Search found 102 matches

by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:19 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Determining the oxidizer and reducer
Replies: 10
Views: 105

Re: Determining the oxidizer and reducer

In determining the oxidizing agent and reducing agent, I would suggest figuring out the various oxidation states first.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:11 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: How do you know a cell can do work?
Replies: 7
Views: 72

Re: How do you know a cell can do work?

When E cell is equal to zero, the cell cannot do work.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:09 am
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Units
Replies: 8
Views: 147

Re: Units

As this visual shows, the units for the rate constant change, but the units for the rate remain the same.
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:05 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Lavelle's review slides
Replies: 3
Views: 43

Re: Lavelle's review slides

Since neither Br(aq) and Br(g) are conducting solids, Pt(s) has to be included in the cell diagram.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Mar 08, 2020 9:41 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: the intermediate in a reaction
Replies: 10
Views: 183

Re: the intermediate in a reaction

The intermediate is not included in the rate law expression. You can recognize a species is an intermediate if it is in the steps, but not included in the overall reaction.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Mar 08, 2020 9:37 am
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Calculating ln Q
Replies: 20
Views: 261

Re: Calculating ln Q

When calculating Q for the Nernst equation, you can use both partial pressure and concentration. Before, all the values plugged into Q had to be all concentration values or partial pressure values.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Mar 08, 2020 9:33 am
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: instantaneous rate
Replies: 16
Views: 183

Re: instantaneous rate

With average rate, there is a larger error because you are treating the curve as a line when taking two points into consideration. However, with instantaneous rate, you are using only one point to get the slope, which results in a more accurate slope.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Mar 08, 2020 9:28 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Cathode and Anode
Replies: 16
Views: 381

Re: Cathode and Anode

My TA mentioned that E cell can be negative sometimes and I believe there is a question with a negative E cell in section 6N.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Mar 08, 2020 9:25 am
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: factors that affect k
Replies: 8
Views: 212

Re: factors that affect k

CMaduno_1L wrote:if you are referring to the reaction rate constant (lowercase k), then I believe that varying the temperature and solvent would affect its value.


An increase in temperature causes an increase in the rate constant (k) and a decrease in temperature causes a decrease in the rate constant (k).
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 29, 2020 2:37 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic vs Voltaic Cells
Replies: 4
Views: 56

Re: Galvanic vs Voltaic Cells

Galvanic and voltaic cells are the same thing, but with different names. However, in comparison to galvanic cells, electrolytic cells convert electrical energy into chemical energy while galvanic cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Here's a chart that shows the key difference betw...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 29, 2020 2:32 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Cell Diagrams
Replies: 14
Views: 155

Re: Cell Diagrams

In a cell diagram, the anode (oxidation reaction) is on the left and the cathode (reduction reaction) is on the right.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 29, 2020 2:30 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: E potentials
Replies: 5
Views: 70

Re: E potentials

One of the UAs said that the values that will be given to us will be reduction potentials, not oxidation potentials.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 29, 2020 2:28 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Anode vs Cathode
Replies: 15
Views: 168

Re: Anode vs Cathode

Bryce Barbee wrote:During discussion, my TA would tell us which one was the anode and which was the cathode. I think it is based off of left and right usually though.


My TA also would tell us which one was the anode and which one was the cathode.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 29, 2020 2:25 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 19
Views: 239

Re: Test 2

On the class website, it says that "Test 2 covers 2nd page of Outline 4: Thermodynamics and Outline 5: Electrochemistry and its Applications."
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 22, 2020 3:49 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Finding moles of the reaction
Replies: 4
Views: 69

Re: Finding moles of the reaction

In this example, 1 mole of electrons is transferred:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 22, 2020 3:45 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Homework 6K1
Replies: 4
Views: 40

Re: Homework 6K1

C2H5OH and C2H4O have a net charge of zero, but (Cr2O7)-2 has a net charge of -2 and (Cr)3+ has a net charge of +3.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 22, 2020 3:37 pm
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: Van't Hoff Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 49

Re: Van't Hoff Equation

This image might help you see the correlations better:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 22, 2020 3:33 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: 5J.15
Replies: 2
Views: 64

Re: 5J.15

To calculate K, you need to manipulate the first equation in this image to the last equation:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 22, 2020 3:29 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Adding Inert Gas
Replies: 20
Views: 328

