## Search found 50 matches

Fri Dec 06, 2019 5:10 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Bronsted Acids/Bases vs. Lewis Acids/Bases
Replies: 3
Views: 57

### Re: Bronsted Acids/Bases vs. Lewis Acids/Bases

Basically, a Bronsted acid is a proton donor, which means that it gives away its H+. A lewis acid is an electron acceptor because the "H+" or proton would attract electrons. For bases, a Bronsted base is a proton acceptor and accepts the H+. A lewis base is an electron donor and gives the ...
Thu Dec 05, 2019 6:30 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: finding molarity
Replies: 4
Views: 114

### Re: finding molarity

Finding molarity for an acid or base is the same way as finding the molarity in the fundamentals chapter (Molarity = moles/ volume (L)). You can also find molarity through pH. By taking the inverse log when the pH or pOH is known, you can find the respective acid or base molarity.
Thu Dec 05, 2019 6:29 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: conjugate acids and bases
Replies: 2
Views: 68

### Re: conjugate acids and bases

It would be helpful to first determine which are the acids and bases in the equation, and then label the conjugates as the opposite corresponding molecule.
Thu Dec 05, 2019 6:24 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Hw problem 6A.11
Replies: 1
Views: 39

### Re: Hw problem 6A.11

The hydrogen from HCO3- attaches to the H2O causing the products H3O+ and (CO3)^2-.
Thu Dec 05, 2019 6:22 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: Polyprotic
Replies: 6
Views: 187

### Re: Polyprotic

If the chemical can either donate more than one proton or accept more than one proton, it is polyprotic. It would be more polyprotic if you compare and see which molecule can donate/accept more.
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:33 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Number
Replies: 3
Views: 32

### Re: Coordination Number

The coordination number is the number of atoms/ions a central metal atom/ion holds. To find these, look at the number of atoms attached to the central metal ion.
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:29 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: 9C7
Replies: 2
Views: 61

### Re: 9C7

If two amino groups are close enough to attach to the same metal ion, then it can form a chelating complex. You can think of it as whether or not the groups can form a ring through one metal ion.
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:27 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: 9C.3
Replies: 6
Views: 88

### Re: 9C.3

I don't think it matters which ligand you list first, as long as you list them all.
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:26 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: HW 9c.9
Replies: 4
Views: 74

### Re: HW 9c.9

It is 6 because you have to consider the bonding of chlorine atoms and the 2 ens.
Tue Nov 26, 2019 4:25 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: 9C.9
Replies: 2
Views: 41

### Re: 9C.9

To get the correct answer you need to find the coordination number which is essentially the number of atoms bonding to the central metal ion. For c and d, look at the bonding sites for each compound. There are 2 bonding sites in en and 2 en, plus the 2 chlorine atoms, meaning there are 6 atoms attac...
Thu Nov 21, 2019 12:14 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Ionic
Replies: 6
Views: 68

### Re: Ionic

Because ionic forces occur when two atoms with charge come together, it is an intramolecular interaction.
Thu Nov 21, 2019 12:13 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Boiling Points and IMF Strength
Replies: 6
Views: 91

### Re: Boiling Points and IMF Strength

The more IMF there are, the stronger the boiling point will be because it will take more heat for the many forces to break apart, thus resulting in a higher boiling point.
Thu Nov 21, 2019 12:12 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: induced-dipole-induced-dipole VS. dipole-dipole in gas
Replies: 2
Views: 53

### Re: induced-dipole-induced-dipole VS. dipole-dipole in gas

They are relatively the same in strength because dipole-dipole forces in the gas phase are far apart from each other (bc they are gases) and because the bonds are farther away, they are weaker in comparison to dipole-dipole forces in the solid phase.
Thu Nov 21, 2019 12:10 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Homework 3F3
Replies: 5
Views: 85

### Re: Homework 3F3

The placement of the chlorines in the lewis structure does not matter. If you picture the VSEPR structure for it, you will notice that the chlorines are not symmetric/ 180 degrees from each other, so they cannot cancel out.
Thu Nov 21, 2019 12:08 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Strongest force
Replies: 6
Views: 60

### Re: Strongest force

In terms of strength, ion-ion > ion-dipole > hydrogen-bond > dipole-dipole > london dispersion.
Thu Nov 14, 2019 10:29 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Explanation of bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 48

