Search found 58 matches

by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Jan 12, 2020 5:47 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K
Replies: 10
Views: 37

Re: K

Vuong_2F wrote:Kc is the equilibrium constant when it's found using concentrations, while Kp is the equilibrium constant when it's found using partial pressures.


It's important to note that they are all calculated the same way
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Jan 12, 2020 5:37 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Le Chatelier's Principle
Replies: 15
Views: 59

Re: Le Chatelier's Principle

Le Chateliers principle is used any time a reaction at equalibrium is changed in any way
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Jan 12, 2020 5:27 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Test 1
Replies: 7
Views: 48

Re: Test 1

Not too sure but his outlines should let us know exactly what concepts we have to know for Test 1
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Jan 12, 2020 5:17 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Topics on Test 1
Replies: 36
Views: 150

Re: Topics on Test 1

Most likely just Outline 1 and 2
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Jan 12, 2020 5:14 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV = nRT
Replies: 16
Views: 53

Re: PV = nRT

Pressure x Volume = Moles x Ideal Gas Constant x Temperature (in kelvin)
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:44 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Linear VSEPR model
Replies: 21
Views: 120

Re: Linear VSEPR model

If the molecule had 1 or 2 lone pairs it would then become bent. If it had 3, that would make it linear
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:41 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Writing the hydrization
Replies: 10
Views: 80

Re: Writing the hydrization

The difference between 2sp2 and sp2 is the statement of the energy level (n=2), but unless the question specifies that the energy level needs to be stated, then its not required.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:38 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Pi bond
Replies: 10
Views: 54

Re: Pi bond

Yes, because a pi bond requires a plane of symmetry for the bond to form and hold
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:37 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: double and triple bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 40

Re: double and triple bonds

they do not hybridize in pi double or triple bonds
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:35 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: 2sp2 and sp2
Replies: 10
Views: 52

Re: 2sp2 and sp2

Unless the question specifically asks for the energy level to be specified, sp2 should be fine
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:33 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: bond angles
Replies: 5
Views: 32

Re: bond angles

Lone pairs will make a bond angle less than (<) the angle of the shape it is derived from, because the electron repulsion from lone pairs condenses the angles of the bonds.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:31 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Disobeying the octect rule
Replies: 4
Views: 34

Re: Disobeying the octect rule

Yes, they are able to break the octet rule and have an expanded orbital
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:29 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: vsepr formula
Replies: 7
Views: 46

Re: vsepr formula

The VSEPR formula means the question is asking you to write out the AXE formula.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:26 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: cis vs trans
Replies: 5
Views: 33

Re: cis vs trans

in a cis molecule the function groups are on the same side of the molecule, whereas in a trans molecule the function groups are on different sides. Another note, trans and cis molecules are actually isomers of each other.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:16 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: AXE formula
Replies: 7
Views: 41

Re: AXE formula

The E is the number of lone pairs on the central atom
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: T-shape
Replies: 21
Views: 97

Re: T-shape

A t-shape molecule is derived from a trigonal bipyramidal but has 2 lone pairs and 3 bonds, making it resemble the letter T
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: T-shape
Replies: 21
Views: 97

Re: T-shape

A t-shape molecule is derived from a trigonal bipyramidal but has 2 lone pairs and 3 bonds, making it resemble the letter T
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:09 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Determining polarity from VSPER
Replies: 4
Views: 30

Re: Determining polarity from VSPER

The VSEPR shape would be a better indication of polarity, a little trick to remember is that lone pairs will make a molecule polar, but it is always a good idea to draw the shape
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 6:03 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR of S02
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Re: VSEPR of S02

The VSEPR for SO2 is AX2E because the central atom (S) is bonded to two oxygen atoms and has one lone pair.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 5:59 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent Shape
Replies: 29
Views: 181

Re: Bent Shape

1 or 2 lone pairs can create a bent shape
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Dec 08, 2019 5:55 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent vs linear
Replies: 56
Views: 284

Re: Bent vs linear

Looking at the number of lone pairs can help identify whether or not the molecule is bent or linear.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:50 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: suare planar
Replies: 2
Views: 32

Re: suare planar

Technically XEF4, or any square planar is derived from an octahedral, but has two lone pairs. What makes it rare if the fact that the central atom has an expanded octet because it receives 4 bonds then has 2 lone pairs added on.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:39 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lewis Structures
Replies: 6
Views: 32

Re: Lewis Structures

Once you can make the most stable lewis structure, the regions of electron density, and and the lone pairs, you should be able to correspond these numbers with a specific shape. You'll need to memorize the names and the characteristics for this one. For example, ammonia (NH3) has 3 regions of electr...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:31 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone Pairs
Replies: 10
Views: 41

Re: Lone Pairs

Lone pairs repel the other atoms within a molecule, compressing angles and making them smaller
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:29 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: single vs. double/triple bonds
Replies: 4
Views: 35

