Search found 50 matches

by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:56 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 6B.1
Replies: 1
Views: 35

6B.1

In 6B.1, we are asked to find the difference in pH of a HCl solution if it is diluted by 12% of the initial molar concentration. How do we solve this if we are not given the initial molar concentration or pH?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 11:57 am
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Textbook 6A.17
Replies: 3
Views: 103

Re: Textbook 6A.17

How would we know that SO3 is acidic? Couldn't it be amphoteric as well?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 11:33 am
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: J.17
Replies: 2
Views: 45

J.17

Within the homework problem J.17, we are asked to write the chemical equation for the proton transfer reaction of the cation or anion with water for the following salts: a.) NaC6H5O b.) KClO c.) C5H5NHCl d.) NH4Br. Why would we only write the equation down for C6H5O in NaC6H5O and ClO in KClO rather...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 10:46 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong Vs. Weak Acids and Bases
Replies: 2
Views: 97

Strong Vs. Weak Acids and Bases

Are we required to memorize the different strong and weak acids or is there a way to distinguish by looking strictly at the acid or base?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Dec 07, 2019 10:44 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: HCl vs HClO
Replies: 2
Views: 56

HCl vs HClO

I understand the trend that acids with more Oxygen are more acidic, but why is HCl more acidic than HClO?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:56 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: ligands
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: ligands

A polydentate is a ligand with multiple bonding sites which translates to the fact that it donates multiple electron pairs.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:50 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: PH
Replies: 5
Views: 63

Re: PH

The pH formula is equal to -log base 10 of the Hydrogen ion concentration. However, I am not sure how the equation was derived. I believe that it has something to do with the fact that if there are more hydrogen atoms, the molecule will have more protons and electrons and is thus more acidic.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:43 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: chelating
Replies: 3
Views: 47

Re: chelating

We know that chelation occurs within a molecule if a ligand is connected to a central metal atom at more than one point.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:36 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming Order
Replies: 5
Views: 61

Re: Naming Order

In lecture, we learned that when writing coordination compounds, we write the following:
(Greek Prefix) Ligand names alphabetical order, then Transition Metal Cation name (Roman Numeral).
However, if there are anions, then the anion will be named after the Roman Numeral.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Dec 01, 2019 6:35 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming an Anion
Replies: 2
Views: 36

Re: Naming an Anion

We know that an atom is an anion because it carries a negative charge and will eventually give away electrons. On the other hand, cations will have a positive charge and will also be the electron receptor. When naming an anion, regardless of whether we are referring to the overall ligand or metal, w...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:28 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Weak vs Strong Acids
Replies: 3
Views: 43

Weak vs Strong Acids

How do we determine if an acid is strong or weak? Is strength based off of electronegativity?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:26 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Bronsted Acid - Proton Donor
Replies: 1
Views: 38

Bronsted Acid - Proton Donor

Because Bronsted Acids donate protons to Bronsted Bases, do the two exchange or share electrons at all? Or is it only Lewis acids and Bases that do so?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 5:05 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelateing Ligands
Replies: 3
Views: 67

Chelateing Ligands

When do we know to add a ring in a chelate? Also, can someone explain what a chelate is?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 4:52 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Sphere
Replies: 2
Views: 33

Coordination Sphere

What is the purpose of the coordination sphere? Does it restrict the coordination compound from bonding with other molecules or is it only used to more easily identify the atoms within the compound?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 24, 2019 4:42 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Hybridization and Ammonia
Replies: 1
Views: 47

Hybridization and Ammonia

Why do we have to hybridize Ammonia seeing that in the atomic orbitals have room for three bonds already? Wouldn't hybridizing Ammonia be redundant?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 4:48 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Cis-Dichloroethene vs Trans-Dichloroethene
Replies: 3
Views: 51

Cis-Dichloroethene vs Trans-Dichloroethene

Seeing that Cis-Dichloroethene and Trans-Dichloroethene have the same molecular formula, how will we know which molecular structure is accurate and compatible with the molecular formula?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 4:42 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Intermolecular Forces in Molecules or Between Molecules
Replies: 3
Views: 49

Intermolecular Forces in Molecules or Between Molecules

When we discuss intermolecular forces are we solely talking about the bond between different molecules or could they also apply to the forces connecting atoms within a molecule?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 4:16 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: What makes the bond angles in SOCL2 different?
Replies: 1
Views: 23

Re: What makes the bond angles in SOCL2 different?

