Search found 50 matches

by AmyL_3L
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:07 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Main Difference
Replies: 4
Views: 98

Re: Main Difference

Lewis acids and bases accept or donate electrons, respectively, while Bronsted acids and bases donate or accept protons, respectively.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:50 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: ligands
Replies: 4
Views: 100

Re: ligands

Ligands are Lewis bases and they donate electrons to the central atom of the coordinate compound.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:49 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: How can you tell
Replies: 11
Views: 231

Re: How can you tell

Since polyprotic acids and bases donate or accept more than one proton, respectively, there must be more than one hydrogen in the anion.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:45 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Amphoteric vs amphiprotic
Replies: 4
Views: 99

Re: Amphoteric vs amphiprotic

Amphoteric means the compound can act as an acid or base, whereas amphiprotic means that the compound can donate and accept protons.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:41 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: pKA values
Replies: 4
Views: 65

Re: pKA values

pKa is the negative log of Ka, the acid dissociation constant. Lower the pKa, the stronger the acid, and vice versa.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Dec 01, 2019 12:16 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Strong vs Weak Acids
Replies: 7
Views: 67

Re: Strong vs Weak Acids

Strong acids produce more protons, whereas weak acids produce less.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Dec 01, 2019 12:05 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Molecular shape of carbon Dioxide
Replies: 10
Views: 65

Re: Molecular shape of carbon Dioxide

Molecular shape of carbon dioxide is linear. The central carbon atom is bound to two oxygen atoms, and there are no lone pairs on carbon.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:59 am
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Bases
Topic: Soapy Feels
Replies: 4
Views: 333

Re: Soapy Feels

When a base reacts with fatty acids and oil from the skin, soap is produced.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:53 am
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Identifying Them?
Replies: 12
Views: 99

Re: Identifying Them?

A compound is identified as an amphoteric compound if it is able to donate or accept protons.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:48 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Proton acceptor and proton donor?
Replies: 33
Views: 260

Re: Proton acceptor and proton donor?

Acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:02 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization Notation
Replies: 5
Views: 40

Re: Hybridization Notation

When writing the notation, the d orbital should come after p. So "sp^3d" would be correct.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 24, 2019 10:59 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Strength of sigma and pi bonds
Replies: 8
Views: 56

Re: Strength of sigma and pi bonds

Sigma bonds are harder to break due to the location of the electrons, which are very close to the nuclei.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 24, 2019 10:54 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone pairs
Replies: 13
Views: 95

Re: Lone pairs

Only the lone pairs on the central atom are significant in determining the molecular shape.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 24, 2019 10:47 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent vs linear
Replies: 56
Views: 731

Re: Bent vs linear

The bent shape has 1-2 lone pairs on the central atom, whereas the linear shape has none or 3-4 lone pairs.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 24, 2019 10:42 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: AXE Format
Replies: 34
Views: 220

Re: AXE Format

Writing the subscript of "1" would be unnecessary. Just writing X or E is fine.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:22 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: seesaw
Replies: 9
Views: 95

Re: seesaw

The seesaw shape has 4 bonds and 1 lone pair (AX4E).
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:19 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent
Replies: 3
Views: 41

Re: Bent

Two bound atoms and one lone pair also results in a bent structure. Its bond angle would be greater than the structure with two lone pairs since the lone pairs emit greater repulsion strength.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:15 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: bond angles less than <109.5
Replies: 4
Views: 47

Re: bond angles less than <109.5

The lone pair on the central atom has greater repulsion strength. Therefore, it pushes the three bonded atoms closer to each other, decreasing their bond angles to be less than 109.5.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:12 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Hydrogen Bonding
Replies: 6
Views: 40

Re: Hydrogen Bonding

Yes, and since hydrogen is much less electronegative than oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine, the dipole is stronger.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 10:14 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: What is VSPER
Replies: 14
Views: 218

Re: What is VSPER

VSEPR stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory and it would probably be very helpful to memorize it.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 10, 2019 8:19 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Expanded Octet
Replies: 10
Views: 92

Re: Expanded Octet

Elements in the third period and beyond are able to have expanded octets since they have more space in the d-orbital.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 10, 2019 8:13 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: definitions
Replies: 8
Views: 99

Re: definitions

Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion or gaseous atom, whereas electron affinity is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to an atom to form an anion. Both periodic trends, however, are the same.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:33 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 18
Views: 156

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

Lewis structures should have formal charges closest to zero as much as possible. The formal charges of each atom should sum up to equal the overall charge, which varies for some molecules; If a molecule has an overall charge of zero, then the formal charges of each atom should most preferably be zer...
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:17 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Exceptions to the Octet Rule Question
Replies: 5
Views: 61

Re: Exceptions to the Octet Rule Question

The elements in the third period and after can have expanded octets.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 10, 2019 10:14 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Formal Charge Question
Replies: 15
Views: 283

Re: Formal Charge Question

The formal charges of all the atoms in a resonance structure should sum up to have the same overall charge as the other resonance structure. The formal charge of an atom can vary.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 10:07 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Classifying Radicals
Replies: 1
Views: 25

Re: Classifying Radicals

I'd say so, since radicals are atoms with an unpaired electron, making them have odd numbers of valence electrons and unfinished octets.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 10:02 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: formal charge
Replies: 4
Views: 49

Re: formal charge

The formal charge can be found using the equation: FC = Valence electrons - (lone pair electrons + no. of bound electrons/2) .
This is used to find which Lewis structure is most plausible.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:32 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Radical
Replies: 6
Views: 67

Re: Radical

A radical is highly reactive because it has one unpaired electron. Having one unpaired electron makes the radical more likely to form bonds with other atoms.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:18 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: middle atom
Replies: 13
Views: 92

Re: middle atom

The central atom is the least electronegative atom.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 3:59 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: What are radicals
Replies: 7
Views: 69

Re: What are radicals

Like all the other responses, radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron, and they are highly reactive. They play a destructive role in our everyday lives, but they are combatted by antioxidants.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:19 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron affinity.
Replies: 8
Views: 43

Re: Electron affinity.

