Search found 54 matches

by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 9:14 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: finding molarity
Replies: 4
Views: 31

Re: finding molarity

Molarity is no different for acids/bases than any other solution. It is important to understand what pH and pOH are though which is the -log base 10 of either H ion concentrations or OH ion concentrations so by raising the -pH or -pOH as a power of 10 then you can find the molarity of ions in that s...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 9:11 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: hybridization of lone pairs
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Re: hybridization of lone pairs

Yes we're looking at regions of electron density so lone pairs count so yeah that example would be 2sp2.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 9:09 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Cisplatin bonding in 2 places
Replies: 3
Views: 40

Re: Cisplatin bonding in 2 places

Yes, the mobility should mean it's chelating.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 9:07 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Do we put metal last in the name?
Replies: 1
Views: 22

Re: Do we put metal last in the name?

The ligands come before the metal.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 9:05 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: cyano v. cyanido
Replies: 4
Views: 34

Re: cyano v. cyanido

With respect to that specific example it doesn't matter whether you use cyano or cyanido.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:45 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 6B.9
Replies: 1
Views: 24

Re: 6B.9

You're not wrong, solutions with a pH that's negative are known as a superacids and they are possible, just not common. If you are taking the log base 10 of a number greater than 1 you'll get a positive number hence a negative pH.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:40 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: pH of Weak Acid and Bases
Replies: 4
Views: 27

Re: pH of Weak Acid and Bases

Using the Ka value of the substance, which can be solved for if the chemical equation is known, you can also find the concentration of H+ ions and the take the -log of that.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:34 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Ligand
Replies: 4
Views: 18

Re: Ligand

A chelating ligand is one who has 2+ attachments to a metal through coordination bonding.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:31 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: pH calcuations
Replies: 8
Views: 44

Re: pH calcuations

Regarding concentrations and the equations related to acid/base reactions I imagine we'll probably have to know those equations about Kb and Ka.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:28 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: acid v. base?
Replies: 16
Views: 73

Re: acid v. base?

If the molecule has lone pairs it is more than likely a lewis base because it can donate those electrons and if a molecule has a positive charge it is more likely to accept electrons therefore it is a lewis acid.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 24, 2019 1:09 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Seesaw
Replies: 23
Views: 126

Re: Seesaw

Technically yes so I'd be precise on a test but it is a small difference so the manual might just be counting it as negligible.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 24, 2019 1:06 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent vs linear
Replies: 56
Views: 300

Re: Bent vs linear

It depends on lone pairs on the central atom so draw the lewis structure and work from there.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 24, 2019 1:05 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 7
Views: 29

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

That's the main idea; I'd know how to count both in a molecule and know which breaks first (pi).
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 24, 2019 1:02 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Why is CH2Cl2 polar?
Replies: 12
Views: 81

Re: Why is CH2Cl2 polar?

When you add all the dipole moments taking into account shape you get a overall dipole moment so it is polar.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 24, 2019 12:59 am
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Biological Importance
Replies: 6
Views: 25

Re: Biological Importance

I remember Lavelle saying the top-most d block row of elements is biologically important because he made a joke about the lower elements tending to be poisonous to life. lol
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:25 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: XeF2
Replies: 5
Views: 43

Re: XeF2

XeF2 is nonpolar because the fluorine atoms are opposite of each other and their dipoles cancel out.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:21 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR Angles
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Re: VSEPR Angles

Usually for VSEPR exact angles for everything is not expected. You should know the basic ones like 180 degrees, 120 degrees, and 109.5 degrees and you should know how lone pairs affect bonds which would be indicated by writing something like <109.5 degrees for example.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:19 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR bond angles
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Re: VSEPR bond angles

It's really based on the VSEPR chart of shape and geometry, however the atoms will be farthest apart is how they'll arrange themselves so this determines where bond angles are formed.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:17 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Influence of Lone Pair e- on Model
Replies: 5
Views: 39

Re: Influence of Lone Pair e- on Model

Greater impact, a lone pair would create more repulsion than just another atom.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 7:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Repulsion strength and Bond Angles
Replies: 12
Views: 48

Re: Repulsion strength and Bond Angles

Yes, lone pairs create more repulsion so the angle between the 2 bonded atoms would be smaller and the two angles between the lone pair and the other two atoms would be bigger.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 10, 2019 3:34 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Magnetic Quantum numbers
Replies: 13
Views: 106

Re: Magnetic Quantum numbers

Magnetic quantum number is based on l, hence m sub l is used as the variable for the magnetic quantum number. The number can be any number -l...l which is a whole number.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 10, 2019 3:32 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: frequency and ejection of electrons
Replies: 7
Views: 51

