Search found 76 matches

by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 5:08 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Product Yield
Replies: 6
Views: 17

Re: Product Yield

Zoya Mulji 1K wrote:How would you change the yield of a product without adding more reactants?


To acquire more products without adding more reactants, you would want to remove the products, such that the forward reaction is favored and more products will be made.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 5:04 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV=nRT equation manipulation
Replies: 12
Views: 55

Re: PV=nRT equation manipulation

What was the purpose of changing the equation to equal P or the concentration? Will this be further manipulated when we deal with equilibrium? The purpose of manipulating PV=nRT is purely to acquire the information that is asked for in the problem, as well as to understand certain concepts. Solving...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:59 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Endo/exothermic
Replies: 3
Views: 16

Re: Endo/exothermic

In a reaction where X2 -> 2X is it considered endothermic or exothermic and why? (X stands for any element) If bonds are broken, it requires energy, thus in the reaction that you gave, it would be endothermic (requires energy to proceed). If bonds are created, it releases energy, thus in the revers...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:56 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Approximation
Replies: 8
Views: 23

Re: Approximation

Can someone explain how and when we use approximation for ICE tables? Are there other situations you can use them as well? Is this only for acids and bases? If the K value is less than 10^-3, then for the creation of the equation that is equivalent to the equilibrium constant, it is acceptable to r...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:44 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: How to make ICE box
Replies: 15
Views: 81

Re: How to make ICE box

I understand the initial and equilibrium rows in the ICE box but how do you figure out the change row? That is, how do you figure out what the change in concentration will be? What is in the change row is determined by the stoichiometric coefficients of the balanced chemical equation. If in the ini...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Jan 16, 2020 4:39 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Q and K
Replies: 4
Views: 13

Re: Q and K

What does it mean in terms of which way the reaction will proceed if Q is less than K? Greater than K? Remember that K and Q are solved for by the concentration of the products over the concentration of the reactants. If Q is greater than K, then that means that the concentration of products is hig...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:55 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Q vs K
Replies: 13
Views: 75

Re: Q vs K

This may be an obvious question, but what is the difference between Q (reaction quotient) and K (equilibrium constant)? k is a constant that is temperature dependent (one per temperature) that is solved when the reaction reached equilibrium. Q is when the reaction has not reached equilibrium, but i...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:48 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Catalysts
Replies: 7
Views: 28

Re: Catalysts

Can someone define a catalyst with examples and explain how it affects a reaction? A catalyst merely speeds up a reaction. It does not "make more product" or "make more reactant," however, as it speeds up a reaction, it may result in the reaction to reach equilibrium faster than...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:44 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: K vs Q [ENDORSED]
Replies: 7
Views: 35

Re: K vs Q [ENDORSED]

I have a question about when to use K and Q. Also, what's the main difference between the two. Thank you. :) k is the equilibrium constant that is temperature dependent (the same number for every temperature); it does not change unless temperature changes (as long as the reaction is at equilibrium)...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:40 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Difference between K and Q
Replies: 6
Views: 22

Re: Difference between K and Q

What is the difference between the equilibrium constant K and the reaction quotient Q? Does K remain constant, while Q is subject to change? k is the EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT. Q is just like k (in the sense that you solve for it exactly like k), however it is for when an the concentrations are NOT IN E...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:35 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: When to do ice tables [ENDORSED]
Replies: 4
Views: 18

Re: When to do ice tables [ENDORSED]

How do we know when to use an ICE table to find the composition of the mixture, or when we have to use only the K=[products]/[reactants] equation? Is it dependent on whether initial concentrations or equilibrium concentrations are given? Yes! What you decide to do in order to solve what is asked is...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:31 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Adding inert gas [ENDORSED]
Replies: 9
Views: 38

Re: Adding inert gas [ENDORSED]

How come adding inert gas to a reaction vessel would result in no change to the concentrations of the reactants and products? If nothing changes, what's the effect or purpose of adding the gas then (besides increasing pressure)? Adding an inert gas does not change concentration of the reactants and...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Jan 11, 2020 9:27 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ICE box
Replies: 9
Views: 27

Re: ICE box

When calculating the change in molar concentration with the quadratic equation, and the results are one positive number and one negative number, would there ever be a circumstance where the negative number is also an acceptable answer? It's all about context. If the value of x is negative, however ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:22 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Ozone lewis structure
Replies: 3
Views: 32

