Search found 65 matches

by Connor Ho 1B
Tue Jan 21, 2020 4:01 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: pressure
Replies: 3
Views: 17

Re: pressure

total pressure = sum of partial pressures

for example, in a system with h2 and o2, where the partial pressure of h2 is 1.2 atm and o2 is 3.2 atm, the total pressure would be 1.2 + 3.2 = 4.4 atm
by Connor Ho 1B
Tue Jan 21, 2020 4:00 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ice box
Replies: 4
Views: 13

Re: ice box

If the reactant is a solid.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Jan 19, 2020 1:46 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 6B.9
Replies: 3
Views: 20

Re: 6B.9

I believe that it's a typo either with the manual or the textbook, I got a negative answer as well
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Jan 19, 2020 1:42 am
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: lewis structure
Replies: 11
Views: 29

Re: lewis structure

I think Lavelle said in class that he draws Lewis structures only for us to better understand what is going on, although I don't know if this means that we will ahve to in the future or not.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Jan 19, 2020 1:40 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: le chatelier's principle
Replies: 3
Views: 12

Re: le chatelier's principle

In simple terms, Le Chatelier's principle is the idea that equations that go to equilibrium, when altered by external factors, will always go back to equilibrium. For example, if I added more product to an equilibrium equation, then the reaction would produce more reactant in order to balance out. T...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Jan 19, 2020 1:38 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 6D.5
Replies: 2
Views: 36

Re: 6D.5

For part (a), here's how I went through it: 1. Create an ICE box for the equation. Since NH 3 is a weak base, there must be an ICE box to solve for pH and pOH. NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) ⇌ NH 4 (aq) + OH - (aq) I: 0.057 M, 0, 0 C: -x, +x, +x E: 0.057-x, x, x 2. From the t...
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Jan 13, 2020 11:35 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 6A.19
Replies: 6
Views: 41

6A.19

Calculate the molar concentration of OH − in solutions with the following molar concentrations of H 3 O + : c) 3.1 M In the solutions manual, it says you divide 10 -14 by 3.1 x 10 -3 to get 3.2 x 10 -12 . Is this an error with the solutions manual/textbook (because the molarity of H 3 O + does not m...
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Jan 13, 2020 11:21 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5J.5
Replies: 4
Views: 19

5J.5

State whether reactants or products will be favored by an increase in the total pressure (resulting from compression) on each of the following equilibria. If there is no change, explain why that is so. d) 2 HD (g) + H 2(g) ⇌ D 2(g) Why is the answer no change? Is it because t...
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Jan 08, 2020 9:36 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Equilibrium Constant
Replies: 8
Views: 57

Re: Equilibrium Constant

Kc is used when one or more of the products and reactants are in the aqueous phase.

Kp is used when one or more of the products and reactants are in the gaseous phase.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Jan 08, 2020 9:35 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: 5I.9
Replies: 3
Views: 28

Re: 5I.9

In this specific problem, I would assume that the K is Kp since the partial pressures are measured. I think that for the tables, the K would have to be inferred as Kp, although Lavelle said in class that K is often used as another way to infer Kc and Kp.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Jan 08, 2020 9:32 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5I.23
Replies: 1
Views: 16

Re: 5I.23

In class today, Lavelle went over how to find the concentration if you know the partial pressure, and vice-versa using the ideal gas law (P = concentration * RT). Since it asks for the Kc in this question, you would have to find Kc instead of Kp.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Jan 08, 2020 9:29 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5G.11
Replies: 2
Views: 16

Re: 5G.11

Hg is not included because it is a liquid; liquids and solids are never included in K expressions.

When the items in the reaction are gases, use partial pressure. When they are aqueous solutions, use concentration.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Jan 08, 2020 9:25 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Writing K expression with or without aq?
Replies: 5
Views: 29

Re: Writing K expression with or without aq?

Aqueous solutions do contribute to the K expression since those solutions can change in concentration (measurably) over time.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:41 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: Titrations
Replies: 6
Views: 62

Re: Titrations

I think the extent of what you need to know about titrations for the final is that it is used to find the pH of a solution, and this is found at the solution's equilibrium point (H+ = OH-)
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:39 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Heme complex and myoglobin/hemoglobin
Replies: 3
Views: 49

Heme complex and myoglobin/hemoglobin

Can someone please explain how myoglobin/hemoglobin are related to the heme complex, and what we should know about it for the exam?
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:37 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: MARSHMALLOW- FINAL REVIEW SESSION [ENDORSED]
Replies: 111
Views: 4080

Re: MARSHMALLOW- FINAL REVIEW SESSION [ENDORSED]

SarahSteffen_LEC4 wrote:On question number 21 of the Marshmallow review. Why does iron have a +2 charge if two of the nitrogens on the porphyrin ligand have a +1 charge?


