Search found 98 matches

by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:48 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: rate determining step
Replies: 4
Views: 15

rate determining step

What makes a step the rate determining step?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Mar 14, 2020 5:16 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: units of k
Replies: 5
Views: 31

units of k

Could someone explain why there are different units for each order?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Mar 14, 2020 5:15 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: graphs and order
Replies: 2
Views: 21

graphs and order

Could someone explain how the order of a reaction affects the graph?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Mar 14, 2020 5:14 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: pseudo rate law
Replies: 3
Views: 13

pseudo rate law

Could someone explain what a pseudo rate law is?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 08, 2020 11:48 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: n in NFE
Replies: 19
Views: 61

n in NFE

For n in the equation Delta G=-nFE, how do you know how many moles you need?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 08, 2020 11:47 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: E potential
Replies: 8
Views: 21

E potential

If given to E potentials, is the higher E potential the cathode?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 08, 2020 11:46 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidation Numbers
Replies: 7
Views: 68

Re: Oxidation Numbers

For the most part, Hydrogen will be +1, Oxygen is -2 except in H2O2 it's -1, and halogens are -1.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 08, 2020 11:43 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Cell diagram
Replies: 7
Views: 16

Cell diagram

How do you write the cell diagram if an element is aqueous on both sides?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 08, 2020 11:42 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Anode concentration
Replies: 3
Views: 14

Anode concentration

How do you find the anode concentration with the Nernst equation?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:49 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 1
Views: 15

Re: Salt Bridge

Any type of material can be used as long as it transfers positively charged ions to one cell and negatively charged ions to the other cell.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:47 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: oxidation numbers
Replies: 3
Views: 50

Re: oxidation numbers

Other helpful ways to find oxidation numbers is that in most cases, hydrogen will always be +1, oxygen will be -2, and halogens will be -1
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:44 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: balancing redox reactions
Replies: 3
Views: 42

Re: balancing redox reactions

You balance the equation with H+ in an acidic reaction and H2O to balance the O2 in that same reaction. If the reaction is basic, you balance it with H20 and OH
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:41 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Voltage
Replies: 6
Views: 27

Re: Voltage

It's just a way to distinguish between a positive and negative charge. It also helps with practicing good notation
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Mar 01, 2020 11:35 pm
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: zero, first, and second order
Replies: 3
Views: 45

zero, first, and second order

What determines the difference between zero, first, and second order?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 23, 2020 10:30 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Cell Diagrams
Replies: 2
Views: 31

Re: Cell Diagrams

On the left you write the anode and its two states. The two lines in the middle represent the salt bridge. The reason why the salt bridge is there is that so it can neutralize the charge since when the cell is running all the electrons are moving to the cathode. On the right of the salt bridge (two ...
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 23, 2020 9:54 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Basic solutions
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Basic solutions

How do we balance redox equations in a basic solution?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 23, 2020 9:49 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: salt bridge
Replies: 9
Views: 41

salt bridge

What is the purpose of a salt bridge?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 23, 2020 9:46 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Positive or Negative Sign
Replies: 4
Views: 40

Positive or Negative Sign

When do you change the sign of the value of the anode or cathode?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 23, 2020 9:45 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidation?
Replies: 10
Views: 51

Re: Oxidation?

If the charge on the atom increases it is being oxidized. If the charge on the atom decreases it is being reduced.
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Feb 13, 2020 5:27 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: initial values
Replies: 6
Views: 51

initial values

In PV=nRT, if you have to solve for the number of moles and are given the initial and final volume which do you use?
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Feb 13, 2020 5:12 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Mean bond enthalpies
Replies: 3
Views: 39

Mean bond enthalpies

Why do we do reactants minus products for mean bond enthalpies rather than vice versa like the other methods of calculating enthalpy?
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Feb 13, 2020 5:10 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Delta U
Replies: 5
Views: 36

Delta U

Why does Delta U = 0 when the system is isothermal?
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Feb 13, 2020 5:09 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Delta S
Replies: 4
Views: 39

Delta S

Could someone explain when each of these three variables (Delta S of universe, Delta S of system, and Delta S of surroundings) is equal to 0?
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Feb 13, 2020 5:08 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Cv vs Cp
Replies: 17
Views: 129

Cv vs Cp

When do we use Cv vs Cp?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 09, 2020 11:54 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Cv
Replies: 3
Views: 21

Cv

When do we use Cv vs Cp?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 09, 2020 11:53 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Intensive Property
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Intensive Property

Why is heat capacity an intensive property?
by Karina Kong 2H
Wed Feb 05, 2020 12:32 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Reversible and Irreversible
Replies: 3
Views: 29

