Search found 100 matches

by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Mar 13, 2020 10:50 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: OH vs H
Replies: 12
Views: 140

Re: OH vs H

We can't use H+ to balance an equation in basic solutions as adding H+ would decrease pH (Making the solution overall more acidic) and therefore messing up the equation. To balance an equation in basic solution we would have to use OH- and then add waters to the other side to balance everything out.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Mar 13, 2020 10:42 am
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Boltzmann Distribution
Replies: 2
Views: 16

Boltzmann Distribution

What is the relationship between Boltzmann Distribution and the Arrhenius Equation?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Mar 13, 2020 10:30 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Adsorption v. Absorption
Replies: 3
Views: 23

Adsorption v. Absorption

Can someone explain the difference between adsorption and absorption as it relates to catalysis?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Mar 13, 2020 10:28 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Steady State
Replies: 2
Views: 22

Re: Steady State

I would assume that we should know the basic idea, but we most definitely have to know the pre-equlibrium approach.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Mar 13, 2020 10:06 am
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Entropy of Surroundings vs. System
Replies: 3
Views: 93

Re: Entropy of Surroundings vs. System

∆S = nR lnV2/V1 From the equation above, I believe you can find that when calculating for the entropy of a system itself, if V2 is greater than V1, the deltaS value will be greater than if V1 > V2. (This indicates expansion). If entropy of the system is increasing, then entropy of the surrounding wo...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 08, 2020 4:33 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: Zero Order reaction rate constant
Replies: 8
Views: 63

Re: Zero Order reaction rate constant

The rate constant should still be K as none of the stoichiometric coefficients and concentrations will affect the rate of reaction.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 08, 2020 4:26 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: Microscopic Reversibility
Replies: 3
Views: 27

Re: Microscopic Reversibility

Microscopic reversibility is when a reaction has the same intermediates in both the forward and reverse reactions.

Something along the lines of

A --- B ---> C
C --- B ---> A

(where B is an intermediate)
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Mar 05, 2020 6:26 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Standard Delta G vs Non-Standard Delta G
Replies: 4
Views: 54

Re: Standard Delta G vs Non-Standard Delta G

The degree sign (naught) indicates "at standard conditions" whereas without it conditions could be skewed.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Mar 05, 2020 6:24 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Physical state
Replies: 6
Views: 87

Re: Physical state

After balancing the states of the compounds used should remain the same.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Mar 05, 2020 6:20 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Adding Pt(s) to a Cell Diagram
Replies: 14
Views: 139

Re: Adding Pt(s) to a Cell Diagram

We must add solid platinum so that the electrons have something to bind to. Whenever no solid is present in the equations given, we have to include platinum.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 01, 2020 4:49 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: cell potential
Replies: 15
Views: 119

Re: cell potential

From the equation deltaG = -nFE, we can determine if a reaction is favored or not.

If E (cell potential) is positive, deltaG is negative and thus will be spontaneous.
If E is negative, deltaG will be positive and therefore non-spontaneous.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 01, 2020 4:27 pm
Forum: First Order Reactions
Topic: First Order Reaction Rate
Replies: 4
Views: 69

Re: First Order Reaction Rate

This equation comes from separating the variables in the differential rate law and then taking its integral.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 01, 2020 4:24 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Unique Rate
Replies: 3
Views: 53

Re: Unique Rate

For the reaction given, the unique rate would be:

(-1/a)*(d[R]/dt) = (1/b)*(d[P]/dt)
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 01, 2020 4:19 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Nernst Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 43

Re: Nernst Equation

the Nernst Equation relates cell potential with concentrations:

E = E^naught - (RT/nF)*lnQ

E^naught is the cell potential at standard conditions.
R = Gas constant
T = Temp in Kelvin
N = mols of e-
F = Faraday's constant
Q = Reaction Quotient
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Mar 01, 2020 4:12 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Galvanic v Electrolytic Cell
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Re: Galvanic v Electrolytic Cell

Galvanic cells are spontaneous reactions because cell potential is positive making deltaG negative (thus spontaneous) while electrolytic cells have negative cell potentials making deltaG positive (therefore non-spontaneous).
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:48 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: when work is 0
Replies: 5
Views: 120

Re: when work is 0

The values that are equal to zero in a reversible system are only deltaU and deltaH. (They equal each other)