Re: single vs. double/triple bonds

In comparison to their interaction with the lone pairs of bonding pairs of other atoms, they stay together as the lone pairs cause repulsion
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:24 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Equatorial lone pairs
Replies: 2
Views: 14

Re: Equatorial lone pairs

By removing the equatorial atoms, the space between remaining atoms is maximized with degree angles of 120 between 3 atoms and 90 between two
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 6:47 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Dispersion
Replies: 5
Views: 38

Re: Dispersion

I would definitely review dipole--dipole, london dispersion, and hydrogen bonding, as those are the ones we focused on in class, however, I would also recommend looking over the others such as induced dipole-induced dipole etc.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 6:36 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Shapes
Replies: 7
Views: 32

Re: Shapes

Image
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 6:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 19
Views: 127

Re: Test 2

If the most stable lewis structure is drawn, you will be able to properly determine the regions of electron density and the lone pairs which will then allow you to identify the correct VESPR shape
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 6:08 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Repulsion
Replies: 6
Views: 31

Re: Repulsion

Lone Pair--Lone Pair > Lone Pair--Bonding > Bonding Pair--Bonding Pair
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:58 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Dipole Moment
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: Dipole Moment

Polarity itself deals with the difference in electrically charged poles of a molecule, so if the charges do not cancel, we can assume they are not equally shared, meaning the molecule is polar.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:54 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Order
Replies: 3
Views: 28

Re: Bond Order

I don't think the bond order is particularly important, in VESPR models we are looking more at the regions of electron density.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:45 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Do we have to memorize the names of shapes and/or the bond angles?
Replies: 7
Views: 40

Re: Do we have to memorize the names of shapes and/or the bond angles?

Yes, I believe we do. We will be tested on all of outline 4, and certain topics in outline 3
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:23 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Repulsion Strength
Replies: 4
Views: 27

Re: Repulsion Strength

Lone Pair--Lone Pair > Lone Pair--Bonding > Bonding Pair--Bonding Pair
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:21 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bonded and Lone Pairs in VSEPR
Replies: 4
Views: 22

Re: Bonded and Lone Pairs in VSEPR

Lone pairs DO influence molecular shape, but only atom positions are used to name the actual shape.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 5:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR repulsion model
Replies: 8
Views: 39

Re: VSEPR repulsion model

Bond angles also cannot be calculated, per say, using VESPR, but it can help you determine in in terms of steric numbers. For example, we know that methane (CH4) is a tetrahedral, and all bond angles are 109.5, but ammonia (NH3) which has the same principle shape as methane, except now has a lone pa...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Nov 17, 2019 4:39 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR repulsion model
Replies: 8
Views: 39

Re: VSEPR repulsion model

In a VESPR model, there is repulsion between lone pairs and bonding pairs. In terms of strength, LP--LP Bonds > LP--Bonding > Bonding--Bonding. Because atoms want to be spread out in VESPR models, the lone pairs cause an increased amount of repulsion.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:48 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 6
Views: 263

Re: Electronegativity

While we generally view the trend (up and across to the right) as equally important, the truth is that going up has a bit of a greater effect on electronegativty than moving across a period. This is because the higher groups have less shells and therefore feel more pull from other atoms.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:38 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Transition Metals and Periodic Table Trends
Replies: 2
Views: 42

Re: Transition Metals and Periodic Table Trends

In a problem given to you, the valence electrons will normally be given as well because they vary
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:33 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 10
Views: 71

Re: Resonance

A molecule that has resonance has multiple lewis dot structures with double or triple bonds that can appear in multiple places, not necessarily that it has different lewis dot structures because chemical species that experience resonance technically have the same lewis structure, just different vers...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:23 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Double bond placement
Replies: 15
Views: 89

Re: Double bond placement

A good place to start is when looking at the number of electrons in a chemical species, and drawing the lewis dot structures, if a species is meant to have multiple bonds, the number of e- drawn should not match the total number of electrons needed.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:15 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Valence Electrons
Replies: 16
Views: 110

Re: Valence Electrons

By counting along the period, the number that represents element you are looking for will tell you the valence electrons. For example, Nitrogen is the 5th element in its period, and Florine is the 7th. However, Phosphorous is also has 5 valence electrons, but it is in a different period than Nitrogen.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:32 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Why is 4s before 3d?
Replies: 9
Views: 77

Re: Why is 4s before 3d?