Re: Adding Inert Gas

Increasing the pressure of a system with an inert gas does not affect the equilibrium constant. Some examples of inert gases are Helium (He), Argon (Ar), Neon (Ne), Krypton (Kr), and Xenon (Xe).
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:43 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isothermal
Replies: 9
Views: 89

Re: Isothermal

To add to the above statement, the energy lost by the system doing work is replaced by heat flow, q, into the system, which is why q=-w.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:39 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: When to use internal energy equation
Replies: 3
Views: 76

Re: When to use internal energy equation

In lecture, Dr. Lavelle mentioned this equation while explaining how a system loses energy as a result of doing work of expansion.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:31 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Delta U
Replies: 8
Views: 137

Re: Delta U

Changes in internal energy are a function of initial and final states. When delta U is zero, a gas still can expand because it is a spontaneous process with an entropy increase.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:23 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: delta U= delta H
Replies: 6
Views: 141

Re: delta U= delta H

When the volume of the reactants is equal to the volume of the products, delta U is equal to delta H.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:14 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isobaric systems
Replies: 16
Views: 204

Re: Isobaric systems

Leslie Almaraz 4G wrote:What about an adiabatic system? is there a different equation for that?

In an adiabatic system, there is no heat transfer (q=0).
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:17 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: negative Delta U
Replies: 5
Views: 59

Re: negative Delta U

A negative delta U occurs when the final internal energy is lower than the initial internal energy.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:12 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: GFE dividing by temp
Replies: 3
Views: 33

Re: GFE dividing by temp

We know if it is a spontaneous process if the delta S of the universe is positive, which means that the delta G of the system must be negative.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:10 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Isolated vs Closed [ENDORSED]
Replies: 34
Views: 789

Re: Isolated vs Closed [ENDORSED]

Here's a visual that might help you:

Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Feb 07, 2020 7:03 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Homework 4C 13
Replies: 7
Views: 103

Re: Homework 4C 13

The substance with a greater temperature (hotter) will be the one transferring heat to the substance with a lower temperature (colder), which is why the negative sign will be given to the water (which is losing its heat).

Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Feb 07, 2020 6:55 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Negative Work
Replies: 18
Views: 340

Re: Negative Work

Here's a visual that shows an example of when work is negative:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:40 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Isolated systems
Replies: 4
Views: 53

Re: Isolated systems

In a closed system, the system can exchange energy with the surroundings. In an isolated system, nothing exchanges with the surroundings, which means that we assume the insulation is effective and there is no energy being exchanged.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:32 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Favored or Spontaneous
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Re: Favored or Spontaneous

A spontaneous reaction is a reaction that occurs in a given set of conditions without intervention. In lecture, Dr. Lavelle said that a spontaneous reaction means it is a favorable reaction.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:17 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Phase Changes
Replies: 17
Views: 164

Re: Phase Changes

If you look at a heating curve, the slanted lines represent the temperature increasing, and the flat lines represent the phase change where there is no change in temperature. For example, on the first straight line, the leftmost point represents solid water at 0 degrees celsius, and on the most rig...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:10 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Thermodynamic
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: Thermodynamic

Delta H is the change in enthalpy, delta U is the change in internal energy of the system, and delta S is related to entropy. The delta U (or delta H) and delta S of a system provides information on how the system will change.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:03 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Calorimeter
Replies: 8
Views: 114

Re: Calorimeter

This is what a bomb calorimeter looks like: https://chem.libretexts.org/@api/deki/files/58277/c3f2def4f1ad04996c40999978baa644.jpg?revision=1&size=bestfit&width=435 This is what a calorimeter looks like: https://www.chem.fsu.edu/chemlab/chm1045/cpcalorimeter.png
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 25, 2020 11:55 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Q and K
Replies: 4
Views: 60

Re: Q and K

If K is small (K< 10^-3), we know that there are more reactants at equilibrium ("equilibrium sits to the left"). If K=1, both reactions are equally favorable, which is rare. If K is large (K> 10^3), there are more products at equilibrium ("equilibrium sits to the right"). For int...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 25, 2020 11:48 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Proton transfer in water
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Proton transfer in water

This visual shows how the proton transfer occurs between two water molecules:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 25, 2020 11:42 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: state functions
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: state functions

