almost always correspond to reactans and products.
by Mona Lee 4L
Tue Feb 19, 2019 11:46 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Delta H
Replies: 5
Views: 74

Re: Delta H

DeltaH alone cannot determine if a reaction is spontaneous or not, which is why you need to use VanHoff's equation. For example, some endothermic reactions will be spontaneous when they occur at very high temperatures.
by Mona Lee 4L
Tue Feb 19, 2019 11:45 pm
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: Equation Purpose
Replies: 2
Views: 64

Re: Equation Purpose

The VanHoff equation relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical reaction to the change in temperature given standard enthalpy change.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Feb 10, 2019 1:06 am
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: midterm
Replies: 3
Views: 93

Re: midterm

If you search "Hot Dog" you can find the practice midterm that Lyndon, one of the UAs, made.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Feb 10, 2019 1:06 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Delta U
Replies: 8
Views: 117

Re: Delta U

DeltaU = q + W. Therefore, the internal energy of a system does not change only when q and W are zero.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Feb 10, 2019 1:05 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: standard reaction enthalpy vs reaction enthalpy
Replies: 1
Views: 37

Re: standard reaction enthalpy vs reaction enthalpy

If reactants and products are at different states or reactions take place at different pressures, the enthalpy of the reaction can be different. Therefore, the standard reaction enthalpy refers to the enthalpy when all reactants and products are in their standard states at 1atm. Reaction enthalpy re...
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 30, 2019 11:23 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Piston and value of W
Replies: 3
Views: 59

Re: Piston and value of W

When you move the piston up, the system is doing work on the piston so the system loses energy. Because the system loses energy, the W is negative. When you move the piston down, the opposite occurs.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 30, 2019 11:21 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: derivatives and integrals
Replies: 6
Views: 180

Re: derivatives and integrals

Work is the integral of the product of force and displacement. In class, he used that definition of work to derive the formula for work done by a piston. However, you can just use the formula using delta V because that is more applicable to the scope of this class.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 30, 2019 11:21 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Surroundings
Replies: 11
Views: 124

Re: Surroundings

No, there is generally no limit. Essentially, the "surroundings" refer to the environment of the reaction.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 23, 2019 9:53 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Hmwrk 11.79 6th edition
Replies: 2
Views: 70

Re: Hmwrk 11.79 6th edition

Since we can only use scientific calculators for this class, this question is beyond the scope of our tests.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 23, 2019 9:51 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Adding a Liquid or Solid to an Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 87

Re: Adding a Liquid or Solid to an Equation

This question was previously answered here: https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/forum/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=40454. Essentially, because water is a liquid it is not included in the equilibrium expression. However, the addition of water will decrease the concentration of C6H12O6, thereby causing the reac...
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Jan 23, 2019 9:32 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 6th edition 12.45
Replies: 1
Views: 118

Re: 6th edition 12.45

For this question, the pKa represents the relative strength of the acids. The lower the pKa, the higher the conjugate Ka, and therefore the weaker the base. Arylamines and Alkyamines refer to the class of organic bases that anilines, methylamine, and ethylamine fall under. I don't think we need to k...
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Jan 18, 2019 1:49 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Net Ionic Equations
Replies: 3
Views: 67

Re: Net Ionic Equations

In general, the net ionic equation will be water + ion <=> conjugate acid / base + oh-/h3o+
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Jan 18, 2019 1:48 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Polyprotic Acids
Replies: 1
Views: 44

Re: Polyprotic Acids

Not always. For example, you use Ka2 for H2SO4 because Ka1 is very strong. However, in most cases, you can disregard the second because it is much smaller and basically insignificant.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Jan 18, 2019 1:45 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Equilibrium Arrow
Replies: 7
Views: 116

Re: Equilibrium Arrow

For reactions involving a strong acid and base, you can assume 100% protonation / deprotonation, and the single arrow represents the heavy skew towards products.
by Mona Lee 4L
Mon Jan 07, 2019 11:14 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Visualizing Equilibrium
Replies: 1
Views: 91

Re: Visualizing Equilibrium

Both flask 3 and 4 are at equilibrium. The diagram displays the dissociation over time, so flask 3 is merely the first instance when the flask reaches equilibrium. The fact that flask 3 and 4 have the same ratios is a clear sign that the reaction has reached equilibrium in flask 3.
by Mona Lee 4L
Mon Jan 07, 2019 11:12 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Lecture 1
Replies: 1
Views: 40

Re: Lecture 1

Hello! today we went over the basics of equilibrium including the definitions of equilibrium and equilibrium constants. You could skim through the textbook as outlined in the syllabus for a review. Also, Dr. Lavelle has video modules on his website that cover the same material as lecture.
by Mona Lee 4L
Mon Jan 07, 2019 11:11 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Liquids not used in Kc
Replies: 2
Views: 47