Re: Ozone lewis structure

Why is ozone's lewis structure drawn as one double bond and one single bond? Why is it not two double bonds with the formal charges on the oxygens all equal 0? If you draw ozone with two double bonds, then there isn't the 18 electrons that is needed for the lewis stucture of ozone (3x6 = 18), there...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:15 am
Forum: *Liquid Structure (Viscosity, Surface Tension, Liquid Crystals, Ionic Liquids)
Topic: Rod vs spherical shaped molecules
Replies: 8
Views: 56

Re: Rod vs spherical shaped molecules

Can someone explain the key differences between rod shaped and spherical shaped molecules? The main thing to remember with the rod shaped molecules is that they are closer to one another and thus the strength of the LDF is greater. With the spherical shaped molecules, they are father apart form eac...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:07 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: THE SONG DJ LL PLAYS AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS [ENDORSED]
Replies: 7
Views: 559

Re: THE SONG DJ LL PLAYS AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS [ENDORSED]

Elizabeth Johnson 1I wrote:it's Numb by Portishead
I found it out and thought it should be known by the general public that's all


Thank you Elizabeth for answering a question I've had for 10 weeks!
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:04 am
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: Definition of Polyprotic
Replies: 5
Views: 43

Re: Definition of Polyprotic

NicoJones_1B wrote:What are the definitions of polyprotic acids and bases?


Polyprotic refers to many protons.
Bases accept protons, acids donate protons, so polyprotic acids donate many protons, while polyprotic bases accept more than one proton.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Dec 07, 2019 12:01 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: London Dispersion Forces
Replies: 4
Views: 35

Re: London Dispersion Forces

NicoJones_1B wrote:Do all molecules have london dispersion forces?


Yes, all molecules have LDF because think of the electrons as constantly moving, so there are dipoles that are induced attracted to other induced dipoles. That's why LDF can also be referred to as induced dipole induced dipole.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:57 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: is h-bonding different than dipole-dipole
Replies: 3
Views: 29

Re: is h-bonding different than dipole-dipole

Is hydrogen bonding a form of dipole-dipole force, and if not, do we have to list both in a molecule like NH3? Hydrogen bonding is a type of dipole dipole IMF. Dipole dipole is when there is a pull of the electrons towards a certain atom/direction, and H-bonding is when that pull is with a hydrogen...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Dec 06, 2019 11:53 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Basic Salts
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Re: Basic Salts

How and when does a salt containing a base change the pH of a solution? Matthew spoke in the review session that salts whose cations come from weak bases will act as an acid and will lower the pH, and if the anions come from weak acids they will act as bases and raise the pH. There is more practice...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:13 pm
Forum: Air Pollution & Acid Rain
Topic: Clean Coal vs Dirty Coal?
Replies: 16
Views: 118

Re: Clean Coal vs Dirty Coal?

can someone explain the difference between clean coal and dirty coal? I remember it being explained in the lecture in terms of Carbon of Sulfur dominant, but I don't remember which was clean and which was dirty. The difference between clean coal and dirty coal is the amount of sulfur content in the...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:08 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Shortcut for Formal Charge
Replies: 14
Views: 90

Re: Shortcut for Formal Charge

Does anyone know any short method or trends that make it easier to know/calculate the formal charge of an atom? Like creating a double bond would help the formal charge to be more towards zero etc? For formal change, a fast way to check (although you should do the calculation (FC = valence - (#bond...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:01 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Strongest Bonds
Replies: 11
Views: 82

Re: Strongest Bonds

In our notes it says bonds between two ions have -250kJ of energy and are most favorable. Is the next most favorable type of bond, a Hydrogen bond? I think the order of the strength of the IMFs according to the textbook (strongest to weakest, by Ep/(kJmol^-1) is: Ion-ion, hydrogen-bonds, ion-dipole...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 30, 2019 4:57 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Lewis Acids & Bases vs Bronsted Acids & Bases
Replies: 2
Views: 18

Re: Lewis Acids & Bases vs Bronsted Acids & Bases

Hi! What is the difference between the "types" or "definitions" of the acids and bases? I feel like the definitions are predicated on the same idea of being an electron donor or receiver so I am a bit confused. Thanks! There are two definitions of acids and bases. For the Bronst...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 30, 2019 12:02 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Proton acceptor and proton donor?
Replies: 33
Views: 129

Re: Proton acceptor and proton donor?

Kimberly Bauer 4E wrote:Which is a proton acceptor and which is the proton donor? I always forget it lol


A Bronsted acid donates a proton.
A Bronsted base accepts a proton.