Work can still have some value (nonzero) when the system is reversible.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:14 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Reaction quotient
Replies: 3
Views: 58

Re: Reaction quotient

An increase in the reaction quotient will lead to E becoming smaller which, I believe means that the more product we have, the cell potential would be decreasing.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:10 pm
Forum: Appications of the Nernst Equation (e.g., Concentration Cells, Non-Standard Cell Potentials, Calculating Equilibrium Constants and pH)
Topic: Cell Potential
Replies: 2
Views: 40

Cell Potential

If Ecell > E°cell what does this mean in relationship to deltaG. And likewise if Ecell < E°cell, what does this mean to deltaG?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:06 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: Salt Bridge

For electrons to pass from one side to another, there must be a positive charge on one end. The salt bridge allows for ions to keep this positive charge to maintain electron flow.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:04 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Pure Elements
Replies: 2
Views: 48

Re: Pure Elements

These elements are typically uncharged and therefore do not have a nonzero oxidation number.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 16, 2020 1:34 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Hess Law
Replies: 6
Views: 84

Re: Hess Law

Depending on what you are solving for(enthalpy, entropy... etc) find the values for both the products and reactants, making sure to multiply by coefficients if necessary and to find the total, sum the products and then sum the reactants. Subtract the reactants from the products for the final answer.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 16, 2020 1:22 pm
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: concept help
Replies: 4
Views: 77

Re: concept help

The Van't Hoff equation is used to determine how temperature is affecting K. There are further derivations of the equation depending on which variables are known and constant. (A different equation for when deltaS is constant and when deltaH is constant)
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 16, 2020 1:07 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Work and Gibbs Free Energy
Replies: 3
Views: 33

Work and Gibbs Free Energy

When will work be equal to Gibbs free energy? (Which variables need to be constant for this phenomenon to happen?)
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 16, 2020 12:32 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Van't Hoff Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Van't Hoff Equation

Is the Van't Hoff Equation only used when deltaG is zero?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 16, 2020 12:28 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: When to Use Certain Equations
Replies: 2
Views: 32

Re: When to Use Certain Equations

The second equation is relating to deltaG when the reaction is at equilibrium. The first equation is used when the reaction is still unstable, or favors one side over another.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Feb 08, 2020 1:24 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Molecular Complexity
Replies: 4
Views: 62

Molecular Complexity

Why do more complex molecules have a higher S (as compared to simple molecules) if they are more ordered and structured?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Feb 08, 2020 1:18 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Spontaneous rxns
Replies: 3
Views: 38

Spontaneous rxns

I understand that in any spontaneous process, there is an increase in entropy. When referring to volume in this manner, is it standard that volume would have to increase to keep this statement true?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Feb 08, 2020 1:14 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Entropy
Replies: 3
Views: 33

Entropy

Can someone explain why entropy is an extensive property as opposed to a state property?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Feb 08, 2020 1:11 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Total Entropy Change
Replies: 2
Views: 24

Re: Total Entropy Change

When the total change in entropy is equal to zero, this means that the system is at equilibrium.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Feb 08, 2020 1:10 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: State of reactants
Replies: 1
Views: 19

Re: State of reactants

It is referring to carbon in its graphite state.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:13 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: p248
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Re: p248

What this is saying is that essentially, since we know that it is an isothermal expansion, the temperature is not changing while volume is increasing. For ideal gases, the change in internal energy is 0, therefore indicating that all the work done is converted into heat with no waste.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:50 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: standard enthalpy
Replies: 2
Views: 10

Re: standard enthalpy

Standard enthalpy is describing the enthalpy of a given reaction when the pressure is at 1 atm and the products and reactants are in their standar states.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:50 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: standard enthalpy
Replies: 2
Views: 10

Re: standard enthalpy

Standard enthalpy is describing the enthalpy of a given reaction when the pressure is at 1 atm and the products and reactants are in their standar states.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:47 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: First law of thermodynamics
Replies: 3
Views: 34

Re: First law of thermodynamics

Since q is net heat gain/lost and w is net work done (either on or by the system) we can see that energy will be conserved through a totality of calculations done as either heat or work.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:40 am
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Phase change
Replies: 20
Views: 162