Reversible and Irreversible

I get that reversible reactions change infinitesimally, but why does it have greater changes in internal energy than irreversible reactions?
by Karina Kong 2H
Wed Feb 05, 2020 12:32 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Cv and Cp
Replies: 3
Views: 23

Cv and Cp

Why is the heat capacity for constant pressure greater than the heat capacity at constant volume?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:56 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: work and volume
Replies: 4
Views: 22

work and volume

Could someone explain the relationship between work and volume? I'm still a little confused. Thanks!
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:54 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Enthalpy and Internal Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 18

Enthalpy and Internal Energy

Why is enthalpy in terms of constant pressure, but internal energy is in terms of constant volume?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:52 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: state functions
Replies: 10
Views: 49

Re: state functions

You can also add and subtract state functions.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:49 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Enthalpy
Replies: 1
Views: 18

Re: Enthalpy

Entropy is the amount of energy that is unavailable to do work on the system. Entropy never decreases, but rather increases or stays the same. In relation to heat, when you heat a system, you increase its entropy since more energy excites the molecules.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:45 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Closed System
Replies: 7
Views: 56

Re: Closed System

An example of a closed system is a pot with a lid on top of a stove.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 26, 2020 11:50 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: pressure and enthalpy
Replies: 5
Views: 33

Re: pressure and enthalpy

As pressure increases, so does enthalpy (and vice versa).
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 26, 2020 11:48 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: phase changes
Replies: 5
Views: 30

phase changes

How do you account for phase changes when calculating enthalpy?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 26, 2020 11:47 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Method of calculating
Replies: 3
Views: 21

Method of calculating

Which method of calculating enthalpies is the most accurate?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 26, 2020 11:46 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Standard Reaction Enthalpies
Replies: 3
Views: 12

Standard Reaction Enthalpies

How do you know if a reactant or product is at its standard state?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 26, 2020 11:43 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Hess's Law
Replies: 5
Views: 22

Hess's Law

Can someone explain Hess's Law?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 19, 2020 2:48 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Change in K from Exothermic Reaction?
Replies: 2
Views: 16

Re: Change in K from Exothermic Reaction?

When a reaction becomes exothermic, heat becomes a product of the reaction. This shifts the reaction towards the reactants, making the reverse reaction favored.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 19, 2020 2:46 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: autoprotolysis
Replies: 5
Views: 27

autoprotolysis

Could someone explain how autoprotolysis of water leads to Kw?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 19, 2020 2:40 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: pH values of weak and strong acids
Replies: 6
Views: 38

Re: pH values of weak and strong acids

Since weak acids do not dissociate as much as strong acids, there is a smaller concentration of H+ ions in weak acids, leading to a higher pH.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 19, 2020 2:38 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: pKa versus pH
Replies: 3
Views: 37

Re: pKa versus pH

pKa gives determines whether or not the acid is weak or strong (the properties of that specific compound) while pH determines whether it is acidic or basic.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 19, 2020 2:35 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: approximation
Replies: 4
Views: 24

approximation

Why do we approximate x when Ka is small in the equilibrium equation?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 12, 2020 10:56 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Effect of Inert Gases
Replies: 9
Views: 44

Re: Effect of Inert Gases

Inert gases also do not affect the partial pressures of the other gases in the container, therefore not affecting the constant.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 12, 2020 10:55 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Reaction Quotient Q
Replies: 6
Views: 26

Re: Reaction Quotient Q

Q is used when the equation is not at equilibrium. We can use Q to determine whether or not the equation will favor the reactants or products.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 12, 2020 10:30 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5G.9
Replies: 3
Views: 43

5G.9

A sample of ozone, O3, amounting to .10 mol, is placed in a sealed container of volume 1.0 L and the reaction 2 O3(g) --> 3 O2 (g) is allowed to reach equilibrium. Without doing any calculations, predict which of the following will be different in the two containers at equilibrium. Which will be the...
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 12, 2020 10:18 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: solids and liquids
Replies: 5
Views: 29

solids and liquids

Why aren't solids and liquids included in the equilibrium equation?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Jan 12, 2020 10:14 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Ideal Gas Law
Replies: 3
Views: 28

Re: Ideal Gas Law

The ideal gas law is only valid when there is low pressure and high temperature.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 3:10 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: cations
Replies: 2
Views: 50

cations

Why do cations that come from weak bases act as strong acids?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 3:05 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: relative strength of weak acids
Replies: 1
Views: 29

relative strength of weak acids

How do bond length and resulting anion stability determine the strength of weak acids? And when do you use one over the other to determine it?
by Karina Kong 2H
Fri Dec 06, 2019 2:23 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Intermolecular Forces
Replies: 3
Views: 51