Re: frequency and ejection of electrons

If you know the frequency of light being directed towards a surface you can find the energy using E=hv (v is not actually the letter v it is a variable for frequency). Once the energy is known you can determine at what point that energy will overcome the work function of the surface at which point e...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 10, 2019 3:29 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: atomic radius
Replies: 7
Views: 48

Re: atomic radius

Moving across a period the nucleus is gaining protons so there is much more positive charge pulling on the electrons meaning the radius becomes smaller.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 10, 2019 3:27 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configurations
Replies: 13
Views: 131

Re: Electron Configurations

The way lavelle has us writing it is in order of which electrons will ionize last to the ones that'll ionize first which basically means you write the configuration in order of the principle quantum number which for this class means you need to know that 3d^10 would be listed before 4s^2 in an elect...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 10, 2019 3:25 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Quantum numbers
Replies: 12
Views: 101

Re: Quantum numbers

Angular momentum is l. l can be 0,1,2,3...n-1. If l=0 it tells you the s subshell is being filled, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:33 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Delocalized electrons
Replies: 2
Views: 19

Re: Delocalized electrons

Delocalized electrons are those that are not involved with any one specific atom or bond. In class Lavelle showed us a sort of resonance structure for benzene where instead of drawing a bunch of bonds for the ring he just drew a circle which is supposed to show that the electrons are not tied in spe...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:30 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Purpose of Formal Charge
Replies: 6
Views: 24

Re: Purpose of Formal Charge

The point of formal charge is to make sure you are drawing the most stable and hence most likely version of a molecule you would see in nature. For example, if you draw a molecule one way and the formal charges of two atoms are 2+ and 2- they cancel out. However, if you draw the molecule another way...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:26 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: dissociation energy
Replies: 7
Views: 50

Re: dissociation energy

Breaking a bond always requires some energy so dissociation energy is always positive.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:24 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Strength of Bonds
Replies: 16
Views: 62

Re: Strength of Bonds

It can be helpful to link what type of bond is shorter vs. longer. In other words, a triple bond is shorter than a double bond which is shorter than a single bond. We also know that a triple bond is stronger than a double bond which is stronger than a single bond. As such, you can figure that the sh...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:21 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 9
Views: 52

Re: Electronegativity

I doubt you'll be given a table of electronegativity values but you will most likely be given a periodic table so all you would need to know is the trend which is that electronegativity increases moving towards the top right corner.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Oct 25, 2019 4:12 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Calculating Number of Valence Electrons
Replies: 7
Views: 53

Re: Calculating Number of Valence Electrons

A simple trick is to look at the group number above each column on the periodic table. For groups 1 and 2 there are simply 1 and 2 valence electrons respectively. For groups 13-18 you only look at the last digit which is the number of valence electrons; so, group 13 would have 3 valence electrons, g...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Oct 25, 2019 4:07 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge
Replies: 6
Views: 293

Re: Formal Charge

Formal charge is simply a comparison of the number of electrons around an atom in its neutral state to the same atom bonded in a molecule. It is important to note that calculating formal charge within a molecule does not account for electronegativity, it assumes electrons are shared evenly. It is im...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Oct 25, 2019 4:02 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Formal Charges
Replies: 4
Views: 34

Re: Formal Charges

The expression shown in class can be simplified by distributing the negative sign which helps for speed in finding formal charges. So, all it really is is taking the valence electrons of the ion you are looking at, minus the amount of electrons in lone pairs, minus the amount of electrons being shar...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:58 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 8
Views: 57

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

Only hydrogen. There will be cases though when maybe there are a few of the least electronegative ions that aren't hydrogen and they go in the center in different arrangements depending on how many there are. In the case of a fatty acid there are usually a bunch of carbons which in that case all go ...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:55 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Bond length
Replies: 11
Views: 64

Re: Bond length

The point is that electrons are rather unpredictable to us right now so to say we know there is a double bond in one spot when it could be in another is specifying something that we don't actually know because the electrons are delocalized. So, the resonance structure is meant to account for our deg...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:17 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Wave Properties of Electrons Module q. 14
Replies: 4
Views: 34

Re: Wave Properties of Electrons Module q. 14

The idea here is that when a trough and a trough interact as well as when a crest and a crest interact they constructively build on each other. It's the same as thinking about when you add to positive numbers together the answer gets more positive and similar when two negative numbers are added toge...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:14 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B.9 HW prob
Replies: 2
Views: 19

Re: 1B.9 HW prob

Since t=2.0 seconds and the units given are per second you have to multiply the given value of 32 by 2 in order to get 64.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:13 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B.15 a
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Re: 1B.15 a

The mass of an electron is something that is a given usually on the formula sheet with all the other constants and given equations so you should be ok.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:12 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 25.
Replies: 4
Views: 46

Re: 25.

