## Search found 109 matches

Fri Mar 13, 2020 1:21 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: Slowest step
Replies: 9
Views: 125

### Re: Slowest step

No matter how quickly the fastest reaction occurs, the full reaction is not complete until the slowest one is done. Therefore, the rate of the full reaction is determined by the slowest step.
Fri Mar 13, 2020 1:12 pm
Forum: Zero Order Reactions
Topic: Calculus
Replies: 10
Views: 108

### Re: Calculus

I think in deriving the equations, we use some basic integration rules, but for specific ones like the integral of ln, the rule is usually given.
Fri Mar 13, 2020 12:59 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: kinetics vs. thermodynamics
Replies: 7
Views: 74

### Re: kinetics vs. thermodynamics

Kinetics focuses on the process and speed of the reaction, while thermodynamics focuses on the beginning and end of the reaction, regardless of how the reaction got there.
Fri Mar 13, 2020 12:50 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Thermodynamics delta G
Replies: 3
Views: 87

### Re: Thermodynamics delta G

Thermodynamics concerns the beginning and end states of a reaction, which delta G gives us information about. Delta G tells the difference between the free energy at the end of the reaction and at the beginning.
Fri Mar 13, 2020 12:48 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Kinetics vs thermodynamics
Replies: 3
Views: 71

### Re: Kinetics vs thermodynamics

Kinetics describes the pathway of reactions, with an emphasis on the activation energy that signifies the energy difference between the free energy of reactants and the transition state. Kinetic analysis is about the speed or rate of reaction, using experimental techniques to observe reactant &...
Mon Mar 09, 2020 2:46 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Arrhenius Equation
Replies: 4
Views: 59

### Re: Arrhenius Equation

It relates the equilibrium constant, k, to temperature, activation energy, and A. Given any 3 of these, you could find the other variable.
Mon Mar 09, 2020 2:43 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Equations
Replies: 2
Views: 25

### Re: Equations

Yes, taking the natural log of both sides of the first equation would give you the second equation.
Mon Mar 09, 2020 2:41 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Pre Equillibrium
Replies: 2
Views: 34

### Re: Pre Equillibrium

If the second step is the "slow step," there will be a buildup of the product of the first step, so the first reaction will tend to go in the reverse direction as well, creating an equilibrium scenario.
Mon Mar 09, 2020 2:39 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Catalysts
Replies: 16
Views: 593

### Re: Catalysts

The way a catalyst lowers the activation energy is by creating a completely new path to get to the products, which has a lower activation energy.
Mon Mar 09, 2020 2:38 pm
Forum: Arrhenius Equation, Activation Energies, Catalysts
Topic: Identifying Catalysts
Replies: 6
Views: 59

### Re: Identifying Catalysts

Is a catalyst considered a type of intermediate?
Sun Mar 01, 2020 7:20 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Integrated Rate Law
Replies: 5
Views: 62

### Re: Integrated Rate Law

The differential equation tells the change in concentration over time, but the integrated equation tells the specific concentration at any specific time.
Sun Mar 01, 2020 7:03 pm
Forum: Biological Examples (*DNA Structural Transitions, etc.)
Topic: Examples Expected to Know
Replies: 10
Views: 379

### Re: Examples Expected to Know

Does anyone remember any specific ones that were mentioned in class?
Sun Mar 01, 2020 6:59 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: zero order reaction
Replies: 3
Views: 295

### Re: zero order reaction

A zero order equation integrated gives a first order equation, which when graphed, gives a straight line, as opposed to a second order equation, like something with x^2, that gives a parabola.
Sun Mar 01, 2020 6:52 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Order of reaction
Replies: 3
Views: 378

### Re: Order of reaction

We use the rate to compare how it will change when concentration changes. To get the overall order of the equation, we add the orders of each reactant.
Wed Feb 26, 2020 4:56 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Platinum on one side of galvanic diagram
Replies: 3
Views: 43