The two nitrogens actually have a -1 charge, not +1.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:34 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: carbonato
Replies: 1
Views: 17

Re: carbonato

Carbonate is mono- or bidentate because there could be only one area where it will bond or two, depending on the atoms it is reacting with.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:33 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: memorizing examples
Replies: 3
Views: 21

Re: memorizing examples

You should memorize cisplatin, the heme complex, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, as well as the properties of AT and GC pairs in DNA.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:32 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: chemotherapy drugs
Replies: 4
Views: 25

Re: chemotherapy drugs

If you're talking about cisplatin, [Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 ], the reason why it's effective is because the two Cl's are able to be replaced with the nitrogens on a guanine strand, halting DNA replication. If this was transplatin (where the Cl's would be on opposite sides) it would not be as effective beca...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:29 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone pairs location
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Lone pairs location

Just remember that in any geometry, lone pairs are placed as far as possible from other atoms and try to interact with other atoms as little as possible. Put the lone pair wherever it is next to the least amount of atoms.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:27 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong Acids and Bases
Replies: 6
Views: 49

Re: Strong Acids and Bases

HCl, HClO3, HClO4, HI, HBr, HNO3, HSO4 are strong acids

anything with OH- in it is a strong base.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:25 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: 6C.17
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: 6C.17

I believe its because we should know that strong acids completely dissolve in water, while weak acids don't.

BrO3- is the conjugate base of a weak acid, so it is a strong base.

Morphine in relativity is a weak base because of the lone pair on Nitrogen, which has weak basic character.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:19 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: MARSHMALLOW- FINAL REVIEW SESSION [ENDORSED]
Replies: 111
Views: 4080

Re: MARSHMALLOW- FINAL REVIEW SESSION [ENDORSED]

MMckinney_4H wrote:For number 34, why are two moles of OH produced for every mole of CaO?


CaO completely disassociates in water so:

CaO = Ca+ + O2-

If this were to further react in water, Ca+ would stay disassociated, however

O2- + H2O = 2OH-

after the equation is balanced.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:11 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: 17.35 Chelating Compounds
Replies: 5
Views: 457

Re: 17.35 Chelating Compounds

Kyla Grunden 1L wrote:How do you determine at what point the nitrogens are too far away to bond to the same metal atom?


I believe Lavelle responded to a question about coordination compounds, and in his answer he says that there can be two spacer compounds in between a bonding area.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:07 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: As2O and Bi2O3
Replies: 4
Views: 34

Re: As2O and Bi2O3

As and Bi are both grouped with the amphoteric oxides that are grouped along the metalloid line. The reason why is because when these are reacted with either an acid or a base, it is treated as the opposite; meaning, if it was reacted with an acid, it would act as a base, and vice-versa.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:03 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: ligands
Replies: 4
Views: 42

Re: ligands

Ligands are considered Lewis bases because they contribute e- to the coordination complex.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:02 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: reduction of acid rain
Replies: 1
Views: 20

Re: reduction of acid rain

Acid rain is largely due to CO2 emissions, so yes, decreasing these emissions would be the only way.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 9:01 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelating compounds and structure
Replies: 1
Views: 26

Re: Chelating compounds and structure

I don't believe there is a limitation to what shape chelating structures can be. As long as it is a chelating polydentate ligand, then there shouldn't be an issue.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sat Dec 07, 2019 8:59 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Memorization
Replies: 4
Views: 55

Re: Memorization

For the most part, as long as you know the original name of the compound, the ligand is usually named by replacing the suffix with -ato or -o. ex. carbonate becomes carbonato, oxalate becomes oxalato, hydroxide becomes hydroxo. There are only a few special ones, ex. en, edta, and isothiocyanto that ...
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 7:13 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming Cont
Replies: 3
Views: 19

Re: Naming Cont

Ligands in alphabetical order first, then the metal cation last with oxidation state following.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 7:10 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: free radicals
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: free radicals

Yes, I believe you treat them like a lone pair.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 12:01 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: lone pairs
Replies: 2
Views: 22

Re: lone pairs

Lone pairs are never included in molecular shape
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:59 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Good resources for learning about coordination compounds?
Replies: 2
Views: 22

Re: Good resources for learning about coordination compounds?

