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by ckilkeary 2G
Mon Jan 13, 2020 12:06 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: emitting solids and liquids
Replies: 2
Views: 11

Re: emitting solids and liquids

Solids and liquids don't appear in the K expression because the atoms in solids and liquids are so close together that they don't have much room to squeeze any closer together. It would take a super huge immense amount of force to push these atoms any closer together and cause a change in volume. So...
by ckilkeary 2G
Mon Jan 13, 2020 12:00 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: pv = nRT purpose
Replies: 5
Views: 13

Re: pv = nRT purpose

I know that so far in lectures we have used this formula to convert between partial pressure and concentration. Other than that I don't think we've been given more reasons to use the formula.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:54 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: eq at the molecular level
Replies: 4
Views: 22

Re: eq at the molecular level

When a reaction is at equilibrium, I think it means that the rate at which products and reactants are being formed is constant rather than equal. Basically meaning that if the forward and reverse reactions are both happening, it doesn't change the amount of products and reactants to cause a change i...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:51 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K and Q
Replies: 6
Views: 16

Re: K and Q

The only difference between the two is that Q is a term used when it hasn't reached equilibrium yet. Since they're solved the same way, Q and K are just different terms you use depending on the situation.
by ckilkeary 2G
Wed Jan 08, 2020 4:47 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Writing K expression with or without aq?
Replies: 5
Views: 29

Writing K expression with or without aq?

I know that when writing K and Q expressions you don't include molecules in solid and liquid state. But what about aqueous?
by ckilkeary 2G
Fri Dec 06, 2019 12:56 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 6C17 - strength of bases
Replies: 4
Views: 50

Re: 6C17 - strength of bases

As a follow up question, what are the general rules for determining the strengths of bases? For acids, it's through bond length and electronegativity, but I don't think Lavelle explicitly mentioned the criteria for bases. Thanks! I had the same question and did a little bit of research online and f...
by ckilkeary 2G
Tue Dec 03, 2019 10:56 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: 9C 1 part a
Replies: 2
Views: 33

9C 1 part a

When naming [Fe(CN)6] 4- , why is the name in the answer key hexacyanoferrate (II) ion? Specifically as opposed to what I thought it would be: hexacyanidoferrate (II) ion.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:23 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelate
Replies: 1
Views: 15

Chelate

I just really don't understand the book explaining what a chelate is. Anyone here that can explain it better or just in different words?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:12 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Ferrocene
Replies: 1
Views: 25

Ferrocene

In the molecule Ferrocene (and likewise "sandwich compounds") is there a bond between connecting the central atom, Fe, with another atom? In the diagram in the book I can't really see any bonds coming off it so I don't know how the planar ligands are being held together.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:56 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Order of Ligands
Replies: 4
Views: 28

Order of Ligands

The book says that in some cases the order of ligands in the name is not the same as the order in the formula. How would we know if that's the case?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:40 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Brackets in Chem. Formula
Replies: 5
Views: 32

Brackets in Chem. Formula

When writing the formula in the steps to name a compound, how do you know what to put in brackets and include in the coordination sphere?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:32 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Substitution Reaction
Replies: 1
Views: 14

Substitution Reaction

I understand what a substitution reaction is (where one Lewis base takes the place of another) but how and why would this occur if there's already a Lewis base connected?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:36 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Geometry versus shape
Replies: 3
Views: 23

Re: Geometry versus shape

Molecular geometry is how the lone pair(s) and bond pair(s) are arranged around the central atom and the shape is the molecular structure that doesn't include the lone pair(s) on the central atom.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:27 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar vs. Nonpolar
Replies: 8
Views: 32

Re: Polar vs. Nonpolar

Nonpolar means that the dipole moments cancel out. In the case of CO2, because the oxygens (one each side) have the same strength of "pull" and effectively cancel each other out. Think of if as if there were two of the same person pulling at each side in tug of war. The rope in that game w...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:21 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: bond angles
Replies: 1
Views: 26

Re: bond angles

In the hydromium ion, there is one lone pair on the oxygen and three bonds (one for each H). You misinterpreted the shape as T-shaped. T-shaped would be more if there were two lone pairs on the oxygen instead of one. Instead the shape is trigonal pyramidal. It looks like one lone pair on top repelli...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:16 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Molecular shape and lone pairs
Replies: 2
Views: 19

Re: Molecular shape and lone pairs

In the case of AX2E3, there are 3 lone pairs and with the strongest repulsion being lone pair-lone pair, these lone pairs are spaced out on the same plane as far away from each other as possible being at about 120 degrees away from each other. Then adding in the two bonds to the central atom, the pu...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 17, 2019 9:09 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: single vs. double/triple bonds
Replies: 4
Views: 35

Re: single vs. double/triple bonds

Each bond, whether single or multiple, just acts together as a single unit of high electron concentration repelling other bonds or lone pairs. Because of this, in our VSEPR model we treat all the types of bonds the same in counting regions of electron concentration.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 10, 2019 9:00 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Relation of the size of atoms with the strength of attractions
Replies: 2
Views: 19