### Re: Platinum on one side of galvanic diagram

What makes something able to act as an electrode or not?
Wed Feb 26, 2020 4:52 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Eo as an intensive property
Replies: 9
Views: 111

### Re: Eo as an intensive property

Could someone explain why Eo doesn't change when the amount of matter changes? Does this mean that the maximum potential of a battery stays the same no matter how much of the reduced and oxidized substances you have?
Wed Feb 26, 2020 4:44 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: nerst
Replies: 7
Views: 118

### Re: nerst

After balancing the redox reaction, you can see how many moles of electrons are transferred in the reaction. Use the coefficient of e- after simplifying the balanced reaction.
Wed Feb 26, 2020 4:41 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Work
Replies: 4
Views: 62

### Re: Work

Also, how does the potential for work relate to E?
Wed Feb 26, 2020 4:40 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Work
Replies: 4
Views: 62

### Work

How is a battery doing work through the redox reaction? Is there a change in energy happening with this?
Wed Feb 19, 2020 11:05 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Potential difference between electrodes
Replies: 3
Views: 37

### Re: Potential difference between electrodes

I believe the idea behind this expression is that the maximum potential change in voltage occurs before any change has occurred.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 10:22 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Battery Dying
Replies: 4
Views: 47

### Battery Dying

Would a battery technically never die if there is a salt bridge or porous film? It sounds like the salt bridge brings it back to equilibrium, so if so, why would the battery die?
Wed Feb 19, 2020 10:19 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Anode and Cathode position
Replies: 5
Views: 64

### Re: Anode and Cathode position

Dr. Lavelle mentioned that this is the common arrangement, but it should be possible to tell based on other information given which one is the anode and which is the cathode. I wouldn't rely on it always being in this arrangement, though.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 10:11 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Balancing Redox Reactions
Replies: 5
Views: 28

### Re: Balancing Redox Reactions

Overall, just be sure both the electrons gained or lost on the left are equal to those gained or lost on the right. Usually, the oxidation states are the most obvious sign to use to balance the reactions.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 2:37 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 4
Views: 31

### Re: Salt Bridge

The salt bridge allows the electrons to continue to flow by replacing the charge that is transferred from the cathode to the anode. It allows the cycle to continue until the voltage reaches zero.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 2:22 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Balancing half reactions
Replies: 11
Views: 91

### Re: Balancing half reactions

Yes, they should cancel out, which is why we must balance the reduction and oxidation reactions, to make sure the number of electrons on the left is equal to the number of electrons on the right.
Mon Feb 03, 2020 5:50 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: internal energy
Replies: 4
Views: 36

### Re: internal energy

We can find delta U by subtracting the Initial U from the final U. We simply look at the two states, not the process of getting from the initial to the final.
Mon Feb 03, 2020 5:48 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: w=-P(deltaV) derivation
Replies: 3
Views: 31

### Re: w=-P(deltaV) derivation

The integral represents the sum of all the changes over a certain change in volume. We take the negative integral of P with respect to the change in V, but since P is constant, we bring it out of the integral and multiply it by the integral of dV from v1 to v2. Evaluating the integral gives you V2-V...
Mon Feb 03, 2020 5:34 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Expansion/Extension
Replies: 2
Views: 49

### Re: Expansion/Extension

An example for work of expansion is like the one we talked about in class today. A gas can push the piston to expand its volume. This is energy being given off as work.
Mon Feb 03, 2020 5:32 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Degeneracy and Volume
Replies: 6
Views: 61

### Re: Degeneracy and Volume

Is W2/W1 always equal to V2/V1? The proportion between W2/W1 and V2/V1 will always be equal, although the value of W2 and V2 will be different. How can the proportions be the same but the values be different? Can someone please elaborate or give an example so I can further understand? (: W2 does no...
Mon Feb 03, 2020 5:12 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Thermodynamics Laws
Replies: 4
Views: 50