The sapling lessons helped me a lot with understanding coordination compounds.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:54 am
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: How to tell the strength of a base
Replies: 2
Views: 23

Re: How to tell the strength of a base

I believe the same topics work but in reverse, i.e. the more electronegative, the weaker the base, since bases are e- donors.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:52 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 1
Views: 15

Re: unhybridized orbitals

No, generally all sigma bonds are in hybridized orbitals.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:51 am
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Cisplatin bonding in 2 places
Replies: 3
Views: 39

Re: Cisplatin bonding in 2 places

I believe so, and I believe this means cisplatin in is bidentate.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:49 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Melting and Boiling Points
Replies: 9
Views: 51

Re: Melting and Boiling Points

Technically, yes. But the amount of forces a molecule has also plays a role, i.e. if a molecule experiences both h-bonding and dipole-dipole vs. h-bonding and LDF.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:48 am
Forum: Air Pollution & Acid Rain
Topic: Acid Rain
Replies: 5
Views: 106

Re: Acid Rain

Lavelle uses acid rain as an example of how CO2 reaction in the environment with water. CO2 reacts in the atmosphere to make acid rain, and with global warming/greenhouse effect, CO2 emissions are more and more prevalent in biology.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:45 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: hybridization
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: hybridization

Madeline Phan 4H wrote:Also, why are there p orbitals that are filled along with the hybridized orbitals?


filled p-orbitals generally represent the ability for pi bonds to form.
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:45 am
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Heme Structures [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 66

Heme Structures [ENDORSED]

Can someone define what heme structures are, and why they’re important in biology? Will we have to know this for the final?
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:39 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Studying for the Final [ENDORSED]
Replies: 11
Views: 180

Re: Studying for the Final [ENDORSED]

I think doing the Marshmallow packet will help, as well as going over your midterm. If you have any previous notes from Chemistry classes from high school, maybe those will help as well.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:56 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Lewis acid-base reactions
Replies: 1
Views: 17

Re: Lewis acid-base reactions

No. The basic writing sequence is the same. Just remember that the Lewis acid-base reactions always have the same type of products.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:55 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Definition
Replies: 3
Views: 17

Re: Definition

In simple terms, the Bronsted acids and bases can be identified as such:
Acids give away H+ while bases accept H+.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:54 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Test 2
Replies: 6
Views: 54

Re: Test 2

I already have my grade in myUCLA, maybe if you check that
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:52 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: cisplatin
Replies: 3
Views: 26

Re: cisplatin

Cisplatin is used in chemotherapy to treat several cancers, including testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. Cisplatin damages DNA strands and inhibits the synthesis of DNA in order to halt growth of cancer cells.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:48 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: acid vs base
Replies: 2
Views: 20

Re: acid vs base

In terms of Lewis acids and bases, determining which is acid and which is base is dependent on the chemical equation. More often than not, the lewis structure with hydrogen in it is the acid, and the other is the base. However, if there is no hydrogen in either, then the one receiving electrons is a...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:45 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: 6A. 17
Replies: 1
Views: 20

Re: 6A. 17

To know whether these are basic, acidic, or amphoteric, remember that greater electronegativity means greater acidic character. For amphoteric compounds, remember that the elements around the division between metals and non-metals have amphoteric character. I've attached a photo to show this. https:...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:27 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: 6B.3
Replies: 2
Views: 34

Re: 6B.3

In this question, we are asked for two things: 1) the desired pH 2) the actual pH For 1) pH is the concentration of hydrogen atoms in solution. Because the equation for HCL is the following: HCl --> H + + Cl - We can assume that since the concentration of HCl 0.025M, the concentration of H + is also...
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Nov 15, 2019 6:30 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Angular/Bent Angles
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: Angular/Bent Angles

Yes, it is true that linear structures have 180-degree bond angles, however, AX2E and AX2E2 have bent/angular molecular shapes. This shape is a result of the repulsion caused by the existence of the lone pair on the central atom. The repulsion is strong enough to make the attached atoms push away fr...
by Connor Ho 1B
Fri Nov 15, 2019 6:25 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: 2E.21 c
Replies: 2
Views: 18

Re: 2E.21 c

I believe the better lewis structure is the one that represents the S-O bonding as a double bond. This has a more realistic formal charge compared to the other structure.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Nov 13, 2019 10:16 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR usage
Replies: 5
Views: 33

VSEPR usage

Does the shape/arrangement of molecules affect its interactions with surrounding/other molecules? for example, does it affect bonding or bond strength, for that matter?
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Nov 13, 2019 10:11 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 2
Views: 25

Re: Bond Angles

For trigonal planar shapes, all bond angles are 120 degrees.
by Connor Ho 1B
Wed Nov 13, 2019 10:10 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: 2E #5
Replies: 4
Views: 42

Re: 2E #5

The shape according to the VSEPR theorem is actually an angular (bent) shape, as it says in the solution manual, which is what gives the bond angle of a little less than 120 degrees. This is because in molecular shape, lone pairs do not appear in the final shape. However, in a Lewis structure, you w...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:43 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: When do we use the Einstein Equation?
Replies: 14
Views: 132

Re: When do we use the Einstein Equation?