Re: Liquids not used in Kc

No. In a Kc expression, you do not need to include the solute. The change in the concentration of any solute will be insignificant.
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Dec 06, 2018 11:41 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: strong vs weak acids
Replies: 2
Views: 53

Re: strong vs weak acids

To calculate the pH of a weak acid solution, you need to use Ka and set up an equilibrium equation, which is beyond the scope of this quarter. For questions involving strong acids and baes, you can solve them stoichiometry as a neutralization reaction and then calculate the pH using the remaining H+...
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Dec 06, 2018 11:39 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Distorted electrons
Replies: 2
Views: 161

Re: Distorted electrons

Essentially, electrons that are more distorted are more likely to be attracted / repelled by neighboring dipoles, making them more polarizable.
by Mona Lee 4L
Thu Dec 06, 2018 11:31 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Calculating pH of Weak Acid
Replies: 1
Views: 65

Re: Calculating pH of Weak Acid

To calculate the pH of a solution with a weak acid, you need to use the Ka equilibrium constant and set up an equilibrium equation, which is not covered in this course.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sat Dec 01, 2018 5:04 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: pi bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 114

Re: pi bonds

Pi bonds are formed with the unhybridized orbitals. Usually, they are the p-orbitals, but they can also be formed with d-orbitals.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sat Dec 01, 2018 5:03 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Rating Polarity
Replies: 3
Views: 70

Re: Rating Polarity

Essentially, polarity is directly connected to electronegativity. You can also think of it in terms of the size of the atom. As you move down a group, the valence electrons are further away from the nucleus and experience more shielding. As a result, the atom will be less able to pull electrons in t...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sat Dec 01, 2018 5:02 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: identifying hybridization of a central atom
Replies: 4
Views: 79

Re: identifying hybridization of a central atom

Essentially, to determine if a molecule is polar, you must first look to see that the bonds are polar and that the molecule is asymmetrical. To tell if the bonds are polar, you look at the difference in electronegativity. On notable nonpolar bond is C-H. Then, look at the shape of the molecule and t...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 25, 2018 1:22 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lewis Structure of IO3 (-)
Replies: 1
Views: 54

Re: Lewis Structure of IO3 (-)

Both structures are correct lewis structures, and the one you are suggesting would have a lower energy and would be the dominant lewis structure. Because this question was asking about shape, you don't necessarily need to draw the lewis structure with the lowest energy. Both lewis structures would r...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 25, 2018 1:19 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Why Doesn't I Break Octet in IO3-
Replies: 1
Views: 147

Re: Why Doesn't I Break Octet in IO3-

Both structures are correct lewis structures, but the one you are suggesting would have a lower energy and would be the dominant lewis structure. Because this question was asking about shape, you don't necessarily need the lewis structure with the lowest energy. Both lewis structures would result in...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 25, 2018 1:17 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Single, Double, and Triple Bonds
Replies: 1
Views: 31

Re: Single, Double, and Triple Bonds

When determining hybridization, it is important to know how many areas of electron density are around an atom. Like we discussed in class, CH4 and NH3 have the same hybridization, even though one is tetrahedral and one is trigonal pyramidal. As a result, you need to know what type of bonds are aroun...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 18, 2018 9:41 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone pairs
Replies: 5
Views: 70

Re: Lone pairs

Yes. Although both the tetrahedral and see-saw shape have four atoms bonded to the central molecule, the lone pair in the see-saw shape causes the difference in name. Every VSEPR structure (AX4 vs. AX4E1) has a different shape name.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 18, 2018 9:39 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Question 6.19 (Sixth Edition)
Replies: 2
Views: 90

Re: Question 6.19 (Sixth Edition)

a. Xenon has more electrons, so it is more polarizable and has stronger LDF than Ar. Because of the stronger LDF, the melting point will be much higher because it requires more energy to break the stronger bonds. b. H2O has hydrogen bonding while C2H5OC2H5 is nonpolar and only has LDF. Because LDF a...
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 18, 2018 9:35 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar molecules
Replies: 5
Views: 72

Re: Polar molecules

If there is a lone pair, there will likely be a net dipole pointing in the opposite direction. In general, if a molecule has lone pairs, it is likely to be polar.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Nov 09, 2018 4:28 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Induced dipoles
Replies: 2
Views: 58

Re: Induced dipoles

For every molecule, there are a lot of negatively-charged electrons held around a positively-charged nucleus. If a small shift in this electron cloud occurs, it will create a small dipole whereby one part is more positive and one more negative. This small dipole will then induce a change in nearby m...
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Nov 09, 2018 4:26 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Hydrogen Bonding versus other Intermolecular forces
Replies: 2
Views: 66