For velocity in that problem you just need two equations. delta p times delta x is greater than or equal to h/4pi being the first equation and delta p=m times delta v being the second equation. Knowing these are what you need you can simply plug in the information you know and solve for the change i...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:09 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B #15
Replies: 4
Views: 24

Re: 1B #15

Part d is based off of the answer reached in part c, once the wavelength is known we can look at the electromagnetic spectrum and determine what type of radiation is being emitted based on the wavelength found in part c.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:07 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B #15
Replies: 4
Views: 24

Re: 1B #15

For part c we need a simple equation involving the speed of light which is c=frequency times lambda. The speed of light is a constant we know, frequency was given earlier in the problem, hence we can just plug in the information we know again and carry out the algebra to solve for lambda which is th...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:02 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B #15
Replies: 4
Views: 24

Re: 1B #15

For part B we need the equation which gives the energy of a photon, E=hv (note that v is not actually v it is another variable that stands for frequency). h is planck's constant which we already know, E is the energy which we are solving for, and the frequency at which an electron is drawn off the s...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sat Oct 19, 2019 8:59 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: 1B #15
Replies: 4
Views: 24

Re: 1B #15

For part A we know the de broglie equation is lambda=h/mv. The question asks us to solve for wavelength, planck's constant is always the same as well as the mass of an electron, and the velocity is given in the question so the answer can be found simply by plugging in everything we know and carrying...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:50 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Photoelectric Effect Intensity of Light
Replies: 7
Views: 52

Re: Photoelectric Effect Intensity of Light

The electromagnetic wave being used did not change hence the frequency did not change. By increasing the intensity you are simply increasing the number of photons being directed in the light towards the surface.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:42 pm
Forum: *Black Body Radiation
Topic: Black Body
Replies: 4
Views: 2034

Re: Black Body

The idea of Black Body is theoretical in that if an object truly did absorb and emit all frequencies of light it would actually be invisible. So, if you're looking to invent invisibility this is a good place to start. :)
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:39 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: Planck's constant
Replies: 9
Views: 133

Re: Planck's constant

The purpose of the constant has to do with its units and obviously the value it has in the equation. When its units cancel out with frequency you are left with Joules, the desired unit for energy which is the purpose of the equation (to find how much energy a wave has).
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:35 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Direct and Indirect relationships
Replies: 2
Views: 31

Re: Direct and Indirect relationships

In simple terms, looking at a graph for example, two variables have a DIRECT relationship if as one increases the other also increases, the relationship between two variables is INDIRECT if as one increases the other decreases. A common example in chemistry could be the relationship between waveleng...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:28 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Energy of Electron
Replies: 10
Views: 104

Re: Energy of Electron

All it means to be quantized is that the electrons can only have specific values for their energies; in other words, its values are discrete and not continuous. For example, its energy can only be 1,2,3,4... (again just as an example to illustrate the point) and cannot be 1.387 or 4.821 because they...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:21 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Limiting Reactant Tips
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: Limiting Reactant Tips

For determining limiting reactants the key is conceptualizing what is actually happening by looking at the coefficients. When a reaction has 2 reactants with coefficients of 1 and 2 for example and let's just say a single product with a coefficient of 2 what's really happening every time we run this...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:03 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Confusion with the formula M1V1=M2V2
Replies: 4
Views: 38

Re: Confusion with the formula M1V1=M2V2

The final volume would be the total amount added plus the original amount. If a problem says 10ml is diluted WITH 20ml that seems to imply that 20ml are being added to the original 10ml making your final volume 30ml.
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 5:58 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: G. 13
Replies: 5
Views: 53

Re: G. 13

To start you would use m1v1=m2v2 to figure out m2 in this problem taking careful note that the v2 is NOT the second volume they give you because it is being ADDED to the first volume in this instance so the actual v2 would be v1 plus the amount being added. Once you find the m2 we know that molarity...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 5:56 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: G. 13
Replies: 5
Views: 53

Re: G. 13

To start you would use m1v1=m2v2 to figure out m2 in this problem taking careful note that the v2 is NOT the second volume they give you because it is being ADDED to the first volume in this instance so the actual v2 would be v1 plus the amount being added. Once you find the m2 we know that molarity...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 4:22 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield
Replies: 38
Views: 472

Re: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield

A theoretical yield determines the max amounts a reaction can produce because it only assumes the variables and amounts being presented in a given problem; this is similar to a physics problem about velocity or acceleration where simplified equations consider amounts in a vacuum while not taking int...
by Bradley Whitworth 4B
Sun Oct 06, 2019 3:59 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Unit Conversions
Replies: 11
Views: 125

Re: Unit Conversions

All you need for going back and forth between moles and atoms is Avogadro's number because all a mole really is is a term for an "amount of things" so to speak. So, just like 1 dozen cookies is 12 cookies, 1 mole of atoms is 6.022x10^23 atoms. Hence, to convert from moles to atoms you mult...

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