### Re: Thermodynamics Laws

Which equations, if any, does each law correspond to?
Wed Jan 29, 2020 2:35 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: What systems go with what equations?
Replies: 2
Views: 26

### Re: What systems go with what equations?

We use w=-P(delta V) only when pressure is constant. Otherwise, we use the integral from v1 to v2 of -P(ex) times the change in V.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 2:33 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: State Property
Replies: 6
Views: 70

### State Property

Is U a state property? Why or why not?
Wed Jan 29, 2020 2:31 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: 4A.1
Replies: 12
Views: 69

### Re: 4A.1

Isolated systems are insulated while closed systems are not. This means that while the amount of matter is constant in both, closed systems can exchange energy with their environment while insulated systems cannot.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 2:28 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: 4A 1 Part c)
Replies: 5
Views: 78

### Re: 4A 1 Part c)

MariaJohn1D wrote:Does the pressure change in a bomb calorimeter?

The pressure within the calorimeter can change when there is a reaction. However, the pressure inside is not changed by the external pressure because it is an isolated system.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 2:24 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Calorimeters as Isolated Systems
Replies: 2
Views: 50

### Re: Calorimeters as Isolated Systems

Dr. Lavelle specified in class that there can still be a lot happening within the system, without it interacting with the surroundings. Everything within the calorimeter is part of the system, and reactions can still occur within the system. However, there will be no energy transfer with anything ou...
Mon Jan 27, 2020 4:45 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Why does steam cause burns?
Replies: 29
Views: 256

### Re: Why does steam cause burns?

Is there a reason why the horizontal line for vaporizing water is so much longer than the one for melting ice?
Mon Jan 27, 2020 4:32 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: steam at 100ºC burn worse
Replies: 7
Views: 377

### Re: steam at 100ºC burn worse

When the vapor touches your hand, it undergoes a phase change to become liquid on your hand, therefore releasing even more energy in the form of heat. However, when boiling water touches your hand, it does not have that extra energy to release because it is already in the liquid phase.
Mon Jan 27, 2020 4:25 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: boiling points
Replies: 4
Views: 332

### Re: boiling points

It begins to vaporize when the temperature reaches the boiling point. It stays at that temperature until it's completely vaporized.
Mon Jan 27, 2020 12:23 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: ∆H
Replies: 17
Views: 131

### Re: ∆H

Often, if you know what kind of reaction it is, you can determine if it is endothermic or exothermic. For example, breaking a bond is usually endothermic.
Mon Jan 27, 2020 12:16 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: State Property
Replies: 6
Views: 54

### Re: State Property

Could someone also explain why heat is not a state property? Thanks!
Sun Jan 19, 2020 11:53 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Adding Acid/Base to Neutral Water
Replies: 1
Views: 21

### Re: Adding Acid/Base to Neutral Water

I believe so. If the amount of H3O+ or OH- added is so small, the change in pH is negligible.
Sun Jan 19, 2020 11:44 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Q
Replies: 6
Views: 110

### Re: Q

Q is used to determine whether the reaction is at equilibrium or not. The equation for Q is the same equation as the one for K. We compare Q to K to determine which way the reaction is shifted.
Sun Jan 19, 2020 9:56 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Conjugate Seesaw
Replies: 5
Views: 41

### Re: Conjugate Seesaw

A strong acid wants to completely dissociate, so it makes sense that the conjugate base would be weak because it is unfavorable for it to form more of the strong acid. The same is true for strong bases. It would be unfavorable for the conjugate acid to form the strong base.
Sun Jan 19, 2020 9:42 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: reactants and products in dynamic equilibria
Replies: 3
Views: 36

### Re: reactants and products in dynamic equilibria

It is uncommon for the reactants and products to have the same stability, so the equilibrium lies toward the side that is more stable because a reaction in that direction will happen more readily.
Sun Jan 19, 2020 9:27 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: 5% rule
Replies: 4
Views: 48