This is different than

A Lewis acid accepts an e- pair.
A Lewis Base donates an e- pair.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Nov 29, 2019 11:56 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Metal Oxidation Number
Replies: 3
Views: 21

Re: Metal Oxidation Number

Is there a quick formula or trick that can give me the oxidation state of a metal in a a coordination compound? I think that the best way to figure out the oxidation number of a metal is just to look at the given equation and subtract the charges of the ligands from the total net charge until you o...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:56 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Boiling Points
Replies: 9
Views: 55

Re: Boiling Points

What intermolecular forces cause higher boiling points? Lower boiling points? And what are some examples? Something will have a higher boiling point when the IMFs are stronger, or there are more of them that makes them stronger. If something has two hydrogen bonds it will have a higher boiling poin...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:49 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: AXE formula
Replies: 32
Views: 1552

Re: AXE formula

is it possible to determine the shape of a molecule if you're only given the AXE formula, if so how do you do it? The formula tells you how many lone pairs as well as how many attached atoms there are to the central atom. The subscript after X is how many atoms attached to the central atom. In AX2E...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:42 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Best Approach to Find IMFs
Replies: 11
Views: 72

Re: Best Approach to Find IMFs

What are your best methods for finding intermolecular forces of a molecule? Do we start out with drawing the Lewis structure? yes, drawing the Lewis structure is the best first step, because it will help you best visualize, as much as possible, what is happening regarding which atoms are attached t...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:30 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Prefixes
Replies: 4
Views: 33

Re: Prefixes

Tracey Tran 3I wrote:When do we use the prefixes, bis, tris, tetrakis, pentakis?


As Tracy Tran mentioned it's when the ligand already has the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. In class, I think I remember Dr. Lavelle mentioning how it's just so you don't say "di- di-" or other prefixes multiple times.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:26 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: T-shaped v. Trigonal pyramid
Replies: 9
Views: 58

Re: T-shaped v. Trigonal pyramid

Just for clarification, T-shaped is 3 atoms with 2 lone pair and trigonal pyramidal is 3 atoms with 1 lone pair, correct? Thanks! T-shaped electron shape is trigonal bipyramidal, so think of that shape, but then replace two atoms with electron lone pairs, to get the molecular shape, so yes, you get...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:20 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 7
Views: 29

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

To my understanding, Sigma bonds are between single bonds and are able to rotate and Pi bonds are the bonds after the first bond of a sigma bond and cannot rotate. Do we need to know anything else for these types of bonds? Regarding sigma and pi bonds I think that the most important things to know ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:43 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent and Angular?
Replies: 6
Views: 35

Re: Bent and Angular?

Ghadir Seder 4F wrote:When referring to structures, are bent and angular the same thing?


I also was confused when I saw that in the book it was referred to as angular, and in class it was bent, but they are the exact same thing! 2 attached atoms and zero lone pairs.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:40 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar vs. Nonpolar
Replies: 12
Views: 79

Re: Polar vs. Nonpolar

Can someone explain how to determine if a molecule is polar or non polar by looking at its molecular geometry/shape? By looking at the shape of the molecule, yes, most likely you can determine the polarity of that molecule. If the shape is linear, tetrahedral, and octahedral most likely the shape w...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:36 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: How to treat Radicals
Replies: 5
Views: 47

Re: How to treat Radicals

If a radical is treated as 1 region of electron density, similar to a lone pair, does it also take up a larger region and create greater electron repulsion than a bonding-bonding pair? In class, Dr. Lavelle said that radicals are one region of electron density. They do have electron repulsion, but ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:32 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 8
Views: 44

Re: Bond Angles

How do you calculate the bond angles for molecules? Bond angle are something that you just have to memorize (109.5 for tetrahedral, etc.). However, many bond angles for molecules are quite intuitive, for example, for linear it is 180. It can be confusing when an angle of less than an angles, but th...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:27 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: What is VSPER
Replies: 14
Views: 141

Re: What is VSPER

what does VSPER stand for and do we need to memorize it? VSEPR is an acronym for "valence-shell-electron-pair-repulsion" model. It explains experimentally the observed shape of molecules. Yes, we need to know it 100% as it encompasses all the various shapes that we will have to determine ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 16, 2019 9:23 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: polar or non polar?
Replies: 7
Views: 41

Re: polar or non polar?

how can you tell if a molecule is nonpolar or polar based on its lewis structure? or can you only tell from the difference in electronegativity? You would use both the lewis structure and the electronegativity to tell if the molecule is polar or non-polar. For example, in class when Dr. Lavelle sho...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 6:04 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Hydrogen bonding
Replies: 8
Views: 35

Re: Hydrogen bonding

NicoJones_1B wrote:Why will hydrogen only form bonds with highly electronegative atoms?