These are all the state functions that Dr. Lavelle mentioned during lecture: energy, pressure, volume, temperature, density, and heat capacity.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 25, 2020 11:39 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Endothermic and Exothermic
Replies: 13
Views: 97

Re: Endothermic and Exothermic

Endothermic reactions use heat as a reactant because they require energy. Exothermic reactions use heat as a product because they release energy. This might be a helpful visual to see the role heat/energy plays in endothermic and exothermic reactions: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/APlWB5e2AP8/maxresdefaul...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 25, 2020 11:32 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Hess's Law
Replies: 5
Views: 54

Re: Hess's Law

In the textbook, it says Hess's law states that "the overall reaction enthalpy is the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the steps into which the reaction can be divided."
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 18, 2020 12:30 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Peer Learning Worksheets
Replies: 3
Views: 76

Re: Peer Learning Worksheets

In the step up sessions I have attended, the UAs usually write out the questions for students to solve on the board instead of handing out worksheets or posting the questions online. I think the only time worksheets are handed out are in the workshops on Mondays, but they are not posted online.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 18, 2020 12:13 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Study Guide Test One
Replies: 17
Views: 201

Re: Study Guide Test One

Use these Learning Outcomes to prepare for Test 1: Outline 1: Chemical Equilibrium https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/wp-content/supporting-files/Chem14B/Chem14B_Outline1_Chemical_Equilibrium.pdf Outline 2: Acids and Bases https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/wp-content/supporting-files/Chem14B/Chem14B_Outline...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 18, 2020 12:10 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5I 25
Replies: 4
Views: 39

Re: 5I 25

It is necessary to find Q before K because we need to discern whether the forward or reverse reaction is favored. For this question, Q=0.75 and, since Q < K, we know the forward reaction is favored.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 18, 2020 12:04 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Q < K
Replies: 16
Views: 137

Re: Q < K

When Q < K at some time during the reaction, then [R] > [P] and the forward reaction is favored (which is the same thing as saying it "proceeds towards the products" and "proceeds to the right").
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 18, 2020 11:58 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Defining Le Chatelier's Principle
Replies: 3
Views: 28

Re: Defining Le Chatelier's Principle

Le Chatelier's principle states that chemical reactions adjust to minimize the effect of changes.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 12:03 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 3
Views: 45

Re: Partial Pressure

This might be a helpful visual that shows how the total pressure of the gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 11:58 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ICE Tables
Replies: 5
Views: 56

Re: ICE Tables

The activities of pure solids and liquids are equal to 1, which is why they don't affect the equilibrium constant and why you don't include them in your ICE table.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 11:52 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Solids and liquids [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 76

Re: Solids and liquids [ENDORSED]

When trying to understand why liquids and solids are not included in the equilibrium constant, remember that the activity, which Dr. Lavelle discussed when going over equilibrium constants, of any solid or liquid in a reaction is equal to 1.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 11:39 am
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Le Chatlier Principle
Replies: 10
Views: 1301

Re: Le Chatlier Principle

This website has a section called "The Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium" that might help you understand more thoroughly what happens if a catalyst is added: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-chemistry/chapter/factors-that-affect-chemical-equilibrium/
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 11:32 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Significant Figures
Replies: 8
Views: 93

Re: Significant Figures

Typically, you see what value in the question has the least amount of significant figures to determine how many significant figures your answer will need to be rounded to, which means you consider both the K constant and the initial concentrations.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:15 am
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: studying
Replies: 5
Views: 197

Re: studying

My TA and the UAs that held review sessions recommended knowing the most common strong acids and strong bases.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:13 am
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Identifying Acidic and Basic Salts
Replies: 3
Views: 143

Re: Identifying Acidic and Basic Salts

You identify acidic and basic salts by identifying what kind of ions they have. If a salt contains a cation of a strong base and an anion of a weak acid (like NaOCl), the anion (ClO-) will acts as a base and increase the pH (making the salt basic).
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:02 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: HW 6.5
Replies: 1
Views: 53

Re: HW 6.5

A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor and a Lewis base is an electron pair donor. From part a of the question, we find that SO3 would react with H2O2 to form H2SO5. Since Sulfur has a vacant orbital, we know that it would accept the electron pair, which makes it the Lewis acid.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:50 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: HW Problem J.9
Replies: 1
Views: 41