### Re: 5% rule

When we create ICE charts and and solve for X, we often get in the denominator the initial concentration minus X. However, we use the 5% rule to determine whether it is valid to simply the denominator to simply the initial concentration to make it easier to solve for X. We can do this simplification...
Sat Jan 18, 2020 4:09 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Exponents and the K constant
Replies: 4
Views: 76

### Re: Exponents and the K constant

We are essentially multiplying the concentrations of all the products. So if you have R1+R2 <-> 2P, it's like having P + P, so to find K, we multiply [P]x[P], so [P]^2.
Sat Jan 18, 2020 3:56 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Different types of acids/bases
Replies: 3
Views: 33

### Re: Different types of acids/bases

I think the only place this would come into play is when writing the chemical equation. After we have the correct chemical equation, we treat the rest of the problem the same with any type of acid or base.
Sat Jan 18, 2020 3:52 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: pH values of weak and strong acids
Replies: 6
Views: 49

### Re: pH values of weak and strong acids

Because weak acids do not dissociate completely, some concentration of a weak acid would produce less H3O+ than the same concentration of a strong acid. Therefore, the concentration of H3O+ will be lower with the weak acid, so the pH will be higher.
Sat Jan 18, 2020 3:36 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: 5I 25
Replies: 4
Views: 38

### Re: 5I 25

It depends on what the question is asking. You would find Q to compare it to K to determine whether the reaction is at equilibrium, and if not, which way it leans toward.
Tue Jan 14, 2020 5:50 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: concentrations
Replies: 5
Views: 31

### Re: concentrations

The only factor we have learned that changes K is temperature. K is the ratio of P to R, so when although the concentration of R increases, P proportionally increases to keep the ratio constant. Their individual concentrations change, however their ratio remains.
Wed Dec 04, 2019 1:43 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Molecules combining with water
Replies: 5
Views: 89

### Re: Molecules combining with water

Group 1 ions do not usually affect the pH of the solution. That is why K+ is left out.
Wed Dec 04, 2019 1:40 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Electronegativity and Acid Strength
Replies: 3
Views: 65

### Re: Electronegativity and Acid Strength

Also, when it has more electronegative atoms, it pulls the electron density away from the OH bond, making the bond weaker, so it's easier for the H to be removed. Thus, it's a stronger acid.
Wed Dec 04, 2019 1:39 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Definition of Acid
Replies: 4
Views: 56

### Re: Definition of Acid

Something can be a Lewis acid and Bronsted acid at the same time, but they don't always have to be both. However, they will never contradict each other.
Wed Dec 04, 2019 1:37 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: How does anion stability contribute to relative acidity?
Replies: 6
Views: 92

### Re: How does anion stability contribute to relative acidity?

When the anion is stable, the dissociation of the acid is more likely to happen because reactions favor stability. This makes it a stronger acid.
Wed Dec 04, 2019 10:31 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Problem J.9
Replies: 4
Views: 71

### Re: Problem J.9

How would you do it for ammonia and phosphoric acid?
Wed Dec 04, 2019 12:03 am
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: J.9
Replies: 4
Views: 84

### Re: J.9

After taking out H2O because you know water and a salt are formed, try combining the anion of one molecule with the cation of the other to find the salt.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 11:58 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: HW Problem 6.21
Replies: 1
Views: 52

### Re: HW Problem 6.21

Where N has a lone pair, it can usually accept a proton.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 11:55 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: pH Sig Figs
Replies: 4
Views: 71

### pH Sig Figs

Do leading zeros after the decimal count as significant figures in pH? for example, if there is a pH of 3.043, does the zero count as a sig fig?
Tue Dec 03, 2019 11:52 pm
Forum: Calculating the pH of Salt Solutions
Topic: Anion Exceptions
Replies: 3
Views: 39