Re: Intermolecular Forces

LDFs are a type of Van der Waals forces. LDFs are present everywhere because they occur when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Dec 05, 2019 10:27 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: bond strength v electronegativity
Replies: 2
Views: 38

bond strength v electronegativity

When do you use bond strength over electronegativity (and vice versa) when finding out which acid is stronger?
by Karina Kong 2H
Thu Dec 05, 2019 10:21 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: electron withdrawing
Replies: 2
Views: 31

electron withdrawing

What does it mean a compound is more electron withdrawing and how does that have to do with acidity?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:18 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: the conjugate seesaw
Replies: 5
Views: 50

Re: the conjugate seesaw

The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base. The stronger the base, the weaker its conjugate acid.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:57 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Constant K(a)
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Re: Constant K(a)

The extent to which we need to calculate it is just plugging in the concentrations in the equation Ka = ([H+][A-])/[HA]. If the Ka is a large constant, that means the molecule dissociates quicker and is therefore a stronger acid.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:48 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: pKa
Replies: 4
Views: 35

Re: pKa

pKa = -logKa. pKa is just the negative logarithm of the acidity constant.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:42 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: autoprotolysis equilibrium
Replies: 1
Views: 24

autoprotolysis equilibrium

Could someone explain what autoprotolysis equilibrium is?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:28 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Amphoteric vs amphiprotic
Replies: 3
Views: 34

Re: Amphoteric vs amphiprotic

An example that is in the textbook is that aluminum oxide is amphoteric because it reacts with both acids and bases, but it has no hydrogen atoms to donate as protons so it is not amphiprotic.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:33 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: hybridization
Replies: 3
Views: 41

hybridization

What does "mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals" mean?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:15 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: biological functions
Replies: 1
Views: 43

biological functions

Do we need to know the biological functions of the transition metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) he mentioned in lecture?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:06 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Cis vs Trans
Replies: 21
Views: 230

Re: Cis vs Trans

Cis molecules are polar while trans molecules are nonpolar.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:03 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: transition metals
Replies: 1
Views: 27

transition metals

How does the fact that TMs having many oxidation states make TMs good for electron transfer?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:00 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelate
Replies: 4
Views: 27

Chelate

Could someone explain what a chelate complex is?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:50 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: two central atoms
Replies: 3
Views: 27

two central atoms

How do you find the shape of the molecule if there are two central atoms?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:49 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: single, double, and triple bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 51

single, double, and triple bonds

Why are single, double, and triple bonds treated as equivalent regions of electron density?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:43 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: repulsion strength
Replies: 5
Views: 27

repulsion strength

What is the difference between lone-lone pairs, lone-bonding pairs, and bonding-bonding pairs?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:34 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar molecules
Replies: 2
Views: 26

Polar molecules

What does the phrase "polar molecules interact with an electrostatic potential" mean?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:30 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR
Replies: 5
Views: 36

Re: VSEPR

The VSEPR formula is AXnEn where A is the central atom, X represents how many atoms are bonded to the central atom, and E represents the number of lone pair electrons
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:39 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Surface Area
Replies: 2
Views: 21

Re: Surface Area

In addition, rod-shaped molecules are closer and have more surface area touching which produced a stronger interaction.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:34 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Interaction Strength
Replies: 4
Views: 31

Re: Interaction Strength

The more surface area that's touching, the stronger the interaction. This is why rod-shaped molecules are stronger than spherical molecules.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:39 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: distortion and ionic model
Replies: 1
Views: 23

distortion and ionic model

Can someone explain the connection between distortion, polarizability, and covalent character?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:31 pm
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: example of coordinate covalent bond
Replies: 2
Views: 31

example of coordinate covalent bond

Could someone give an example of a coordinate covalent bond?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:08 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond length and strength
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Bond length and strength

There are also less lone pair electrons that make that pull the atoms away from each other when there are more bonds. Therefore, more bonds correlates with higher strength.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 4:59 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Ionic character in covalent bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 33

Ionic character in covalent bonds

Can someone explain how covalent bonds can have increasing ionic character? Thanks!
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Nov 02, 2019 7:00 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Determining most stable Lewis structure
Replies: 5
Views: 54

Re: Determining most stable Lewis structure

In general they are both important. But regarding formal, you'd want to spread it out than have it condensed into one atom/side.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 26, 2019 12:53 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: FC in lecture
Replies: 4
Views: 59

Re: FC in lecture

Electrons usually repel each other so spreading them out (meaning they are delocalized) results in a lower energy state and more stability.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 26, 2019 12:44 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Magnetic Spin Quantum Number
Replies: 3
Views: 29

Re: Magnetic Spin Quantum Number

If the last electron that enters is spin up then it is +1/2. If the last electron that enters is spin down then it is -1/2.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 26, 2019 12:36 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: Electronegativity

