Search found 49 matches

by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Thu Dec 05, 2019 9:52 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: pH vs. pOH
Replies: 17
Views: 247

Re: pH vs. pOH

505106414 wrote:
Emma Popescu 3D wrote:If you have the pH of a solution, you can calculate its pOH or vice versa. For example, if the pH is 2 then the pOH will be 14-2=12

Just to clarify, they always add to 14?

Yes, they always add up to 14
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Thu Dec 05, 2019 9:43 pm
Forum: Industrial Examples
Topic: Difference between biological and industrial examples?
Replies: 3
Views: 113

Re: Difference between biological and industrial examples?

For biological and industrial examples, do we have to know the formula and the structure given the name?
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Thu Dec 05, 2019 9:35 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Oxolate Chelate
Replies: 6
Views: 95

Re: Oxolate Chelate

Are polydentates with three bonding sites called tridentate? Or do we only specify bidentate?
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Thu Dec 05, 2019 9:28 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Cyanido vs cyano
Replies: 5
Views: 58

Re: Cyanido vs cyano

I believe cyano is basically a shorthand for cyanido. As long as it ends in o for an electrostatically charged ligand, it is named correctly
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Dec 04, 2019 4:10 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: How to tell which ligands can be polydentrate
Replies: 4
Views: 162

Re: How to tell which ligands can be polydentrate

Can a ligand be polydentate if it has two lone pairs on the same atom? Such as an oxygen atom?
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:13 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Ka constant
Replies: 5
Views: 57

Re: Ka constant

The Ka constant tells you how strong an acid is, if it is a very small number that means only part of it dissociates into hydronium.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 5:31 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Water
Replies: 5
Views: 45

Re: Water

Water is considered to be neutral because it is neither an acid or a base, so it does not affect reactions of acids and bases. Rather, the acids and bases affect the water
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 5:20 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization for elements like S, Xe, Br, etc.
Replies: 4
Views: 40

Re: Hybridization for elements like S, Xe, Br, etc.

Is hybridization just for the central atom? So then is one molecule just one kind of hybridization?
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 5:16 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming for the final
Replies: 6
Views: 76

Re: Naming for the final

I assume there are exceptions to the naming rules, but do we need to be aware of any of them?
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:54 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 15
Views: 204

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

All bonds are denoted as straight lines, so there is no way to differentiate them
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:54 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 15
Views: 204

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

All bonds are denoted as straight lines, so there is no way to differentiate them
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:51 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: AXE
Replies: 6
Views: 127

Re: AXE

This is just a notation for VSEPR that tells us how many electrons and lone pairs are on the central atom (A).
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:30 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: How does hybridization happen?
Replies: 3
Views: 33

Re: How does hybridization happen?

Hybridization is when two atoms fuse their orbitals to create new hybridized orbitals. This allows the molecules to be lower energy.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:18 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: dsp3 vs sp3d
Replies: 4
Views: 54

Re: dsp3 vs sp3d

Similar to how we write electron configurations, the d goes first if it is in a prior shell. Even though we fill the d subshell after we fill the s and p subshells from the previous shell, we write the d first.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 8:04 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: SCl4 Molecule
Replies: 5
Views: 44

Re: SCl4 Molecule

Molecules with Sulfur as the central atom are often polar because Sulfur can accommodate more than 8 valence electrons. If there is an uneven number of bonded atoms or lone pairs, the molecule will be polar.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 8:02 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Definition
Replies: 2
Views: 120

Re: Definition

Polarizability and polarizing power can be predicted with periodic trends.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:59 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Intermolecular Forces and VSEPR
Replies: 3
Views: 41

Re: Intermolecular Forces and VSEPR

The strongest intermolecular force is a hydrogen bond, which occurs between molecules that include Hydrogen and Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:09 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: XeF2
Replies: 5
Views: 56

Re: XeF2

The molecular shape just refers to the arrangement of the bonds. The two fluorine atoms occupy one plane around the Xe atom, with the lone pairs occupying much of the surrounding three dimensional space. Therefore, the bond angles are 180 and linear.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:01 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 19
Views: 206