Re: Phase change

This phase change causes the change in enthalpy to be positive (delta H is positive).
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:52 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Phase Changes
Replies: 4
Views: 30

Phase Changes

Why does the temperature of a sample remain constant when it goes through a phase change such as vaporization, melting, or sublimation?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:45 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: La Chatelier's Principle
Replies: 8
Views: 197

Re: La Chatelier's Principle

If the concentration of a reactant is increased, the reaction should typically proceed to the right (towards products). If the concentration of the products is increased, then typically the reaction will proceed in the reverse direction, towards the left (towards reactants).
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:43 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Enthalpy as a state function
Replies: 4
Views: 46

Re: Enthalpy as a state function

A state property means that the value of the variable (in this case enthalpy) is determined by the current state of the substance. Since enthalpy can change, it is referred to as a state function because we must take into account the addition and subtraction that is associated with the calculations ...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:32 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Bond Enthalpies with State Changes
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Re: Bond Enthalpies with State Changes

All the state change enthalpies must be included. I believe Professor Lavelle was simply mentioning that the table given in the textbook gives enthalpies for gases, however if a reaction has another type of state change we must take that also into account.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:30 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Stability and Enthalpy
Replies: 3
Views: 320

Re: Stability and Enthalpy

High enthalpy indicates that more energy must have been put into a substance, therefore, making it more reactive. A more reactive substance would be relatively unstable therefore high enthalpy actually indicates low stability.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Tue Jan 21, 2020 11:36 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 6A.21
Replies: 2
Views: 30

Re: 6A.21

Since temperature is not changing, neither would the Kw. Therefore to find the concentrations of both ions, simply take the square root of the Kw to find the answer.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:41 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Inert Gas
Replies: 7
Views: 57

Re: Inert Gas

Inert gases are all the noble gases. These gases do not change the overall reaction and therefore are not included in the Kc equation.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:07 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Change in pressure effect on reactions
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Re: Change in pressure effect on reactions

To determine what change in pressure does to a system you have to look at the molar coefficients for each molecule on both sides of the equation. Depending on the change in pressure, if pressure increased, the system moves toward the side with lower total moles and vice versa to make up for the space.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 16, 2020 11:30 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Ka and Kb
Replies: 5
Views: 34

Re: Ka and Kb

They are calculated similarily in that they both use the [products]/[reactants] ratio. The difference is that for Kb you need to have the [OH-] in the numerator and for Ka you need to have [H30+] in the numerator.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 16, 2020 11:28 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 6C.13
Replies: 2
Views: 36

6C.13

I'm having a bit of trouble figuring out how to arrange the molecules for increasing base strength within problem 13. The problem states: Arrange the following bases in order of increasing strength on the basis of the pKa values of their conjugate acids, which are given in parentheses: (a) ammonia (...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 09, 2020 9:44 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Changing Kc [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 61

Changing Kc [ENDORSED]

Why does only a change in temperature change Kc whereas a change in pressure and/or volume does not?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Jan 09, 2020 9:40 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: units of K
Replies: 10
Views: 78

Re: units of K

K doesn't have units as the actual calculation comes from the chemical activity value. This value is a number without units therefore in the end, K does not have any units associated with it.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Mon Jan 06, 2020 5:14 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Calculating Kc
Replies: 4
Views: 61

Calculating Kc

Why do we not include solids or liquids in the equilibrium concentration calculations?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Mon Jan 06, 2020 5:08 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K threshold
Replies: 2
Views: 54

K threshold

What is the threshold that we can calculate for the change of X which makes a difference in the initial values of the reactant or product concentrations?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Mon Jan 06, 2020 4:54 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: H3O and OH
Replies: 5
Views: 64

Re: H3O and OH

The only things that are included in the equilibrium equation are compounds/molecules that are either aqueous or gases. Therefore they would be included in the equation.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Dec 07, 2019 2:57 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: neutralization
Replies: 6
Views: 184

Re: neutralization

Weak acids and weak bases can neutralize strong bases and strong acids (respectively) if they are present in concentrations that allow them to do so. The concentrations can be determined by using the Ka equation.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Dec 07, 2019 2:53 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: 6C.17
Replies: 1
Views: 37