In lecture, Dr. Lavelle, said that hydrogen bonds form only when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to N, O, F atoms and is close to another electronegative atom (I'm assuming N, O, F) that has a lone pair nearby.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:59 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: When to draw Resonance Structures
Replies: 14
Views: 81

Re: When to draw Resonance Structures

For the midterm, should we always draw the resonance structures or will we be okay with drawing the most stable structure? I guess more clearly I am wondering if Dr. Lavelle will specify "draw the Lewis Structure and its resonance forms" or should we still draw the resonance structures if...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:54 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 18
Views: 71

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

When drawing regular lewis structures do you always have to draw them where their formal charges are zero? The lower the formal charge, the more stable the structure. In theory, yes the formal charges for each atom doesn't have to be zero, but the closer to zero the better, because of this stability.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:47 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: London forces
Replies: 9
Views: 53

Re: London forces

AlyssaYeh_1C wrote:Why is the london interaction considered "universal"?


The reason why the force is considered universal, is because it is always present and attractive for all molecules because all have electrons. The fluctuating electrons distribution causes the fluctuating dipoles.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:40 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 39

Re: Bonds

Aedra Li 3H wrote:What is the difference between pi bonds and sigma bonds?


Single Bonds: All single bonds are sigma bonds.
Double Bonds: In double bonds on is a sigma bonds, the other is a pi bond.
Triple bonds: One is a pi bond, the other two are sigma bonds.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:37 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarisability vs Polarizing Power
Replies: 15
Views: 104

Re: Polarisability vs Polarizing Power

What is the difference between Polarisability and Polarizing Power? Polarizabilty are anions that are large. You can think of it as the ability to be polarized, so the larger it is the more ability to be affected but the cation. Polarizing power is the small cation that causes the atom that has a l...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:53 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Dino Nuggets 13.2
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Re: Dino Nuggets 13.2

(b) Matt walks in, hoping to absorb some of the potassium ions in the air to alleviate his cramps. He thinks to himself, “I wonder what the frequency of the potassium ion is?” and divides the speed of light by the wavelength to obtain a frequency of 2.671x10^16 Hz for each potassium ion. Is he corr...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:48 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Work Function
Replies: 6
Views: 37

Re: Work Function

What exactly is the definition of work function? If it's the energy needed to remove a single electron from solid metal, why is the unit sometimes J per mole? The work function is energy to remove e-. Usually you want the units to be joules per electron (the amount of joules to remove one e-), So, ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:41 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Converting mass to kilograms for de broglie
Replies: 7
Views: 30

Re: Converting mass to kilograms for de broglie

If a problem wants you to find the wavelength of an ion or an atom given the speed its traveling and no other information, how do you get the mass of the singular atom? If it was potassium for example, would you use the molar mass of potassium, change it to kilograms, and then divide by avogadros n...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:34 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: What are the octet exceptions?
Replies: 11
Views: 66

Re: What are the octet exceptions?

n = 3 energy levels, or elements after P, have access to an empty d-orbital. Because of this accessible d-orbital, the elements are exceptions to the octet rule. Elements in group 13 (column with B, Al, etc.) are also exceptions with 3 pairs of e-, rather than an octet.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:25 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 4
Views: 22

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

What is the best way to know how to draw lewis structures and where to put double bonds or single bonds? For example, how do you know where to put double bonds in ClO4-? With drawing Lewis Structures, the most important things is to draw the proper amount of electrons and the placement of the atoms...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Nov 02, 2019 3:16 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Minimizing Formal Charges
Replies: 5
Views: 43

Re: Minimizing Formal Charges

When you are finding the lewis structure with the least amount of energy, is the goal to minimize the formal energy of each of the different atoms or of the molecule as a whole. For example would you rather have three charges equal 0 and one equal 1 or would you rather have 2 charges equal 0, one e...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:37 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Calculating Subshells
Replies: 3
Views: 31

Re: Calculating Subshells

If you are given that n = 4 and want to get the amount of subshells there are, why is the final answer 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f. I think you would first need to convert it to Angular Momentum, which you give you 3. Since 3 leaves you at the f-orbital, it means you'd have all those shells up to the f orbi...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:32 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: bond length
Replies: 9
Views: 67

Re: bond length

should we know how to calculate the bond lengths of the lewis structures? is there even a way to do that? Calculating the length of bonds are done in a lab setting. I think that we just have to know that as there are more bonds, the lengths are shorter. However, in real life, bonds are a hybrid of ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:23 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Octet exception examples
Replies: 9
Views: 89

Re: Octet exception examples

Jina Kwon wrote:What are the octet exception examples that we usually need to know on tests?