I think that the reason why the angles between O with Cl and Cl with Cl are different because Oxygen is more electronegative which pushes the other atoms further away.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 17, 2019 12:01 am
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Partial charges
Replies: 2
Views: 129

Re: Partial charges

The difference between formal charge and partial charge is that formal charge helps us determine the charge distribution within a Lewis structure and is represented by 0, a positive integer, or a negative integer. On the other hand, partial charge presents which atom is more electronegative in a bon...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Nov 16, 2019 11:55 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Filling out lone pairs
Replies: 1
Views: 52

Re: Filling out lone pairs

In order to achieve the most stable Lewis structure, we must analyze the formal charge of each molecule to make sure that the charges of each molecule add up to the overall charge. Because the formal charge equation is VE - (lone electrons + bonded electrons/2), we can determine if the amount of bon...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 10, 2019 12:10 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Limits to Hydrogen Bonds
Replies: 1
Views: 35

Limits to Hydrogen Bonds

Why are Hydrogen Bonds only limited to Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 10, 2019 12:05 am
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Example from lecture
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: Example from lecture

In lecture we discussed that the reasoning behind the physical states of these molecules was based off of the strength of their dispersion forces. The dispersion forces of F2 and Cl2 are weaker, seeing that they are relatively smaller and less polarizable. Because of this, they remain in the gas pha...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Nov 09, 2019 11:45 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Reasoning for Octet Exception
Replies: 11
Views: 356

Reasoning for Octet Exception

I understand that Si, P, S, and Cl can all have expanded octets, but what properties allows these specific elements to do so?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Nov 09, 2019 11:39 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge Placement
Replies: 4
Views: 167

Formal Charge Placement

We learned that in a bond with a negative charge, the negative formal charge will be located at the most electronegative atom, but what about a positive charge? Does the placement of a positive formal charge matter?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sat Nov 09, 2019 11:35 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarisability and Size
Replies: 3
Views: 57

Polarisability and Size

In lecture last week, we learned that stronger attractive interactions could be the result of increased size or molar mass, but why is this true? Wouldn't the bonds between the two molecules be longer if they were bigger which would indicate that the bonds are weaker?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:07 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Orbital vs Subshells
Replies: 3
Views: 67

Re: Orbital vs Subshells

I believe that an orbital is located within a subshell. Thus, the subshell will be 1s, 2s, 2p, etc. Within the subshell is an orbital which will hold the electrons. This includes the specific location (ex: 1s^1, 1s^2, 2s^1, 2s^2, 2p^1, etc.).
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:00 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Rules for n, l,m
Replies: 11
Views: 166

Re: Rules for n, l,m

I think that for quantum numbers what we need to know is that the Principle Quantum Number (n) solely determines the energy and size or shell that an electron is located in. The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) describes the shape. The allowed values of l range from anywhere from 0 to n-1. The Ma...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:40 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Ionic and Covalent Properties
Replies: 2
Views: 42

Ionic and Covalent Properties

In lecture, we learned that both covalent and ionic bonds have covalent and ionic character. Does this solely refer to how balanced the bond is between two atoms?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:41 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Dilution Equation
Replies: 4
Views: 165

Dilution Equation

If we are presented with M1, V1 (in mL), and M2 of a dilution equation and are looking for V2 of the equation, is it required that we convert the volumes to Liters before solving?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:34 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Dino Nuggets - 12C
Replies: 3
Views: 56

Dino Nuggets - 12C

Within the study guide there is a question asking to find the Lewis structure of N2O with N as the central atom. During the review session, we answered with three bonds between two Nitrogen and one bond between the central Nitrogen and Oxygen. However, when we get this answer, the Formal Charge of t...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 27, 2019 11:13 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge and Covalent Bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 64

Formal Charge and Covalent Bonds

In lecture, we learned that formal charge indicates the gain or loss of an electron while forming a covalent bond. However, I thought that covalent bonds did not gain or lose electrons, but rather shared electrons between elements. Could someone clarify what exactly is meant by formal charge?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 27, 2019 11:04 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Why exceptions?
Replies: 1
Views: 38

Why exceptions?

I understand that there are some elements that carry exceptions against the octet rule, but what allows P, S, and Cl specifically to accommodate to more than 8 valence electrons?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 27, 2019 10:57 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance Structure meaning
Replies: 6
Views: 98

Re: Resonance Structure meaning

When we went over resonance in lecture, Dr. Lavelle defined the term as the state when some Lewis structure have multiple bonds in different equivalent locations. The greater the amount of resonance structures, the more stable the Lewis structure is.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 27, 2019 10:45 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: 2A.23 question
Replies: 5
Views: 57

Re: 2A.23 question

I believe the chemical formula for Magnesium Arsenide is Mg3As2.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 27, 2019 10:41 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Resonance Structures
Replies: 5
Views: 50

Re: Resonance Structures

I don't think that we can replace the two electrons with bar lines because when we do use the bar line, it represents two electrons being shared between two elements as opposed to solely representing two electrons.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 20, 2019 4:27 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Mass of an Electron
Replies: 14
Views: 230