Re: 6C.17

The hypobromite ion would be stronger as it is the conjugate base of a weak acid thus making it a stronger base than morphine. We know that morphine is a relatively weak base as it contains a nitrogen with a lone pair.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Dec 07, 2019 2:42 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: 6A.15
Replies: 2
Views: 50

Re: 6A.15

A lewis acid will accept electrons whereas a lewis base will donate electrons. The product is generated depending on whether or not the acid and/or base that are reacting are strong or weak. a) PF5 = lewis acid, it accepts electrons from F- (lewis base) b) SO2 = lewis acid, accepts electrons from Cl...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:40 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Do you have to draw lewis structures when determining if a ligand is polydentate?
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: Do you have to draw lewis structures when determining if a ligand is polydentate?

Drawing the lewis structure would help because then we are able to see which atoms have lone pairs and thus we can see where the ligand will bind to the transition metal and how many bonds it will form.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 7:36 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming Order
Replies: 5
Views: 61

Re: Naming Order

1) Greek Prefix
2) TM cation name with roman numerals
3) Anion
4) Hydrate with proper prefix
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:25 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Acid and Base
Replies: 1
Views: 35

Acid and Base

When nonmetal oxides react with water, do they form strong or weak acids?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:22 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: 9C.5
Replies: 1
Views: 34

Re: 9C.5

CO3 2- can be either monodentate or bidentate simply because the carbonate can occasionally bond to two metals. The metal that binds with the oxygens will use the lone pairs from two oxygens thus only two metals can bind in total to the oxalate ion. No other metal has fewer electrons that would allo...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:03 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: amphoteric oxides
Replies: 3
Views: 46

Re: amphoteric oxides

Yes, amphoteric compouds must be oxides.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:59 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Identifying lewis acids and bases
Replies: 4
Views: 39

Re: Identifying lewis acids and bases

A lewis acid accepts electrons while a lewis base donates electrons.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:58 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Weak/Strong acids
Replies: 2
Views: 36

Re: Weak/Strong acids

We should know some of the main strong acids and bases from memory. These molecules completely deprotonate. With this logic, we can see if the molecule falls into one of these categories and if it does not then the molecule does not completely deprotonate.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Nov 24, 2019 10:35 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Sphere
Replies: 1
Views: 41

Re: Coordination Sphere

The coordination sphere is made up of the central transition metal and the bound ligands attached to it. Thus the coordination sphere must include the ligands/bonded atoms.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Nov 24, 2019 8:44 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Sphere
Replies: 5
Views: 45

Re: Coordination Sphere

The coordination sphere contains the ligands along with the central transition metal. It forms due to the geometry of the molecule.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Nov 22, 2019 12:34 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization
Replies: 3
Views: 70

Re: Hybridization

This occurs because we have more s orbitals that end up contributing to electron repulsion which makes the bond angles increase.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Nov 22, 2019 12:17 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Homework 2E.19d
Replies: 3
Views: 121

Re: Homework 2E.19d

SnCl2 should not have a radical as it has a total of 18 valence e-. The molecule itself should therefore not have a radical on it.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Nov 22, 2019 12:09 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: hybridizing oxygen
Replies: 5
Views: 80

Re: hybridizing oxygen

The oxygen has three regions of electron density thus we can determine that it will have a hybridization of sp^2.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Nov 15, 2019 11:25 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Inter-molecular Electron Repulsion
Replies: 6
Views: 46

Inter-molecular Electron Repulsion

When discussing repulsion strength between regions of electron density and atoms, how can we determine which repulsion forces (ie lone-lone PR, lone-bonding PR, bonding-bonding PR) are the strongest?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Nov 14, 2019 2:17 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: H2O and e- density
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: H2O and e- density

H20 would have 3 locations of electron density as we must take into account the lone pairs on oxygen. These lone pairs are what give water its bent shape.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Nov 14, 2019 2:16 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Polarity
Replies: 12
Views: 128

Re: Polarity

I believe we have to look at the electronegativity between bonds and if the difference is greater than 0.4, then the bond is polar. If the difference is less than 0.4, then the bond is nonpolar. If there are no polar bonds, then the molecule as a whole should be nonpolar.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Nov 14, 2019 2:10 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Electron Density
Replies: 10
Views: 198

Re: Electron Density

Yes, as they can alter the shape of a molecule when present.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Nov 14, 2019 2:09 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Homework 2E.11
Replies: 3
Views: 40