Re: HW Problem J.9

For these questions, it is important to know the most common strong acids and bases. When you see the salt (NH4)3PO4, you should recognize it comes from a weak base and strong acid, so when the salt is placed in water it would be acidic (pH<7).
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:42 am
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Strong Acids
Replies: 2
Views: 112

Re: Strong Acids

In determining the strength of an acid, there are two possible things you look at: 1. Bond Length (the longer the bond, the weaker it is) 2. Stability of the anion (which is the conjugate base)- it can be stabilized by a high electronegativity of one of the atoms and by resonance. You determine whic...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Nov 28, 2019 9:11 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Lewis acid and base definition
Replies: 4
Views: 77

Re: Lewis acid and base definition

Here's an image that depicts the example given about boron trifluoride:
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Thu Nov 28, 2019 9:01 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Constant K(a)
Replies: 4
Views: 51

Re: Constant K(a)

When determining which acid is stronger and the pKa is given, the acid with the lower pKa will be stronger.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:38 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Polydentate
Replies: 4
Views: 65

Re: Polydentate

Here is an example of a polydentate ligand:

Ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid acid (EDTA)
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:22 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Cis vs Trans
Replies: 21
Views: 504

Re: Cis vs Trans

Here is an example that shows how a cis molecule and a trans molecule look:

Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:17 pm
Forum: *Liquid Structure (Viscosity, Surface Tension, Liquid Crystals, Ionic Liquids)
Topic: Viscosity
Replies: 19
Views: 441

Re: Viscosity

In lecture, we went over the example of 3 hydrocarbons at room temperature: Pentane (C5H12) was a mobile fluid at room temperature. Pentadecane (C15H32) was a viscous fluid at room temperature. Octadecane (C18H35) was a waxy solid at room temperature. In this example, it is clear how the number of e...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Nov 24, 2019 6:32 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Radicals and Molecular Shape
Replies: 2
Views: 52

Re: Radicals and Molecular Shape

The single unpaired electron on a radical is counted as a single region of high electron density, but it has a weaker repulsion than lone pairs. Therefore, the single unpaired electron on a radical does affect the shape of a molecule, but it does not affect the shape of a molecule as much as a lone ...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Nov 24, 2019 6:18 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Reactivity of pi bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 117

Re: Reactivity of pi bonds

A sigma bond by itself is stronger than a pi bond by itself because the atomic orbitals that form sigma bonds overlap more than the orbitals that form pi bonds. Double bonds are stronger than a single bond because they consist of one sigma bond and one pi bond, whereas a single bond consists of only...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 22, 2019 3:33 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: bent v. angular
Replies: 27
Views: 463

Re: bent v. angular

When the VSEPR formula is AX2E3 or AX2E4, remember that their shapes will be linear (not bent or angular) and they both will have a bond angle of 180 degrees.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 22, 2019 3:27 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: polarizability
Replies: 9
Views: 224

Re: polarizability

When the intermolecular forces are stronger, it requires more energy to break the bonds, thus making the melting/boiling point higher. For example, CHI3 will have a higher melting point than CHF3 because Iodine has a higher polarizability than Fluorine, which makes the intermolecular forces stronger...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 22, 2019 3:20 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming
Replies: 6
Views: 112

Re: Naming

I think we should know the ones in the table that this link takes you to (the link was included in an email from Dr. Lavelle): https://lavelle.chem.ucla.edu/wp-content/supporting-files/Chem14A/NamingCoordinationCompounds.pdf
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 22, 2019 3:10 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Lewis & Bronsted
Replies: 3
Views: 72

Re: Lewis & Bronsted

A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor and a Lewis base is an electron pair donor. Whereas, a Bronsted acid is a proton donor and a Bronsted base is a proton acceptor.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 10:40 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: test 2
Replies: 13
Views: 167

Re: test 2

Debora Fernandez Clemente_ 4H wrote:What are other topics other than the VSEPR models we should know for test two? or is only that?

These are a few of the topics my TA mentioned we should know for Test 2: hydrogen bonding, molecular shape, bond angles, dipole moments, polarity/non-polarity.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 10:34 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Notation used in VSEPR
Replies: 8
Views: 147

Re: Notation used in VSEPR

Katherine Brenner 3H wrote:Can someone explain how we get that formula?