Electron affinity is the amount of energy used or released when an electron is added to an atom. Therefore, a negative ion is formed. Its periodic table trend is that it increases across a period from left to right and decreases down a group.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:17 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionization and Electron Affinity
Replies: 5
Views: 71

Re: Ionization and Electron Affinity

Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom, whereas electron affinity is the amount of energy released or used when an electron is added to an atom. Their trends on the periodic table, however, are the same.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 5:13 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electronegativity vs Electron Affinity
Replies: 6
Views: 60

Re: Electronegativity vs Electron Affinity

Like the responses above, electronegativity is the atom's likeliness of attracting an electron, whereas electron affinity is the amount of energy that is released when an atom gains an electron. On the periodic table, their trends are both the same: they increase across a period from left to right a...
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 3:38 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Exceptions
Replies: 7
Views: 361

Re: Exceptions

Electronegativity trend does not include the noble gases, and Fluorine has the highest electronegativity.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 3:34 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Difference between electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity
Replies: 5
Views: 49

Re: Difference between electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity

Electronegativity is the measure of how likely the atom attracts bonding electrons to itself. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion or gaseous atom. And for electron affinity, its definition is the amount of energy released or used when an electron is added to an...
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:29 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Why is copper like this?
Replies: 6
Views: 79

Re: Why is copper like this?

Copper violates the Aufbau Principle, as well as Chromium, because stability is greater for a half completed or completed d sub-level. Therefore, the 3d orbital gains an electron from the 4s orbital.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:11 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Hund's rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle
Replies: 14
Views: 146

Re: Hund's rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle

Hund's Rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle are both used to determine electron configurations. To be more specific, Hund's Rule requires that electrons need to occupy an orbital once before pairing up in the same orbital. For Pauli Exclusion Principle, no two electrons in the same orbital can have th...
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 20, 2019 7:02 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Quantum Numbers
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Quantum Numbers

The third quantum number is ml, and it stands for the magnetic quantum number; it specifies the orbital that an electron occupies, such as determining the orientation in relation to other orbitals.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:45 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Opposite Spin
Replies: 5
Views: 85

Re: Opposite Spin

Electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins because electrons cannot have the same four quantum numbers. The opposite spin is a distinguishing factor.
by AmyL_3L
Sun Oct 20, 2019 6:43 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: ionization energy
Replies: 11
Views: 467

Re: ionization energy

Yes; the ionization energy increases from left to right and bottom to top on the periodic table of elements.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 12, 2019 9:41 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Frequency
Replies: 15
Views: 205

Re: Frequency

I also believe frequency and the difference in energy levels are directly proportional, since the equation E=hv proves that as frequency increases, energy increases as well.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 12, 2019 9:27 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Quantum Levels
Replies: 9
Views: 95

Re: Quantum Levels

I'm not 100% sure how many quantum levels there can be, but I believe that there are no maximum number of quantum levels as well.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 12, 2019 9:22 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: When to use DeBroglie Equation
Replies: 16
Views: 264

Re: When to use DeBroglie Equation

You can use De Broglie's equation when you are trying to find the wavelength of particles that have mass. However, it cannot be used to measure light.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 12, 2019 5:07 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Atomic Spectra Post Module
Replies: 4
Views: 44

Re: Atomic Spectra Post Module

The transition from n=5 to n=1 emits radiation of shorter wavelength because it requires more energy. Therefore, the frequency is higher than the frequency given off by the transition from n=4 to n=2. Since higher frequencies mean shorter wavelengths, this means the transition from n=5 to n=1 has a ...
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 12, 2019 4:58 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Frequency vs. Wavelength
Replies: 15
Views: 163

Re: Frequency vs. Wavelength

The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength, and vice versa. Also, wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave (the more frequent vibrations are, the less time for transition from one wave to the next).
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 05, 2019 2:52 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Order of elements in formulas
Replies: 5
Views: 81

Re: Order of elements in formulas

From what I remember from high school, the order is usually C, H, O, and N. However, I am not entirely sure as well.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 05, 2019 2:47 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Converting Before or After?
Replies: 10
Views: 118

Re: Converting Before or After?

To avoid confusion, convert after solving the problem. However, if you need to cancel out units then converting during calculations is necessary.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 05, 2019 2:35 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Fractions in Balancing Equations
Replies: 11
Views: 195

Re: Fractions in Balancing Equations

Fractions should not be used as stoichiometric coefficients. Whenever there is a fraction, you need to multiply every stoichiometric coefficient by the denominator to create whole numbers while maintaining the mole ratio.
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 05, 2019 2:28 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Sig Figs When Adding and Subtracting
Replies: 3
Views: 62

Sig Figs When Adding and Subtracting

What rule do you use when you are adding or subtracting sig figs?
by AmyL_3L
Sat Oct 05, 2019 2:23 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: When to round for sig figs?
Replies: 12
Views: 137

Re: When to round for sig figs?

Always round your answer with sig figs at the end. Use the calculator to apply exact numbers during the process. Your final answer would be more accurate that way.

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