Re: Homework 2E.11

The VSEPR formula follows: AXnE where A is the central atom, X is the number of bonded atoms to the central atom and E is the number of lone pairs. From this combination of numbers, we can draw the Lewis structure of the molecule and determine its shape.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sat Nov 09, 2019 8:50 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polar and Ionic Bond Character
Replies: 3
Views: 49

Re: Polar and Ionic Bond Character

I believe that this statement is correct as we would, in turn, have charges unevenly balanced within the molecule.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Nov 06, 2019 10:26 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Solving with velocity
Replies: 3
Views: 136

Re: Solving with velocity

For the Heisenburg equation, the change is velocity is important because then only can we calculate the change in momentum(p) to eventually solve the whole equation.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Nov 06, 2019 10:12 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: orbitals past f
Replies: 5
Views: 162

Re: orbitals past f

We should not see this as the largest orbital possible is f and that has an angular momentum quantum number of 3.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Nov 06, 2019 10:06 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Ionic bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 59

Re: Ionic bonds

Ionic bonds can have dipole moments.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Nov 06, 2019 10:04 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Quantum numbers
Replies: 12
Views: 292

Re: Quantum numbers

Angular momentum is denoted by l.

l=0 is the s-orbital
l=1 is the p-orbital
l=2 is the d-orbital
l=3 is the f-orbital
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Nov 01, 2019 8:54 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: What are these?
Replies: 3
Views: 56

Re: What are these?

I believe the two elements are commonly boron and aluminum as they need 5e- to complete their octet.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 30, 2019 8:36 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: 4s and 3d
Replies: 4
Views: 84

Re: 4s and 3d

The ground state for Ga is [Ar]3d10 4s2 4p1. For the ion, the electrons are taken out of the s and p subshells as the electrons in these shells are further from the nucleus as opposed to the 3d10 electrons and thus the ion electron configuration for Ga3+ is [Ar]3d10.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 30, 2019 8:21 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Delocalized Electrons
Replies: 4
Views: 57

Delocalized Electrons

Can someone explain what is meant by the idea that electrons in resonance structures are "delocalized"
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 30, 2019 8:14 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Determining the Pairing for Lewis Structures
Replies: 2
Views: 47

Re: Determining the Pairing for Lewis Structures

I believe that specifically for this case, the hydrogen bonds to oxygen due to the strong covalent bond attraction. Since Cl is larger than O, the dipole-dipole attraction is weaker and thus hydrogen does not like to bond with chlorine.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Oct 25, 2019 8:07 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Resonance Hybrid
Replies: 2
Views: 32

Re: Resonance Hybrid

A resonance hybrid is essentially a combination of all the resonance structures for a specific molecule. The correct resonance structure has the lowest formal charge.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Oct 25, 2019 5:50 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond length strength
Replies: 6
Views: 100

Re: Bond length strength

I believe that this value is typically given when needed in a problem. It comes from experimentally performed data.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 24, 2019 5:56 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: valence electrons
Replies: 6
Views: 96

Re: valence electrons

The five valence electrons come from the breakdown:

3e from the p-orbital and then 2e from the s-orbital.

I believe that for antimony the electrons are pulled from the s orbital too as they are further away from the nucleus.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 24, 2019 5:24 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Different Resonance Structures
Replies: 4
Views: 54

Re: Different Resonance Structures

Different resonance structures can and will have different energies associated with them. Stabler structures will have lower energies as opposed to unstable high energy structures.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 24, 2019 5:16 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Question 2A #5 part c
Replies: 2
Views: 36

Re: Question 2A #5 part c

The neutral electron configuration for Ga is : [Ar] 4d^10 4s^2 4p^1.

To make it Ga^3+, we would have to take away three electrons, thus we would take 1e from the 4p orbital and the other 2e would come from the 4s orbital leaving the configuration to be [Ar]3d^10.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 23, 2019 8:47 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Question 1F.3
Replies: 5
Views: 76

Question 1F.3

The question is:

Place the following ions in order of increasing ionic radius: S^2-, Cl-, P^3-.