### Re: Anion Exceptions

H2SO4- and H2PO4- are anions that can act as acids, whereas most anions do not. Although they have an overall negative charge, they have more H atoms that they can give up.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 11:49 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Hw 6C19
Replies: 3
Views: 55

### Re: Hw 6C19

In both molecules, the H are bonded to the O. So, we can't use that to differentiate the strength of the H bonds. However, since Cl is more electronegative, it pulls the electrons more toward itself and away from the O-H bond, so the O-H bond becomes weaker, which means the acid is stronger.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:38 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Salt
Replies: 5
Views: 63

### Re: Salt

It depends on the salt. The salt will only affect the pH of the water if the dissociated ions are unstable and therefore react with the water. The product of the dissociation can either pull a H atom off of a water molecule, turning into -OH, or add a H atom, making it H3O+.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:31 pm
Forum: Air Pollution & Acid Rain
Topic: Carbon Dioxide and respiratory acidosis
Replies: 5
Views: 648

### Re: Carbon Dioxide and respiratory acidosis

Does the CO2 make the body more acidic when it interacts with water? Or is it when it interacts with something else? Or by itself?
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:28 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Strong Acids
Replies: 4
Views: 46

### Strong Acids

Why can strong acids not have a Ka value?
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:23 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Resonance Hybrid
Replies: 4
Views: 56

### Re: Resonance Hybrid

In the resulting anion, resonance makes the anion more stable because it delocalizes the charge of the electrons, so it's distributed more evenly across the molecule. this makes it less likely to react with other surrounding molecules.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:19 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Conjugate acids and bases with lewis/bronsted acids
Replies: 3
Views: 44

### Re: Conjugate acids and bases with lewis/bronsted acids

The Lewis definition and Bronsted definition will never contradict each other, so either way, an acid is an acid and the way it reacts doesn't have to do with its definition.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:15 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Electronegativity and acid strength
Replies: 5
Views: 73

### Re: Electronegativity and acid strength

Electronegativity is one of the ways by which the resulting anion of an acid losing a proton could be stable. When the resulting anion is more stable, the reaction is more likely to occur because reactions favor stability. Since the reaction is more likely to occur, more of the acid will dissociate,...
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:07 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: strong v weak acids
Replies: 8
Views: 105

### Re: strong v weak acids

It would be best to memorize the common strong acids and bases we talked about.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:03 pm
Forum: Calculating pH or pOH for Strong & Weak Acids & Bases
Topic: Strength of Strong Acids
Replies: 2
Views: 37

### Strength of Strong Acids

When it comes to strong acids, what conceptually makes one stronger than the other? If a strong acid, by definition, dissociates completely in water, how can there be varying levels of dissociating completely?
Mon Dec 02, 2019 11:00 pm
Forum: Air Pollution & Acid Rain
Topic: Reducing Acid Rain
Replies: 4
Views: 432

### Re: Reducing Acid Rain

Acid rain results from the sulfur that reacts with the water, so since clean coal has less sulfur, replacing it with "dirty" coal would be one way.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 10:47 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: Polyprotic Question!
Replies: 12
Views: 1024

### Re: Polyprotic Question!

Although having more than one H proton doesn't always mean that it's polyprotic, it's a good sign that it might be because it has multiple protons in the form of H atoms that it can release.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 10:45 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: pOH
Replies: 6
Views: 130

### Re: pOH

The p in pH and pOH just means "take the -log of" so if you need the pOH, you do -log[-OH]. Sometimes, you only have enough information to calculate the pOH, but you can then use it to calculate the pH if necessary.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 10:43 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: conjugate acids/bases
Replies: 4
Views: 54

### Re: conjugate acids/bases

You can write the formula for conjugate acids and bases by adding the original compound to water, and then showing that the reaction yields OH- and the conjugate acid or H+ and the conjugate base. For acid dissociation: A + H2O -> A- + H30+ A- is the conjugate base For base dissociation: B + H2O -> ...
Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:34 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Inorganic vs organic
Replies: 3
Views: 47