### Re: Explanation of bonds

I think that it would be okay to just say that a double bond has a shorter bond length than a single bond and therefore is stronger.
Thu Nov 14, 2019 10:25 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 8
Views: 95

### Re: Bond Angles

I think it would be helpful to memorize both bond angles and shape name for the test.
Thu Nov 14, 2019 10:23 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 11
Views: 110

### Re: Test 2

I think it would be important to go over the points in the outline and making sure that you understand all of them.
Thu Nov 14, 2019 10:22 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Increasing/Decreasing Electronegativity
Replies: 14
Views: 240

### Re: Increasing/Decreasing Electronegativity

Basically, electronegativity is the electron's pulling power. It increases up a period and across the row because the nucleus charge of the atom is increasing faster than the electron shielding, making the atom more willing to increasing their number of valence electrons.
Thu Nov 14, 2019 10:17 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond lengths
Replies: 8
Views: 88

### Re: Bond lengths

I think we should just know that single bonds are typically longer and weaker, while double and triple bonds become shorter and stronger.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:14 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: General principles of octet exception
Replies: 7
Views: 95

### Re: General principles of octet exception

P, S, and Cl can have expanded octets, but generally all the elements before it must abide by the octet rule.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:10 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Lewis acids and bases?
Replies: 7
Views: 77

### Re: Lewis acids and bases?

We probably do, as we have been learning about it in lectures.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:10 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Mini Dino Nuggets 2b
Replies: 6
Views: 104

### Re: Mini Dino Nuggets 2b

Fluorine is the most electronegative element because it is farther up and right on the periodic table. Therefore, C-F is more electronegative than C-Br.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:08 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: C, N, O, and F
Replies: 13
Views: 188

### Re: C, N, O, and F

The elements that can have expanded octet are P, S, and Cl.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 11:07 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Why is the ionization energy of nitrogen higher than that of oxygen's?
Replies: 11
Views: 215

### Re: Why is the ionization energy of nitrogen higher than that of oxygen's?

Nitrogen's electron configuration is more stable than oxygens because it has more symmetry, making it more difficult to remove an electron. Because ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron, nitrogen's is higher than oxygen's.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 11:09 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Midterm Exam
Replies: 21
Views: 260

### Re: Midterm Exam

I think the midterm will be mostly open ended questions, but not sure.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 11:06 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Expanded Octet
Replies: 2
Views: 44

### Re: Expanded Octet

Si can also have an expanded octet!
Thu Oct 31, 2019 11:03 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Faster way to write resonance structures?
Replies: 2
Views: 45

### Re: Faster way to write resonance structures?

There aren't really any shortcuts, except for a few exceptions like benzene, which is a hexagon with a circle. It would be best to just draw them out normally.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 10:59 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Electrostatic Potential Energy
Replies: 3
Views: 39

### Re: Electrostatic Potential Energy

If it's not on the homework or not mentioned in discussion, then we probably don't, but just memorize the formula in case.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 10:58 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: What is the Octet Rule?
Replies: 5
Views: 60

### Re: What is the Octet Rule?

The octet rules state that atoms have 8 electrons in their valence shells. When there are eight, then the atom is stable.
Thu Oct 24, 2019 12:32 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Noble Gas Configuration
Replies: 10
Views: 132

### Re: Noble Gas Configuration

You use noble gas configuration as a short cut. It's called "shorthand" electron configuration. Typically, you can use either way (noble gas or long way), but it is easier to use shorthand because it is less to write.
Thu Oct 24, 2019 12:29 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Trends
Replies: 5
Views: 81

### Re: Trends

It's important to know that the trend for atomic radius is increasing increasing left and down. The trend for electronegativity and ionization energy is the opposite: increasing up and right.
Thu Oct 24, 2019 12:13 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: ground state
Replies: 6
Views: 95

### Re: ground state

It is easiest to just know where the s, p, d, and f orbitals are. From there, you just go in order of the periodic table and count chronically in terms of how many electrons are in each orbital.
Thu Oct 24, 2019 12:11 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: 2nd electron
Replies: 4
Views: 54

### Re: 2nd electron

I think that when you remove the first electron that is unpaired, the second electron will be in a lower orbital and will be paired. Since it is paired, it requires more energy to remove it and is therefore harder to remove.
Thu Oct 24, 2019 12:09 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configurations
Replies: 2
Views: 58