For example, NH3 will have a VSEPR formula of AX3E because it has three bonded atoms and one lone pair. CH3Cl will have a VSEPR formula of AX4 because it has four bonded atoms and no lone pairs.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 10:29 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angle with Lone Pairs
Replies: 3
Views: 46

Re: Bond Angle with Lone Pairs

The lone pairs on the central atom influence molecular shape and, thus, affect the bond angles. Specifically, the addition of lone pairs force the bonding electrons closer together, making the bond angles smaller.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 10:18 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 9
Views: 101

Re: Bond Angles

I believe we should know the bond angles of the molecular shapes we go over during lecture (i.e. Linear-180 degrees & Tetrahedral-109.5 degrees). We predict bond angles when there are lone pairs on the central atom, which influence the molecular shape and affect the bond angle. For example, we c...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:59 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: How to tell polar or non polar from lewis structure?
Replies: 9
Views: 151

Re: How to tell polar or non polar from lewis structure?

Destiny_Ryales_3J wrote:Is this supposed to be on next week’s test?

My TA said that we should know about polar and non-polar molecules for Test 2.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:54 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Hydrogen Bonding
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: Hydrogen Bonding

The electronegativity of N, O, and F is important because it affects the strength of the hydrogen bond.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:37 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 18
Views: 209

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

When drawing Lewis structures, keep in mind that you should avoid placing a negative formal charge on the central atom.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:33 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Formal Charges
Replies: 15
Views: 259

Re: Formal Charges

You generally want to avoid putting a negative formal charge on a central atom.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:22 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 78

Re: Bonds

This chart that compares sigma bonds and pi bonds could be helpful to you!
Image
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Nov 03, 2019 1:18 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Expanded Octet for Lowest Formal Charge
Replies: 2
Views: 49

Re: Expanded Octet for Lowest Formal Charge

Cl can have an expanded octet because it is located in Period 3. Starting from Period 3 (where the principal quantum number is n=3), the d-orbital becomes available and allows the additional electrons to go there, creating an expanded octet.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Nov 03, 2019 1:10 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: What are radicals
Replies: 7
Views: 88

Re: What are radicals

A radical is a compound with an unpaired electron, which makes it highly reactive. Radicals are significant because they are exceptions to the octet guideline.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Nov 03, 2019 1:07 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Expanded Valence Shells
Replies: 2
Views: 45

Re: Expanded Valence Shells

Elements starting from period 3 can have an expanded octet because they have a d-orbital that the additional electrons can go into. In other words, the d orbitals become available beginning with the principle quantum number n=3.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 01, 2019 9:05 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Octet Rules
Replies: 4
Views: 49

Re: Octet Rules

If an atom does not satisfy the octet rule, it means there are less than 8 electrons (i.e. the first 4 elements of the periodic table). An expanded octet refers to when there are more than 8 electrons; these are also known as exceptions to the octet rule. Examples of elements that typically have le...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Fri Nov 01, 2019 9:03 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Octet Rules
Replies: 4
Views: 49

Re: Octet Rules

In the review session today, it was mentioned that the elements (with a d-orbital) in Period 3 and later can have an expanded octet.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 27, 2019 2:52 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Bond lengths
Replies: 3
Views: 38

Re: Bond lengths

I think the main thing to take away from those values that were given to us is how the single bond length in C—C is longer that the double bond length between 2 Carbons.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 27, 2019 2:44 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Cations
Replies: 8
Views: 129

Re: Cations

On the other hand, anions are bigger than their parent atoms because (as indicated by their negative charge) they gained electrons.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 27, 2019 2:39 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: He
Replies: 3
Views: 54

Re: He

He has 2 valence electrons, which means it has one electron pair. That is why the Lewis structure for it will look like this- :He
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 27, 2019 2:31 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Valence Electrons
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: Valence Electrons

For example, the electron configuration for Fe is [Ar]4s2 3d6 and we know that it has 2 valence electrons because of 4s2. We do not count the 3d6.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 27, 2019 2:14 pm
Forum: *Shrodinger Equation
Topic: Wave functions
Replies: 9
Views: 138

Re: Wave functions

Sartaj Bal 3H wrote:To express the wave function in three dimensions, the three quantum numbers (n, m, and ml) need to be used. This is known as the atomic orbital, or the region of space where the electron is located.
These atomic orbitals are mathematical functions that describe the behavior of the electrons.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:24 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Clarification on Photoelectric Effect
Replies: 3
Views: 85