This would be an important topic to know for the midterm! So when you look at the periodic table, electrons fill orbitals in that order. So since the elements that have 4s orbitals are in front of those that have valence electrons in the 3d state, they fill the 4s first. :) Over all, it's important...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:32 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Exceptions in Periodic Trends
Replies: 2
Views: 50

Re: Exceptions in Periodic Trends

Yes, there are a few exceptions to the general trends we see on the periodic table. Electronegativity increases as you move to the right of the PT from the metals up to the halogens, but the noble gases do not have electronegativities (unless forced under very extreme pressure/conditions) because t...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:24 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Hund's rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle
Replies: 14
Views: 91

Re: Hund's rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle

The relationship between the two lies with the fact that we use both Hund's Rule and the Pauli Exclusion Principle in conjunction with the Building-Up principle in order to properly create/write experimentally observed electron configurations.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:16 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Orbitals
Replies: 8
Views: 64

Re: Orbitals

The reason why Scandium is written as [Ar] 3d1 4s2 is because after the 20th element in the periodic table (Calcium), the 3d orbitals have a slightly lower energy than the 4s orbitals. Therefore, you would start filling the 3d orbitals until it is full. The 4s orbital is filled first because it is ...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:10 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Probably a really quick question.
Replies: 2
Views: 25

Re: Probably a really quick question.

Yes, there are nodal planes for all except the s- orbital. Just as the p- orbital has one nodal plane, the d- orbital has two, and so forth.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:55 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Diffraction
Replies: 6
Views: 37

Re: Diffraction

You can think of it similar to building structure, constructive interference is when the waves are in phase, almost providing support, creating a greater amplitude of the wavelength. Destructive, however, is when the wavelengths are out of phase and opposite to one another. This causes the energy of...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:46 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Avogadro's number
Replies: 7
Views: 69

Re: Avogadro's number

You usually divide by Avogadro's number when the question gives you the number of molecules and is asking you to find the number of moles of a compound. Remember that avagadro's number (6.626 x 10^23) is the number of molecules or atoms that are in a single mole, so by dividing by this number, you ...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:39 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: speed of light
Replies: 10
Views: 51

Re: speed of light

Drake Choi_1I wrote:I remember learning in physics something about mediums and light. I know that a vacuum is where light can travel fastest. What is the next fastest medium?


I believe water is the next fastest at about 2.25 x 10^8 m.sec^-1, but we'll mainly be working with light in a vacuum
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:35 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: speed of light
Replies: 10
Views: 51

Re: speed of light

Throughout this quarter, and for the purpose of this class, the speed of light will remain a constant equal to 3.0 x 10^8 m.sec^-1, however outside of this setting, it is not so absolute, and actually changes relative to the the mediums it travels through.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:28 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Why do the orbitals of an atom only hold a certain amount of electrons?
Replies: 7
Views: 353

Re: Why do the orbitals of an atom only hold a certain amount of electrons?

The shape of the orbital is what determines how many electrons it can house. Electrons also must spin in different directions and because there are only two options, there can only be two electrons on each orbital. It is important to note that each level has a different number of orbitals (s=1, p=3,...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Sun Oct 13, 2019 4:06 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: When to use DeBroglie Equation
Replies: 16
Views: 147

Re: When to use DeBroglie Equation

De Broglie's equation can be used to calculate the energy of anything with measurable wavelength properties OTHER THAN light. Typically speaking, a DeBroglie wavelength less than 10^-15 does not have detectable wavelength properties. Hope this helps!
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Wed Oct 02, 2019 11:07 am
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Dilution and Molarity Questions
Replies: 8
Views: 51

Re: Dilution and Molarity Questions

Sometimes molarity and dilution problems can seem a bit wordy and overwhelming. For me, I always begin by writing down the number values that they give me and determining which are useful depending on what part of the problem I am at. That was I can interpret the real meaning of all the information ...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Wed Oct 02, 2019 10:58 am
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Rounding [ENDORSED]
Replies: 12
Views: 131

Re: Rounding [ENDORSED]

Rounding can be a bit tricky and if possible, I would keep the rounding to a minimum while you work out the problem. However, if you do, make sure to use the proper sig figs and your answer should be okay.
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Wed Oct 02, 2019 10:52 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Accuracy and Precision [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 81

Re: Accuracy and Precision [ENDORSED]

I think the equation you're referring to is the one where you subtract your lowest measured value from your highest value to record as precision, but I don't think we will be doing this with actual numerical values. I think it's more for us the understand the difference between the two and the indiv...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Wed Oct 02, 2019 10:47 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Balancing Equations [ENDORSED]
Replies: 25
Views: 474

Re: Balancing Equations [ENDORSED]

How are we supposed to know what number to multiply by in order to attain whole integers? Knowing if we need to multiply by 2 or 3 to reach a whole number is easy, but what about when the solution is more complicated? normally, the numbers should be pretty easy fractions, but if they turn out a lit...
by Maika Ngoie 1B
Wed Oct 02, 2019 10:38 am
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: How Many significant figures to use ?
Replies: 9
Views: 106

Re: How Many significant figures to use ?

Generally when rounding or using sig figs, looking at the original problem can help you gauge how many sig figs to use, and normally I would look at the LEAST precise measurement (the more decimal places the more precise). For example, if you are given a problem with the values 3.2, 5.72, and 0.32, ...

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