### Re: Inorganic vs organic

Organic molecules also contain a carbon atom.
Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:25 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Relative Acidity
Replies: 3
Views: 86

### Re: Relative Acidity

When the anion is unstable, the salt changes the pH of the solution because the anion may pull a H proton off of a water molecule, turning it into -OH, making the solution more basic.
Mon Nov 25, 2019 9:17 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: determining if polydentate
Replies: 3
Views: 58

### Re: determining if polydentate

This molecule has three Nitrogen atoms, each with a lone pair. Each long pair can form a bond with a cation, so it is tridentate.
Mon Nov 25, 2019 9:08 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Cisplatin
Replies: 8
Views: 77

### Re: Cisplatin

I believe it is because cisplatin has the chlorines pointing in the same general direction, so cisplatin can bond more strongly to DNA, whereas transplatin can only bind to the DNA on one site at a time and can easily be removed off of the DNA strand.
Mon Nov 25, 2019 9:03 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Homework 9C.3
Replies: 2
Views: 45

### Re: Homework 9C.3

When naming molecules, you first state the name of the cation, then the anion. Place the name of the complex anion or cation in brackets. Within the brackets, you name the ligands first, in alphabetical order. If there is more than one of any ligand, write the corresponding prefix for the ligand. If...
Mon Nov 25, 2019 8:54 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Focus 9C.3
Replies: 4
Views: 36

### Re: Focus 9C.3

The total charge of the whole anion is -3, so the charge of the cation must be +3 in order to neutralize the compound. Since the charge of potassium is +1, there must be three of them to reach a +3 charge.
Mon Nov 25, 2019 8:43 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Oxidation
Replies: 3
Views: 57

### Re: Oxidation

There isn't really a formula for it. Instead, you use the charge of the whole ion, when given, and the charge of the ligands with a known charge. The total charge of all the ligands and the metal must equal the total charge of the ion, so you figure out what charge the metal must have in order to ma...
Tue Nov 12, 2019 9:46 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 5
Views: 50

### Re: Electronegativity

The more valence electrons there are, the more electron-electron repulsion there is. The electrons repel each other, so they aren't pulled toward the nucleus as strongly.
Tue Nov 12, 2019 9:30 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond lengths in molecules
Replies: 7
Views: 80

### Re: Bond lengths in molecules

Bonds are longer or shorter depending on the distance between the two atoms. If there are multiple bonds, there are more shared electrons, so the atoms are more closely held together and the bonds are shorter. Also, if the atoms are smaller they can be closer together, so smaller atoms also make sho...
Tue Nov 12, 2019 9:13 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarizing Power
Replies: 4
Views: 137

### Re: Polarizing Power

You can use the trends on the periodic table we learned to determine which ions have the smallest size. The cations with the smallest size and highest charge have the most polarizing power.
Tue Nov 12, 2019 9:09 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Van Der Waals BP
Replies: 6
Views: 69

### Re: Van Der Waals BP

Forces that affect boiling point are based on the strength of the intermolecular forces, so the ones that would most affect BP are the ones that are the strongest. So ionic interactions would have the highest effect, followed by hydrogen bonding, then ion-dipole interactions, and the last few all b...
Tue Nov 12, 2019 9:04 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Strength of Interactions
Replies: 4
Views: 53

### Strength of Interactions

Which type of intermolecular interaction is strongest and why?
Thu Oct 31, 2019 6:49 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Octet confusion
Replies: 2
Views: 41

### Re: Octet confusion

The s and p orbitals are the most outer orbitals. An octet fils the s, px, py, and pz. When more electrons are added to the d orbital, they go in the d orbital of the lower energy level. For example, once you have 4s, the next electrons go to 3d. Therefore, since the 3d are not in the 4th energy lev...
Thu Oct 31, 2019 6:38 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge Calculation
Replies: 4
Views: 78