Re: Test 2

You must have the right type of bonds and number of lone pair electrons in your Lewis structure to get the right shape, and therefore, bond angles. However, because resonance is just a blend of all possible structures, you can get the right shape with just one resonance structure.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 17, 2019 6:59 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR Angles
Replies: 4
Views: 39

Re: VSEPR Angles

The number of bonded electron pairs and the number of lone electron pairs influences the shape of the molecule, and thus, the bond angles.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 10, 2019 11:01 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Both types of bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 52

Re: Both types of bonds

yes, all bonds are a mixture of these two.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:59 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Why is the ionization energy of nitrogen higher than that of oxygen's?
Replies: 11
Views: 132

Re: Why is the ionization energy of nitrogen higher than that of oxygen's?

According to Hund's rule, an electron has lower energy when three subshells are filled within an orbital.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:17 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: London Dispersion
Replies: 13
Views: 119

Re: London Dispersion

London dispersion is the weakest type of intermolecular forces.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:15 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: C, N, O, and F
Replies: 13
Views: 148

Re: C, N, O, and F

A good guideline to follow for drawing organic structures is that carbon wants 4 bonds, nitrogen 3, oxygen 2, and hydrogen 1.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:49 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: 1D questions
Replies: 4
Views: 57

Re: 1D questions

A shell corresponds to the principle quantum number, a sub shell to the orbital angular momentum quantum number, and an orbital to the magnetic.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:36 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: 1D.17
Replies: 3
Views: 48

Re: 1D.17

The m(l) quantum number is determined by which type of orbital (s, p, d, or f) an electron is in.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:31 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Determining Element
Replies: 4
Views: 57

Re: Determining Element

You can use the quantum numbers to count the number of valence electrons and determine the element (or ion, possibly)
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:26 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionization Energy (10d on Midterm Review)
Replies: 3
Views: 41

Re: Ionization Energy (10d on Midterm Review)

There are exceptions for Oxygen, Boron, and Calcium. To be safe, you should probably write out the electron configurations to see if there is a reason that certain elements could achieve lower energies.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:11 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Work Function?
Replies: 7
Views: 92

Re: Work Function?

The work function is only used in problems involving the photoelectric effect, which doesn't seem to be many problems.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:04 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Atomic Orbitals in Terms of Probability
Replies: 6
Views: 161

Re: Atomic Orbitals in Terms of Probability

Each electron in an atom has a probability function that tells us the probability of finding an electron at a given point within that orbital.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 9:40 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Difference between electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity
Replies: 5
Views: 49

Re: Difference between electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity

Ionization energy is a direct result of an atom's electronegativity-- because it takes more energy to remove an electron that is clung onto by an atom. This is why these two properties follow the same trend. Electron affinity follows a less obvious trend.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 9:38 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Hybridization
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Re: Hybridization

Hybridization refers to the formation of new electron orbitals that are better suited for electron sharing in bonds. For example, an s orbital and p orbital could convert to form two sp orbitals.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 9:31 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Covalent Bonds
Replies: 11
Views: 104

Re: Covalent Bonds

ionic bonds are typically between a metal and nonmetal, whereas covalent bonds are between two nonmetals
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 9:28 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Equal Bond Length
Replies: 4
Views: 59

Re: Equal Bond Length

When we draw Lewis structures, we draw some bonds as single bonds and others as double bonds for the sake of simplicity; however, experimental bond lengths show us that extra electrons that make up double bonds simultaneously exist in the orbitals of all the bonds for that atom. Resonance structures...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:05 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: S-orbitals symmetry
Replies: 4
Views: 59

Re: S-orbitals symmetry

Electrons in the s-orbital are equally likely to be found at any point in the sphere, therefore s-orbitals have symmetric probability distributions. A p-orbital shape itself is not asymmetric, but because the shape is not a sphere, an electron is more likely to be found further from the nuclear, so ...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:59 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: How would you explain this?
Replies: 3
Views: 85

Re: How would you explain this?