### Re: Electron Configurations

Yes, because the arrow is pointing down, it is excited. The arrows would need to be all pointing up in order to be grounded.
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:29 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Spin State
Replies: 17
Views: 150

### Re: Spin State

The direction the electron spins in depends on whether its positive or negative 1/2. Typically, positive means spinning right while negative spins left. You can find it through the up and down arrows when determining electron configuration.
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:27 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Replies: 6
Views: 519

### Re: Atomic vs ionic radius

The trend for atomic radius increases when going left on the periodic table and going down. The trend for ionic radius is the opposite (increases going right and up).
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:26 am
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Equations and confused of when to use what
Replies: 3
Views: 101

### Re: Equations and confused of when to use what

Typically, I find that drawing things out or seeing what units I have to end with and therefore finding ways to manipulate equations in order to give me desired results will get me the correct answer.
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:14 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Speed of light
Replies: 13
Views: 139

### Re: Speed of light

The units from wavelength (m) and frequency (s) give velocity (m/s). The speed of light is essentially the velocity for these two factors because we are dealing with light waves.
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:07 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: What are the units of hertz
Replies: 41
Views: 502

### Re: What are the units of hertz

Victoria Otuya 4F wrote:Is hz the same as s-1?

Yes, the units for Hz is s-1 and it basically means that there is one cycle per second.
Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:51 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Atomic Spectra and Energy Levels
Replies: 5
Views: 62

### Re: Atomic Spectra and Energy Levels

To elaborate, the specific lines that form as a result of an atom emitting light can be compared to a fingerprint that is unique to a certain atom. Therefore, each atom has a different identity when it comes to the lines that define them. I hope this makes sense
Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:42 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Angstrom
Replies: 16
Views: 468

### Re: Angstrom

The conversion for Angstrom was given on the formulas page!
Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:38 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Rounding with basic calculator
Replies: 16
Views: 413

### Re: Rounding with basic calculator

We are allowed to use scientific calculators. When doing calculations, I usually leave 3 or 4 digits after the decimal and then apply sig figs for my last answer.
Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:37 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: How to format formulas
Replies: 4
Views: 199

### Re: How to format formulas

Usually the problem lists out the order for you already.
Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:36 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Fractions
Replies: 34
Views: 529

### Re: Fractions

I think it's best to just multiply it so that it becomes a whole integer.
Thu Oct 03, 2019 11:57 am
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Homework L39
Replies: 5
Views: 77

### Re: Homework L39

Not quite sure, but I think that because oxygen has a charge of -2 on the periodic table and there are 2 oxygen atoms, you need tin to have a charge of 4 in order to balance it out. Tin is a transitional metal, meaning it does not have a set charge, so you need to look at the charge and number of ox...
Thu Oct 03, 2019 11:50 am
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Sig Fig Mistakes
Replies: 17
Views: 318

### Re: Sig Fig Mistakes

Typically, you find the number with the smallest number of sig figs given in the problem and use that as a guidance as to how many sig figs you should have in your final answer!
Thu Oct 03, 2019 11:47 am
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Question E3
Replies: 3
Views: 89

### Re: Question E3

Basically, you can use the equation n= Natom/ Na (moles equals the number of atoms divided by Avogadro's number) to find the number of Gallium moles and then use m=nM (mass equals moles times molar mass) to find the mass of Gallium. Set this mass equal to the mass of Astatine, and you are able to fi...
Thu Oct 03, 2019 11:34 am
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Scientific Notation (general requirement for the course)
Replies: 5
Views: 79

### Re: Scientific Notation (general requirement for the course)

I think we use scientific notation to write the answer with the correct number of significant figures. So if the answer was 12300 but the question only asks for 2 sig figs, we would write it as 1.2 x 10^4.
Thu Oct 03, 2019 11:30 am
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: General Rules of Sig Figs with Example Questions
Replies: 4
Views: 99

### Re: General Rules of Sig Figs with Example Questions

To find the significant figures of a number, you look for non-zero numbers or trapped zeros. Trapped zeros would include zeros that are between two non-zero numbers. For example, the sig fig of 14 would be 2. If the number has a decimal point, then you look for the first non-zero number and count af...