How often would you have to rearrange this equation to find other quantities? Should this be practiced? The rearrangment of this equation would be most likely to find the energy required to remove an electron, or finding the wavelength of a photon/electron. It should be practiced as I believe findi...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:42 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: When do we use the Einstein Equation?
Replies: 14
Views: 132

Re: When do we use the Einstein Equation?

E = hv is used in general to find the energy of a photon, although it can also be interpreted to find the energy required to remove an electron. On the topic of quantum, E = hv is most likely going to be a major equation.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:39 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Atomic Orbitals
Replies: 3
Views: 37

Re: Atomic Orbitals

By knowing the orbital, it'll be easier to determine the number of valence electrons in an element, which are needed for bonding with other elements.
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:38 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Wave Function and Uncertainty
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Wave Function and Uncertainty

From my understanding, the Uncertainty principle basically explains that we cannot know the exact location or speed of an electron in an electron cloud. The wave function, however, helps to define the energy level (in the case of gen chem), like you said in the post. I don't believe the uncertainty ...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:34 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Advice for studying
Replies: 58
Views: 506

Re: Advice for studying

For me, studying is most effective when I'm in a quiet area (like The Study at Hedrick, lol) and I usually skim through the textbook lessons as well as the notes I take in class. I also look over some notes from my high school AP Chem notebook if any of the topics we learned are something I went ove...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:33 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Difference between the electron shell and orbitals
Replies: 4
Views: 38

Re: Difference between the electron shell and orbitals

Electron shells are defined by the energy level, n=1, n=2, n=3. Orbitals are the combination of details between the energy level and the "subshell" or the "shape" of the electron cloud. For example, an orbital is energy level + subshell, so 4d, 3s, 1s, 2s, etc. are all orbitals. ...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:29 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Filling the 4s and 3d blocks
Replies: 3
Views: 23

Re: Filling the 4s and 3d blocks

I asked him about this after class. From what I understand, until the 4s block is filled, the 3d block has a greater energy level. Once the 4d block is filled however, the 3d block then has lesser energy and you would fill in the 3d block as if it were normal. The reason behind this is the extremely...
by Connor Ho 1B
Sun Oct 20, 2019 11:26 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisenberg
Replies: 5
Views: 34

Re: Heisenberg

Schrodinger's equation is basically meant to prove that there is no way to prove definitely where an electron is and how fast an electron is moving. In addition, the more you may know about one, leads to knowing less about the other detail. For example, if you do happen to know the speed of an elect...
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Sep 30, 2019 11:32 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]
Replies: 130
Views: 3336

Re: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]

Thank you so much for your advice! As an aspiring medical student, this gives me more inspiration to pursue my future as a doctor and look forward to my future education.
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Sep 30, 2019 11:29 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Methods of identifying Limiting Reactants
Replies: 5
Views: 82

Re: Methods of identifying Limiting Reactants

For the most part, the calculations are necessary in order to find the limiting reactant. However, it might be easier if you think of it this way: First, convert the grams to moles. This is necessary. Then, divide it by the coefficient in front of the corresponding element in the equation then multi...
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Sep 30, 2019 11:20 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Order of Elements When Writing Out a Compound
Replies: 8
Views: 127

Re: Order of Elements When Writing Out a Compound

Typically,if carbon is present it comes first, then hydrogen, and then the others alphabetically. Cations are also written first before anions, so positive before negative in ionic compounds. I believe in the one you mentioned it's C, O, then Os. I agree. I think it's called the Hill System, where ...
by Connor Ho 1B
Mon Sep 30, 2019 11:15 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Balancing equations
Replies: 7
Views: 80

Re: Balancing equations

Even though it may make sense mathematically to have decimals (or fractions, for that matter) for balancing equations, it is common practice and basically a requirement to always have whole numbers as the stoichiometric coefficients in a balanced chemical equation.

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