Why do they not all have the same ionic radius if they have the same number of electrons?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:16 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Hund's Rule
Replies: 4
Views: 56

Hund's Rule

Can an two electrons within the same subshell have different energies associated with them?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 17, 2019 10:27 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Heisenberg's Indeterminancy Equations
Replies: 2
Views: 37

Heisenberg's Indeterminancy Equations

Why are there two equations related to Heisenburgs indeterminancy?

One being: deltaP = (mass of an electron)*deltaX

The other being: deltaP * deltaX >= h/4pi
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 17, 2019 9:57 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Problem 1A.7
Replies: 5
Views: 83

Re: Problem 1A.7

For both parts we can use the equation: c = (lambda) * (v-frequency).

The equation for part a turns out to be:
3.00*10^8 = (lambda) * 7.1 x 10^14 Hz.

The equation for part b turns out to be:
3.00*10^8 = (lambda) * 2.0 x 10^18 Hz.
Just be sure to convert to picometers.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 17, 2019 9:27 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Problem 1A9. How to determine which values the reading event corresponds to?
Replies: 4
Views: 75

Re: Problem 1A9. How to determine which values the reading event corresponds to?

When reading, we are exposed to natural visible light which is within the range of 400nm to 700nm. Thus, we can conclude that 600nm is some form of visible light and therefore pertains to the activity of "reading".
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 17, 2019 9:15 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Schrodinger's Equation
Replies: 4
Views: 56

Re: Schrodinger's Equation

Schrodinger's equation allows for us to understand that the wave function of an electron is based on the principle quantum number (which determines energy and shell size), the angular momentum quantum number (which describes the shape), and the magnetic quantum number (which describes orientation).
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:50 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Quantum mechanics description of light
Replies: 2
Views: 45

Re: Quantum mechanics description of light

According to the equation E = hc/(lambda) where E is energy, h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light, and (lambda) is wavelength, we can determine that Energy is inversely proportional to wavelength. Thus a wave with a larger wavelength would yield a smaller energy and thus would not be able...
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Thu Oct 10, 2019 5:10 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: general questions
Replies: 11
Views: 448

Re: general questions

The limiting reactant will tell you how much of the final product will be able to form. It also tells you what reactant is in excess (if there is excess).
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 09, 2019 10:25 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Frequency
Replies: 15
Views: 254

Re: Frequency

According to the equation E = hv, we can conclude that Energy (E) is directly proportional to frequency (v). If frequency (v) were to increase, then the Energy (E) would also increase and vice versa.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Mon Oct 07, 2019 12:21 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Photoelectric Effect
Replies: 4
Views: 54

Photoelectric Effect

I just wanted to clarify something:

In the photoelectric effect, is it true that only high-frequency light(as opposed to low-frequency light) has enough energy (within the photon) to eject an electron from the surface it interacts with?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Wed Oct 02, 2019 4:01 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: HW problem F9
Replies: 8
Views: 133

Re: HW problem F9

I would think that the molar ratio and the atom ratio are the same, so I do not think that it would be inaccurate. But when creating the molecular or empirical formula, you must have whole numbers denoting the number of atoms in a specific molecule.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Tue Oct 01, 2019 6:31 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Units
Replies: 5
Views: 114

Re: Units

I would presume that as a norm we would have to be able to convert from .001 to 1000 in the various calculations regarding mass, length, etc. But I'm not 100% sure.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Tue Oct 01, 2019 6:29 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Mass % Composition
Replies: 7
Views: 195

Re: Mass % Composition

Yes, it is easiest to use 100g as the sample mass for percent composition.
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Sep 29, 2019 10:53 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Homework Problem G.11
Replies: 2
Views: 35

Homework Problem G.11

A medical researcher investigating the properties of intra-venous solutions prepared a solution containing 0.278 m C6H12O6 (glucose). What volume of solution should the researcher use to provide 4.50 mmol C6H12O6?

Would I use the formula MiVi = MfVf to solve this problem?
by Suraj Doshi 2G
Sun Sep 29, 2019 10:43 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Homework Question G.5
Replies: 4
Views: 128

Homework Question G.5

A student prepared a solution of sodium carbonate by adding 2.111 g of the solid to a 250.0-mL volumetric flask and adding water to the mark. Some of this solution was transferred to a buret. What volume of solution should the student transfer into a flask to obtain (a) 2.15 mmol Na2+; (b) 4.98 mmol...

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