Re: Hydrogen Bonding versus other Intermolecular forces

Hydrogen bonds are incredibly polar because of the significant difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and O, N, F. They're essentially just very strong dipole-dipole bonds.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Nov 09, 2018 4:24 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Boiling point
Replies: 12
Views: 238

Re: Boiling point

You can think of "rod" vs. "sphere" as straight-chain vs. branched molecules. Essentially, straight chain molecules are going to have fewer atoms "sticking out." so they can pack closer together, increasing the LDF.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:44 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge and Radicals
Replies: 2
Views: 65

Re: Formal Charge and Radicals

Essentially, if the formal charge does not add up to the overall charge of the molecule, that lewis structure is not valid. Then, you can use process of elimination to figure out where to expand the octet.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:43 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: formal charge on most electronegative atom
Replies: 3
Views: 115

Re: formal charge on most electronegative atom

Yes, because the most electronegative atom will draw the most electrons, so should have the most negative formal charge.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Nov 04, 2018 3:41 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: What are the octet exceptions?
Replies: 9
Views: 205

Re: What are the octet exceptions?

Essentially, the elements in rows 1&2 will never have more than 8 valence electrons. In rows 3+, n=3 so there are p shells, which allow atoms to expand their octet.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 26, 2018 1:24 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.81
Replies: 2
Views: 78

Re: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.81

When it comes to these types of questions, always write out the electron configuration then look where the electrons are and if they're any different than the ones that follow the expected behavior.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 26, 2018 1:23 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.85
Replies: 2
Views: 87

Re: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.85

In general, we don't really need to worry about heavier transition-metal elements because they don't usually follow normal patterns. But in general, the prime reason for their behavior will be their abnormally large size because they have so many more protons and electrons than elements in the first...
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 26, 2018 1:21 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.47
Replies: 2
Views: 63

Re: CH 2 6TH EDITION 2.47

In general, for these questions: 1. list out the electron configuration 2. start removing e- from the end of your list, because these are the electrons furthest from the nucleus and the least stable
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Oct 21, 2018 9:33 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Conditions that allow electron to be ejected from metal surface
Replies: 12
Views: 365

Re: Conditions that allow electron to be ejected from metal surface

Remember that Ephoton = WorkFunction + KEejectede-. If Ephoton is less than the work function, the kinetic energy of the electron would be negative, and the electron would not be ejected.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Oct 21, 2018 9:32 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Kinetic energy
Replies: 4
Views: 78

Re: Kinetic energy

In general, the work function will always be the difference between the energy of the photon & the kinetic energy of the electron. Thus, if they give you ways to find these quantities, you can be responsible for finding the work function.
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Oct 21, 2018 9:31 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Test #2
Replies: 9
Views: 226

Re: Test #2

My TA specified that the following would be on the test: photoelectric effect, deBroglie and wavelength, Heisenberg uncertainty, atomic spectra, and quantum numbers. We won't need to know electron configurations or multi-electron systems.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 12, 2018 1:13 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Threshold Energies
Replies: 5
Views: 75

Re: Threshold Energies

Different metals have different threshold energies depending on the nucleic pull on electrons. There are many factors that affect the nucleic pull. ie: electrons far away from the protons will be "shielded" from the nucleic force and as a result, easier to remove.
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 12, 2018 1:11 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: problem 1. 9 sixth edition
Replies: 4
Views: 65

Re: problem 1. 9 sixth edition

Here is my solution for that question: Mhz = 10^8 Hz
by Mona Lee 4L
Fri Oct 12, 2018 1:09 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Wave and particles [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 54

Re: Wave and particles [ENDORSED]

Light as a wave has two key characteristics: amplitude and frequency. According to this model, the energy of a stream of light should be directly proportional to the amplitude. Essentially, "high-intensity" light should have high energy. However, with the discovery of the photoelectric eff...
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Oct 03, 2018 10:43 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: hi stuck again
Replies: 3
Views: 105

Re: hi stuck again

Another way to think about reactants is to think about which one will produce the least product. Ie: calculate the product stoichiometrically assuming each reactant is limiting. The correct answer will always be the reactant that produces the least amount of product.
by Mona Lee 4L
Wed Oct 03, 2018 10:29 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Advice from a Medical Student [ENDORSED]
Replies: 96
Views: 58622

Re: Advice from a Medical Student [ENDORSED]

Thank you so much for your advice! It's really reassuring to hear from a successful past student that what might seem to be a challenging class will be rewarding in the long run!
by Mona Lee 4L
Sun Sep 30, 2018 10:37 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Short cuts/methods for balancing equations
Replies: 15
Views: 193

Re: Short cuts/methods for balancing equations

In general, I try to start with elements that appear in the least number of compounds. Then, I make sure there are no odd numbers of elements if there is an even number on the other side (ie: double H2O if there is an O2 on the other side). Lastly, try to balance single-element compounds (ie: O2) la...

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