Re: Relation of the size of atoms with the strength of attractions

How I think it works are larger atoms and molecules have stronger attractive interactions because valence electrons are farther from the nuclei so they are less tightly held to the nucleus and can form dipoles with more ease.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:59 am
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Interaction Potential Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 18

Interaction Potential Energy

I know Lavelle said something in class about this but I wasn't fast enough to write it down. So in terms of the Interaction potential energy equation that he gave us (the one that has the divided by r^6), why is the potential energy always negative?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:48 am
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Dipole Arrows
Replies: 2
Views: 20

Dipole Arrows

In the book (for reference on page 96) they gave two ways that a dipole is represented. They said that in the original convention the dipole was represented by an arrow pointing to the negative dipole charge. However they said more modernly the arrow points to the positive charge. Which convention d...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:36 am
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Ionic/covalent Character
Replies: 3
Views: 17

Re: Ionic/covalent Character

To my understanding, dissolving in water has to do with the positive part of water molecules attracting the more negative parts of a molecule and the negative part of water molecules attracting the positive parts of the same molecule. If you have a higher difference in electronegativity (therefore h...
by ckilkeary 2G
Tue Nov 05, 2019 9:06 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance Structure Midterm
Replies: 5
Views: 69

Resonance Structure Midterm

When we're asked to draw a Lewis Structure on the Midterm tomorrow, do we have to draw all of the resonance structures for full credit or can we just draw the one? ie for CO32- should we draw three Lewis structures with each having a double bond on a different O attached to the C or should we just h...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:39 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron Affinity Problem
Replies: 1
Views: 12

Electron Affinity Problem

This problem was in the Dino Nuggets Review particularly problem 10c) Which has a higher electron affinity, Chlorine (Cl) or Neon (Ne)? The answer was Cl although this the trend for electron affinity on the periodic table I thought was that electron affinity increased going to the right of the perio...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:33 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configurations
Replies: 3
Views: 38

Re: Electron Configurations

does 3d have higher energy than 4s? can someone explain why/why not? Thanks! The 4s level is lower in energy when there are no electrons in the 3d level (hence why the 4s level is filled first), but once that 3d level gains an electron, it becomes the lower level and is therefore put first in the e...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:29 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Question about the Aufbau Principle
Replies: 1
Views: 18

Re: Question about the Aufbau Principle

The 4s is only lower in energy when there are no electrons in the 3d level. However as soon as the 3d level gains an electron, the 4s ends up higher in energy. I think its a pretty complex reason exactly why when we add an electron into 3d that the energy levels fluctuate (I think the book said from...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:15 pm
Forum: *Shrodinger Equation
Topic: Shrodinger Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 40

Re: Shrodinger Equation

I can give you an example of the Schrodinger equation that we did in a review session today. Ex. Beta-carotene is a conjugated polyene with delocalized electrons. This system can be treated as a particule in a box. If H= (h/8Π^2m)((d^2)/dx^2) write the schrodinger equation for this system. We used t...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:05 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Electron Configurations
Replies: 3
Views: 38

Re: Electron Configurations

Well the rules for electron configurations are Aufbau's Principle, Pauli-exclusion principle, and Hund's Rule. Aufbau says that we have to build our energy levels from the bottom level. Pauli says that there cannot be more than 2 electrons per orbital and that if there are two they must be spin pair...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 7:57 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Homework 2A.9
Replies: 2
Views: 27

Re: Homework 2A.9

We know that these are ions that have had two electrons taken away because their charge is 2+. So we can add those ions back to the electron configuration, but we have to keep in mind that the two electrons were likely taken from the 4s subshell since 4s has to be filled before we start adding to th...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Nov 03, 2019 1:10 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Expanded Octet for Lowest Formal Charge
Replies: 2
Views: 22

Expanded Octet for Lowest Formal Charge

During the "Dino Nuggets" review session on Friday, we went over the problem 12b) Draw the lowest energy Lewis structure for ClO4- We started by giving Cl (the central atom in this case) a bond for each oxygen it was connected to, but then to lower the formal charge of the structure, start...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 11:14 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Lowering Formal Charge
Replies: 6
Views: 48

Re: Lowering Formal Charge

The goal is to limit the formal charge overall for the molecule to find out which atom arrangement suits the molecule best.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 11:10 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing a Lewis Structure
Replies: 2
Views: 23

Drawing a Lewis Structure

For 2B.3 part d, can someone explain how the central atom Br of BrF3 has three bonds as well as 2 pairs of lone electrons? (seemingly like 10 electrons) As well as why one of the F atoms only has one bond and 2 pairs of alone electrons? (seemingly like 6 electrons) I don't know if I'm reading it wro...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 10:40 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: atomic Radii
Replies: 11
Views: 43

Re: atomic Radii

Yes, exactly. The more electrons added to the outer shell the more electrons far away from the nucleus and the atomic radii increases.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 10:40 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: atomic Radii
Replies: 11
Views: 43

Re: atomic Radii

Yes, exactly. The more electrons added to the outer shell the more electrons far away from the nucleus and the atomic radii increases.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 10:29 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Question on 1F.5 b
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: Question on 1F.5 b

The ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom. Ionization energies are paired with atomic radius. Since atomic radius increases from left to right on the periodic table so does ionization energy. Na is to the left of Mg so this would mean that Na has the smaller ato...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sat Oct 26, 2019 10:22 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: 2B3d
Replies: 1
Views: 9

Re: 2B3d

How do we know that bromine gets 10 valence electrons? Bromine actually only has 7 valence electrons. An easy way to tell this is because Bromine is one column to the left of the noble gases that all have a complete set of 8 electrons on their outer shell. Sharing with the three Fluorine atoms lets ...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 20, 2019 8:35 pm
Forum: *Black Body Radiation
Topic: Understanding Black Body Radiation
Replies: 4
Views: 48

Re: Understanding Black Body Radiation

Black body radiation is what is emitted at different wavelengths by an object heated for a series of temperatures that does not prefer one wavelength over another in terms of absorption. The only time we really mentioned black body in lecture was to say that the description of light as photons expla...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 20, 2019 8:16 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Wien's Law
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Re: Wien's Law

You use Wien's law when you need to find temperature given a maximum wavelength of radiation or when you need to find a maximum wavelength when given the temperature. If they mention max wavelength of anything and want you to find the temperature that's when you use Wien's law, and I don't think you...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 20, 2019 5:37 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Diffraction patterns
Replies: 1
Views: 20

Re: Diffraction patterns

A diffraction pattern comes from when the highs and lows of waves hit the highs and lows of other waves going a different direction. Diffraction patterns are important to what we're studying because they help prove that electromagnetic radiation is wavelike. Its modeled in the double slit experiment...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 20, 2019 5:25 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Light photons
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: Light photons

I like to think of Lavelle's example of a baseball going through a stream of photons vs an electron. A baseball is large and we can see the definite trajectory that it is going. Photons aren't going to alter this trajectory in any way because their size just doesn't even begin to compare to a baseba...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 20, 2019 5:15 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Yeah, probably the quickest question here
Replies: 2
Views: 49

Re: Yeah, probably the quickest question here

If I remember correctly, when we did that equation and calculated the velocity based on if the electrons could be in the nucleus we found that it said the velocity of electrons would be faster than the speed of light because they were faster than 3×10^8 ms-¹. However that's simply not possible and e...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:37 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Indeterminancy In Class
Replies: 7
Views: 41

Re: Indeterminancy In Class

We briefly mentioned it as one of the three fundamental equations from this section. But it is in the book and we will probably end up going over it. For future reference it is Δp * Δx ≥ (1/2)ћ Δp is uncertainty in momentum Δx is uncertainty in position ћ (pronounced "h bar") means h/2(pi)...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:25 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Limiting Reactant Problems
Replies: 2
Views: 42

Re: Limiting Reactant Problems

It is possible that you can be given the amount of a product and asked to find the amount of each of the reactants needed to make that much product. If you're given the product in grams you can convert them to moles and use the molar ratio between that given product and the reactant they're asking y...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:18 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Relationship b/w wavelength and E
Replies: 5
Views: 34

Re: Relationship b/w wavelength and E

Since E = hv, we know that energy is directly proportional to frequency. We also know that λ x v = c (with λ being wavelength). If we rearrange the equation we get v = c/λ. By combining that with our energy equation we get E = h * (c/λ) = (hc/λ) So from this we see that Energy is indirectly proporti...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:04 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Baler v. Lyman Series
Replies: 10
Views: 64

Re: Baler v. Lyman Series

The Balmer series contains the visible part of the light spectrum, whereas the Lyman series is in the ultraviolet range on the light spectrum.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:55 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Frequency vs. Intensity
Replies: 4
Views: 17

Re: Frequency vs. Intensity

The intensity is the square of the amplitude. So it is determined by the height of the wave. The frequency has to do with the wavelength and the number of oscillations. A long wavelength means fewer oscillations and low frequency.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 06, 2019 4:20 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Explaining Photoelectric Effect
Replies: 1
Views: 24

Explaining Photoelectric Effect

If someone could be kind enough to explain the observations from the photoelectric effect in as close to layman's terms it can get, it would be really great. Thank you!
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 06, 2019 3:21 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: White Light
Replies: 2
Views: 9

White Light

The book says "White light is a mixture of all wavelengths of visible light". So does this mean that on the visible light spectrum it has no specific place? Or that it doesn't have a specific frequency or wavelength? I wonder if there's any way to define it like that or get clarification o...
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 06, 2019 3:10 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: m/s^-1
Replies: 4
Views: 31

m/s^-1

When talking about the speed of light the unit used is m/s^-1. If the s stands for per second, why is there an exponent of -1?
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 06, 2019 2:51 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Atomic Spectra
Replies: 3
Views: 43

Re: Atomic Spectra

Well the atomic spectra is a collection of the specific and various wavelengths of light emitted by atoms. Often observed through spectroscopy.
by ckilkeary 2G
Sun Oct 06, 2019 2:40 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Unit of Wavelength Amplitude
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Unit of Wavelength Amplitude

I know that the unit of frequency when looking at the oscillation of an electromagnetic wave is called a hertz. However, is there a unit for when looking at the amplitude/height of the wave?

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