The trends for both electronegativity and ionization energy are the same. Electronegativity is the the tendency for an atom to attract an electron. With a higher electronegativity, there is usually a higher ionization energy.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 26, 2019 12:30 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: ionization
Replies: 8
Views: 89

Re: ionization

The second ionization energy is always higher because when you remove the first e-, it becomes a cation which is positively charged. That positive charge is then more attracted to the negative charge of the electron, making it harder to pull a second electron away.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 26, 2019 12:26 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Ionization Energy
Replies: 5
Views: 48

Re: Ionization Energy

I think it's easier to think about how ionization increases across a period and decreases down a group. When you go from left to right, the atoms have an increasing amount of protons which results in a higher nuclear charge, pulling in the e- tighter. When you go from top to bottom, you are adding s...
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:18 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Hund's rule
Replies: 5
Views: 41

Re: Hund's rule

In order to achieve the lowest energy state and increased stability, the electrons need to have parallel spin.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:15 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Quantum Numbers
Replies: 3
Views: 36

Re: Quantum Numbers

There are four subshells. Since n=4, l can only be four different values which are 0,1,2, and 3 which correspond to s, p, d, and f.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 19, 2019 1:01 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: electrostatic (coulomb) potential energy [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 48

Re: electrostatic (coulomb) potential energy [ENDORSED]

I think Dr. Lavelle just wanted us to conceptualize the equation. Q1 and Q2 represent the magnitude of the charges while r represents the distance between the two particles. If the Ep comes out as negative, that means the particles are attracted to each other since they are opposite signs. If Ep com...
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 19, 2019 12:47 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: HW 1D.19
Replies: 2
Views: 26

Re: HW 1D.19

The number 4 in 4p is just the principal quantum number and do not affect the amount of orbitals there are. Therefore, just look at what type of sub-shell it is.
by Karina Kong 2H
Mon Oct 14, 2019 7:56 pm
Forum: *Shrodinger Equation
Topic: probability vs probability density
Replies: 3
Views: 76

probability vs probability density

Could someone explain the difference between probability vs probability density? Thanks!
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 3:16 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Photon vs Wave Model
Replies: 5
Views: 40

Re: Photon vs Wave Model

Frequency is directly related to the amount of energy of a photon. The intensity determines the amount of photons emitted. Therefore, it doesn't matter how intense the light is if the frequency is low since it won't reach the threshold energy.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 3:07 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Classic Wave in Photoelectric effect
Replies: 5
Views: 57

Re: Classic Wave in Photoelectric effect

If you look at the equation E=hv, you can see that only the frequency and not wavelength/intensity affects E. Therefore, increasing the intensity does not increase the kinetic energy of the electrons
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 2:43 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: black body radiation
Replies: 2
Views: 41

black body radiation

Could someone explain what black body radiation is? Thanks
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 2:40 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Lyman and Balmer Series
Replies: 2
Views: 39

Lyman and Balmer Series

I know that the Balmer series is the visible region and that the Lyman series is the UV region, but are there any other differences between them?
by Karina Kong 2H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 2:28 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Threshold Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 36

Re: Threshold Energy

Threshold energy is the amount of energy that needs to be put in, while the work function is the frequency that is required to reject an electron. However, mathematically they are both the same.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 05, 2019 5:19 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Rounding
Replies: 12
Views: 224

Re: Rounding

It is best to try and not round until the end, otherwise it could offset your value by a few decimal points. Once you reach the end, round to the least amount of significant figures in the problem.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 05, 2019 5:11 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: How many Sig Figs are necessary?
Replies: 4
Views: 75

Re: How many Sig Figs are necessary?

The reason why the two 0's right after the decimal are not significant are because they serve as place holders. If you were to write this in scientific notation, those 0's would be gone. Therefore, you need to add 0 at the end to have 5 sig figs.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 05, 2019 5:06 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: clarificaition of sig figs
Replies: 3
Views: 39

Re: clarificaition of sig figs

If there is a 0 at the end of the number, or multiple 0's, those 0's are not significant. For example, in the number 200, there is only one sig fig which is 2. If there is a decimal point after the 200, such as 200., there would be three sig figs. If there is a 0 in the middle of the number such as ...
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 05, 2019 5:00 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Accuracy v Precision
Replies: 11
Views: 134

Re: Accuracy v Precision

Accuracy is how close the samples are to the correct value. Precision is how close the samples are to each other.
by Karina Kong 2H
Sat Oct 05, 2019 4:56 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Limiting Reactant
Replies: 2
Views: 48

Re: Limiting Reactant

First you would convert KMnO4 into mols, then divide by 150mL to find the molarity (M1). Since you are extracting 20mL of that solution, that will be your V1. Now you are trying to find M2 if the solution is placed in a 250 mL beaker (V2). Plug in the values using M1V1=M2V2 and you should get the an...

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