Re: Clarification on Photoelectric Effect

Light sources with long wavelengths (low frequency light) cannot eject electrons even with a high intensity light, which means it does not act like a classical wave. When the frequency increases (or you shorten the wavelength), the energy per photon increases as well, which causes the ejection of el...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:14 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]
Replies: 188
Views: 14139

Re: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]

Thank you so much for taking the time to share your experience with us and answer our questions! Your advice is extremely helpful and motivating. Is there anything you didn't expect to experience as a medical student that you wish you knew before starting medical school? It wasn't really an experie...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:11 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Molecular to Empirical Formula
Replies: 10
Views: 376

Re: Molecular to Empirical Formula

You would only be able to do this if the problem provides the molar mass of the molecular formula. This mass is usually provided in problems if they want you to find the molecular formula. You would then divide the given molar mass by the mass of the empirical formula mass. The answer you get is wh...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:08 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: States of Matter
Replies: 9
Views: 310

Re: States of Matter

It doesn't matter when solving problems for molarity/dilution, but it is is important to include when writing out the chemical equations.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:03 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Accessing the E-textbook [ENDORSED]
Replies: 58
Views: 6258

Re: Accessing the E-textbook [ENDORSED]

Does anyone know if Sapling is mandatory?
I don't think it is.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 1:23 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Significant Figures
Replies: 6
Views: 225

Re: Significant Figures

If you want to practice determining how many significant figures a number has, this could be helpful:
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/arithmetic-home/arith-review-decimals/arithmetic-significant-figures-tutorial/e/significant_figures_1
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 1:21 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Significant Figures
Replies: 6
Views: 225

Re: Significant Figures

Hi! Here are some of the basic rules for significant figures: 1. All non-zero numbers are significant. Ex. 457 has 3 significant figures. 2. Zeros in between two non-zero numbers are significant. Ex. 9023 has 4 significant figures. 3. Trailing zeros (the zeros at the end) are only significant if the...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 1:02 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Practice Problems?
Replies: 11
Views: 243

Re: Practice Problems?

In our Chemical Principles 7th edition textbook, the practice problems for each of the fundamental sections are located at the end of every section.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 12:55 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: M1V1=M2V2
Replies: 11
Views: 8125

Re: M1V1=M2V2

When I do these type of problems, I often have to convert the units from grams to moles or milliliters to liters. So make sure you pay attention to the units before you start solving the problems using the equations M1V1=M2V2 and Molarity=moles of solute/liters of solution.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 12:44 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Dilutions
Replies: 10
Views: 495

Re: Dilutions

When you are solving these type of problems, make sure you pay attention to the units! For this problem, some of the unit conversions you would need to do are converting the grams into moles and milliliters into liters.
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 12:36 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Balancing Equations
Replies: 4
Views: 190

Re: Balancing Equations

When balancing an equation, I first write out how many of each atom are on the side of the reactants and how many of each atom are on the side of the products. If you want to practice balancing chemical equations, this practice on Khan Academy might help you: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chem...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 06, 2019 5:58 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Molar Mass
Replies: 4
Views: 72

Re: Molar Mass

Here's an example of how to calculate molar mass: Let's say you need to find the molar mass of NaCl. This can be done by adding the atomic mass of sodium (22.99 g/mol) and the atomic mass of chlorine (35.45 g/mol). (22.99 g/mol) + (35.45g/mol)= 58.44 g/mol Therefore, the molar mass of NaCl will be 5...
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 06, 2019 5:44 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: sig figs
Replies: 20
Views: 284

Re: sig figs

How do I tell what 0's are significant and which aren't? If you want to practice determining how many significant figures a number has, this could be helpful: https://www.khanacademy.org/math/arithmetic-home/arith-review-decimals/arithmetic-significant-figures-tutorial/e/significant_figures_1
by Rebekah Alfred 1J
Sun Oct 06, 2019 5:20 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: empirical and molecular formulas
Replies: 7
Views: 96

Re: empirical and molecular formulas

To see if the empirical formula is the same as the molecular formula or if it is just the ratio, you have to find the molar mass of the empirical formula. If this molar mass is the same as the molar mass of molecular compound, you know that the empirical formula and molecular formula are the same. F...

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