In addition to the octet examples that others mentioned (H, He, Li, Be, and occasionally B), elements after phosphorus can have an expanded octet due to the additional d shell orbitals in n=3 and after.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:19 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Expanded Valence Shells
Replies: 4
Views: 36

Re: Expanded Valence Shells

Yazmin Bocanegra 3L wrote:What is an expanded valence shell, and how do you identify one?


Also, any element may have an expanded valence shell, as long as it does not have n=1 or n=2 quantum number. Elements, phosphorus and after can have an expanded valence shell.
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:14 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Drawing Lewis Structures
Replies: 8
Views: 57

Re: Drawing Lewis Structures

Is there ever an exception where you won't choose the atom with the lowest ionization energy as the central atom? I believe that unless there's only two atoms in the molecule (no central atom), or there's a molecule that doesn't really have any central atom (Bradly mentioned a fatty acid), the atom...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 25, 2019 11:07 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Resonance structures
Replies: 5
Views: 30

Re: Resonance structures

For a compound, would the best way to represent it in Lewis structures is to draw out every structure and use double headed arrows? Drawing all resonance structures most accurately represents what is actually happening in a lab setting, however, unless explicitly stated, I think that one would be s...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Oct 19, 2019 11:21 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Intensity of Light
Replies: 5
Views: 36

Re: Intensity of Light

How come in the photoelectric effect, the intensity of the light does not affect the amount of electrons ejected? Does intensity not indicate higher energy of the incidence light? With the photoelectric effect the most important thing to remember is intensity versus energy. The greater the intensit...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Fri Oct 18, 2019 12:12 am
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Unit keV
Replies: 4
Views: 41

Re: Unit keV

What does the unit keV stand for? Saw this unit on problem B5, did Professor Lavelle ever introduce this in the lectures? KeV stands of Kilo electronvolt. To convert you just need to know: 1) 1 kilo- is equal to 1000 base units (in this case eV). 2) 1eV is equal to 1.60218x10^-19 joules I don't rem...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:57 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Confusion on equations
Replies: 9
Views: 115

Re: Confusion on equations

I was wondering when do we each equation? Do each equation solve for something different. I know they all are switched around but I'm just confused about which ones to use for certain questions? E=hv lambda*v=c E=h*(c/lambda) lambda=(hc/E) Think of the first three applied to light or a photon, whil...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:52 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: G orbital
Replies: 6
Views: 42

Re: G orbital

I don't quite know where the g orbital fits in the periodic table and what do we need to know about the g orbital? The g orbital, I believe, is thought of more as a possibility that may occur if the electron reaches a state in which n is large (larger than we've seen so far). As Angie stated, I too...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 17, 2019 11:47 pm
Forum: *Shrodinger Equation
Topic: psi vs psi^2
Replies: 7
Views: 78

Re: psi vs psi^2

Hi can someone further explain the difference between psi and psi^2? psi is the wave function that represents the state of the electron, while psi^2 is the probability of finding the electron. The main focus of psi is the quantum numbers (n, l, nl) and the spin state ms associated with it. psi^2 or...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Tue Oct 15, 2019 5:55 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: symbol
Replies: 4
Views: 25

Re: symbol

Hi, this may seem like a silly question by what does the symbol that looks like a fish mean? To be clearer, it is like an infinity sign but one side of it is unfinished. Thank you! Yes, as everyone mentioned the "little fish" is the symbol for proportional to. This means that as one goes ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sat Oct 12, 2019 8:06 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Differences between Particle and Wave
Replies: 5
Views: 35

Re: Differences between Particle and Wave

Hey can someone please help explain the differences exactly? I'm a bit confused. I believe that all matter has wavelike properties, however only when objects have a very small mass, e- for example, can such wavelike properties be actually tested upon. Seen with De Broglie's equation, any moving par...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 10, 2019 11:01 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: # of molecules and formula units?
Replies: 5
Views: 85

Re: # of molecules and formula units?