### Re: Formal Charge Calculation

When calculating the formal charge, we want the outer elements to carry the negative charge as opposed to the middle element right? If so, can someone explain why? The element with the lowest ionization energy goes in the middle, which means the middle one is less electronegative than the outer one...
Thu Oct 31, 2019 6:32 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 11
Views: 146

### Re: Electronegativity

Electronegativity is how strongly an atom will attract electrons. Generally, as atoms get closer to having a full valence shell, they are more and more likely to gain an electron, which is why electronegativity increases as you go further right on the periodic table.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 6:18 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 5
Views: 79

### Re: Resonance

Resonance structures still do follow the octet rule because they are just different possible structures for the molecule. Either way, to be stable, most atoms do follow the octet rule.
Thu Oct 31, 2019 5:49 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Electronegativity
Replies: 7
Views: 77

### Re: Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a calculated value, but for the test, we will not need to calculate or memorize the values.
Tue Oct 22, 2019 6:34 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: Lecture Question!
Replies: 5
Views: 114

### Re: Lecture Question!

If the energy of the photon exceeds the energy absorbed, the extra energy will be given off as light.
Tue Oct 22, 2019 6:21 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Balmer and Lyman series
Replies: 5
Views: 57

### Re: Balmer and Lyman series

Why do these series start at n=1 and not n=0 even though n=0 represents the s orbital?
Tue Oct 22, 2019 6:17 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Speed of light
Replies: 13
Views: 131

### Re: Speed of light

The speed of light can be used in regard to all types of electromagnetic radiation.
Tue Oct 22, 2019 6:12 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionization Energies Trend
Replies: 5
Views: 49

### Re: Ionization Energies Trend

Moving from left to right, the electrons added are in the same energy level. Therefore, the effect of shielding does not increase drastically with the addition of each one in a single period.
Tue Oct 22, 2019 5:57 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Effective Nuclear Charge
Replies: 7
Views: 51

### Re: Effective Nuclear Charge

The effective nuclear charge is the less intense attraction that the electron feels when it is shielded by other electrons. Because the full charge of the nucleus does not reach the electron, it is not pulled to the center of the atom as strongly, so this results in a bigger atomic radius.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 11:53 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: G orbital
Replies: 6
Views: 66

### Re: G orbital

The G orbital does exist, but in their ground state, electrons are not in the G orbital, so it is therefore not represented on the periodic table.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 11:37 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Where to find equations?
Replies: 5
Views: 70

### Re: Where to find equations?

The equations on the sheet in that link are everything that will be given during a test as well.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 11:27 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Spectrum of light
Replies: 6
Views: 71

### Re: Spectrum of light

Another note that might help is that ultraviolet is always next to violet, and infrared is always next to red. So, when trying to figure out what order the colors of the visible spectrum are in (starting with violet or red), remember this and the colors should be in order of energy level with the ot...
Fri Oct 18, 2019 11:19 am
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Indeterminacy in Position [ENDORSED]
Replies: 5
Views: 108

### Re: Indeterminacy in Position[ENDORSED]

So what distance does Δx represent on the electron level? The change in position between the first energy state and the second? Delta X is the distance in which the electron can be found. For example, in the particle in a box problem, delta x would be the diameter of the box. In atoms, we usually u...
Fri Oct 18, 2019 11:00 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Spin State
Replies: 17
Views: 148

### Re: Spin State

A +1/2 electron and a -1/2 electron would react differently when exposed to a magnetic field. This number differentiates between the two electrons, but it doesn't literally mean that they are moving in a specific direction.
Sun Oct 13, 2019 3:11 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Wavelike vs Particle-like Behavior
Replies: 6
Views: 85

### Re: Wavelike vs Particle-like Behavior

Wavelike properties mean that light travels like the ripples of water; it spreads in diffractions. Particle-like behavior means that each photon of light is a single object the travels like a bullet would. Light has both types of properties.