The de Broglie equation shows the wavelike properties of electrons, not the particle quantized properties. Rydberg's equation allows for quantized energy levels.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:23 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: 1A.9 Energy of Photon
Replies: 12
Views: 120

Re: 1A.9 Energy of Photon

Some questions (it may even be the one in contention) ask for the the energy of a mole of photons, in which case you would then multiply Plancks constant by Avogadros number.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:13 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisengberg Uncertainty Equation Meaning
Replies: 7
Views: 62

Re: Heisengberg Uncertainty Equation Meaning

Conceptually, the Heisenberg uncertainty equation demonstrates the relationship between knowledge of a particle's velocity and its position. When we accurately measure the position, it becomes more difficult to pinpoint the general trend of its path, and when we understand its path, it is hard to kn...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:08 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]
Replies: 18
Views: 4374

Re: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]

When you determine delta p for the indeterminacy equation, make sure to use p=mv, using the velocity given in the equation and the mass of electron, 9.109 x 10^-31.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 2:05 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Wave-like and particle-like properties
Replies: 7
Views: 75

Re: Wave-like and particle-like properties

De Broglie's equation asserts that everything with mass has both wave and particle properties. However, because the wavelength of the wave property is inversely proportional to the mass of an object, an object with a significant mass (ie, a baseball), has relatively negligible wave tendencies and ac...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Thu Oct 10, 2019 6:41 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Frequency
Replies: 15
Views: 205

Re: Frequency

Light with a higher frequency has higher energy because there are more photons being transfered per cycle with a higher frequency, and the energy in light comes from photons.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Oct 09, 2019 3:59 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: wave/particle properties of mass
Replies: 3
Views: 51

Re: wave/particle properties of mass

Matter in general has both wave and particle properties [I]because[I] electrons have particle properties and matter consists of electrons. Think of the analogy Dr. Lavelle used in class: water poured out of a bucket acts as a wave flow until you zoom in very close and see the molecules drip out of t...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Tue Oct 08, 2019 12:49 am
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: HW Problem: M19
Replies: 4
Views: 124

Re: HW Problem: M19

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Fluorine never occur alone. You can always assume these are H2, N2, etc.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Mon Oct 07, 2019 3:32 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Post Module Assessment - Photoelectric Effect
Replies: 3
Views: 69

Re: Post Module Assessment - Photoelectric Effect

When I use scientific notation in my calculator, I make sure to use parentheses around each answer so the numbers don't get confused. For example just put (1.99 x 10^-18) in the calculator.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Mon Oct 07, 2019 3:26 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Light intensity
Replies: 10
Views: 104

Re: Light intensity

Intensity is synonymous with brightness. Two lightbulbs can have the same wavelength and frequency of light, but we can increase the brightness by turning both lightbulbs on instead of one. This shows that the amount of light doesn't have an effect on the energy hitting the electrons, but rather the...
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Oct 02, 2019 5:35 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: rounding of the elements. [ENDORSED]
Replies: 6
Views: 94

Re: rounding of the elements. [ENDORSED]

Final answers should typically have 3 sig figs, which means all values throughout the calculations should be 4 or 5 sig figs to avoid rounding numbers.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Oct 02, 2019 5:03 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Calculation of Mass of One Molecule
Replies: 3
Views: 74

Re: Calculation of Mass of One Molecule

Because one mole of H2O is 18.02 grams and one molecule is 1/6.022x10^23 atoms, the mass of one molecule can be calculated by dividing 18.02 by avogadros number.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Oct 02, 2019 4:54 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: HW Problem E17
Replies: 5
Views: 62

Re: HW Problem E17

Number of moles is directly proportional to number of atoms, because Avogadro's number is a constant. Number of atoms has no relation to atomic mass.
by Claire Stoecklein 1E
Wed Oct 02, 2019 4:40 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Frequency and Hertz
Replies: 5
Views: 67

Re: Frequency and Hertz

I don't believe there is a unit specifically for oscillations, so Hertz are measured in just oscillations/second.

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