Are "number of molecules" and "formula units" considered the same unit? As in, do we use avogadro's number to get the answer when its required to be in those units? Yes, you would use Avogadro's Constant for finding the formula units. Usually, you first find the amount of moles ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:57 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: E=hv
Replies: 43
Views: 1947

Re: E=hv

The E in E = hv represents the energy of a photon. The E in Ek = 1/2(mv^2) represents the excess energy after an electron is removed from a metal. Just to clarify, if there is excess energy after the electron is ejected, that energy would be converted to kinetic energy (Ek). The v in the equation E...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:51 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Unit for Avogadro's Number
Replies: 10
Views: 122

Re: Unit for Avogadro's Number

I know that when you use Avogadro's number you are converting from moles but what unit are you converting to? A TA had told me that is depends on the context of the question but I am still unsure. Does anybody have any good examples/ways to interpret it? I am specifically struggling with whether or...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:41 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Relationship between lambda and nu
Replies: 5
Views: 65

Re: Relationship between lambda and nu

What would the relationship be between Lambda and Nu? How would one affect the other? thank you so much! Lambda and nu have an inverse relationship. Lambda multiplied by nu is equal to c or the speed of light in a vacuum. Lambda is equal to the wavelength, while nu is equal to the frequency. Due to...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 10, 2019 10:36 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Mass Percentage Question
Replies: 9
Views: 179

Re: Mass Percentage Question

What is the mass percent of the elements in Sr(NO2)2 ? how would you start to solve this question? Percent composition by mass is basically asking what is the percentage of the various elements in a molecule. For your provided example, you would: 1) Find the molar mass of the molecule 2) Find the w...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:33 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Balancing Reactions
Replies: 25
Views: 270

Re: Balancing Reactions

quresh3E wrote:Is there a particular order we have to list our products and reactants?


In writing a chemical equation, there is no specified order in which we should write the reactants and products. As long as the equations are balanced, and display what is being asked in the problem, you are all set!
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Sun Oct 06, 2019 6:31 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Question/Clarification: G25
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: Question/Clarification: G25

Justin Sarquiz 1K wrote:Yes, you should formulate an equation to see how many times you can double the solution before there are no molecules left. If that answer is less than 90, then you know that solution will have no health benefits.


Got it! Thank you Justin, just wanted to make sure!
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Thu Oct 03, 2019 10:39 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Question/Clarification: G25
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Question/Clarification: G25

Hello everyone, I have a question about G25. So just to clarify, there is a solution with a molarity of 0.10 mol*l^-1, you take out 10. ml of that solution and add an additional 10. ml. You do the above process 90 times. The problem asks if the claim that a highly dilute solution has any effect (if ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Wed Oct 02, 2019 11:18 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Balancing Chemical Equations Formatting
Replies: 6
Views: 94

Re: Balancing Chemical Equations Formatting

In some homework problems, reactant/products are sometimes formatted like Mg(N 3 ) 2 (s). How should I be interpreting problems like this in order to balance them correctly? Should I see it as equal to MgN 6 (s) or Mg 2 N 6 (s) or some other way? For balancing equations with parenthesis, multiply t...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Wed Oct 02, 2019 11:13 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Molar Mass
Replies: 10
Views: 85

Re: Molar Mass

Is the molar mass calculated from the periodic table or does it have to be given? What is actually meant by molar mass? Molar mass is calculated from the atomic mass given on the periodic table. to find the molar mass, just break apart each element in a molecule and add each of their atomic masses....
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Wed Oct 02, 2019 11:06 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Sig figs
Replies: 18
Views: 169

Re: Sig figs

Do we apply Sig Figs after every calculation or only to the end result? I am not sure, but I usually do it at the end cause your result can be inaccurate, if you don't have enough sig.figs. I round up to 4 significant figures after each question and in the end round to the least sig.figs available ...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Tue Oct 01, 2019 8:44 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Avogadro's Number [ENDORSED]
Replies: 12
Views: 152

Re: Avogadro's Number [ENDORSED]

Think of 6.022x10^23 as the amount of "things" in a mole. If you have 6.022x10^23 cats you have a mole of cats. If you have 6.022x10^23 voles (a gopher-like animal) , you have a mole of voles. So, if they ask how many molecules of let's say CO2 in 4 moles, multiply 4 by 6.022x10^23, and th...
by Nicholas_Gladkov_2J
Tue Oct 01, 2019 8:34 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: SIG FIGS
Replies: 11
Views: 141

Re: SIG FIGS

With Sig figs there are just two rules: 1) With addition just look at the numbers after the decimal place. Smallest amount of numbers after the decimal is how many numbers are after the decimal there are in the answer 2) With Multiplication, just look at how many numbers there are in totality. Small...

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