Mass of an Electron

In lecture and discussion, we learned that the mass of an electron is 9.109 x 10^-31 kg. Is this a set mass or can the mass of an electron vary from element to element?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 20, 2019 4:25 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Electron spin
Replies: 5
Views: 75

Re: Electron spin

When filling orbitals with electrons, according to the Aufbau Principle, you always use spin-up orbitals to fill each orbital. Once each orbital has at least one spin-up orbital, you add the spin-down orbitals to complete the paired electrons. This will end with opposite spin if the orbital is compl...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 20, 2019 4:08 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Subshell Exceptions
Replies: 6
Views: 114

Subshell Exceptions

During lecture on Friday, we went over exceptions for the order of subshells for Chromium and Copper. What reason is behind the formation of the subshells? Is it for the purpose of making each of the subshells more stable?
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 20, 2019 3:59 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Electron structures
Replies: 4
Views: 82

Re: Electron structures

Yes! When electrons have opposite spin, they are paired and thus the orbital is more balanced and stable. Additionally, if electrons have parallel spin, they are unpaired and ready to bond with other elements. The reason for this is the Aufbau Principle or Building Up principle, in which we fill up ...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 20, 2019 3:40 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Balmer and Lyman series.
Replies: 2
Views: 65

Re: Balmer and Lyman series.

I think that the significance of the Balmer and Lyman series is that they identify what kind of transition electrons make. The Balmer series classifies the transition electrons make when they begin in a higher shell end in the n=2 shell. This usually appears as visible light. On the other hand, the ...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:47 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Speed of light.
Replies: 10
Views: 105

Re: Speed of light.

Yes, I believe so! The speed of light (c) can be set equal to 3.00x10^8 m/s.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:44 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Wavelength
Replies: 6
Views: 84

Re: Wavelength

I think that the smallest detectable wavelength is a gamma ray. This can be seen on the scale looking at wavelengths from shortest to longest. The order from shortest to longest is a gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet ray, visible light, infarred, then radio.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:39 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: 'light intensity'
Replies: 8
Views: 85

Re: 'light intensity'

Intensity can be defined as the number of incoming photons whereas the frequency of light can be determined by the amount of cycles that occur per second. Thus, when we analyzed the photoelectric experiment during a lecture, it is apparent that the amount of electrons emitted from the model only inc...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:16 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Memorization of Electromagnetic Spectrum
Replies: 3
Views: 71

Re: Memorization of Electromagnetic Spectrum

I agree! I think that it is important to have a general understanding of which ends of the spectrum red and violet light fall on. Additionally, during a step-up session, it was mentioned that it would be useful to know the order of different kinds of waves from shortest to longest (gamma rays, x-ray...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:09 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Electron Configuration
Replies: 5
Views: 100

Re: Electron Configuration

I believe that the varying numbers can almost be seen as the round of that level. We understand that the orbitals are arranged into s, p, d, and f around the atomic nucleus. However, as we progress further away from the center of the atom, these levels repeat themselves in the same order. Thus, orbi...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Fri Oct 04, 2019 8:44 am
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: When should one start rounding in a problem?
Replies: 11
Views: 221

Re: When should one start rounding in a problem?

Yes, I agree! When finding the molar ratio, I would utilize the most precise atomic mass of all of the different elements. This will ensure that your answer is as close to accurate as possible. Once you complete this, then rounding or considering significant figures is necessary.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Thu Oct 03, 2019 2:58 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Percentage Yields
Replies: 8
Views: 131

Re: Percentage Yields

The purpose of finding percentage yields is to analyze how accurate your product's results are compared to the theoretical results that would be expected to occur in the most perfect environment. Seeing that there are many varying factors that can have an effect on your results (such as product stic...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Thu Oct 03, 2019 1:56 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Molar Mass Clarification
Replies: 3
Views: 41

Re: Molar Mass Clarification

I believe that the molar mass of an element is just the atomic mass provided by the periodic formula. Also, I think that we find the molar mass of ionic and molecular compounds through the same process. The only difference between the two is the kind of bonds within the compounds. Thus, an ionic com...
by Ashley Kao 1H
Thu Oct 03, 2019 1:27 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Fundamentals E.15
Replies: 3
Views: 99

Re: Fundamentals E.15

Yes! I agree! Thus, in order to solve for the molar mass of metal sulfide, you would need to find the molar mass of M by subtracting the molar mass of hydroxide from 74.1 g/mol. Then, add the difference of the two to the molar mass of sulfide, which is 32.065 to get the molar mass of metal sulfide.
by Ashley Kao 1H
Wed Oct 02, 2019 5:28 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: General Rounding Question
Replies: 9
Views: 82

Re: General Rounding Question

I think that rounding to two or three places after the decimal place should be accurate enough. I remember doing a problem that involved finding the molarity of Hydrogen and we utilized 1.01 as its molar mass.

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