Search found 56 matches

by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:38 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: bases
Replies: 5
Views: 140

Re: bases

Strong bases dissociate completely in solution whereas weak bases do not. Typically, the reaction for a strong base has a single arrow indicating only a forward reaction, which makes sense since strong bases dissociate completely in solution.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:35 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: What does it mean when something is strong?
Replies: 8
Views: 143

Re: What does it mean when something is strong?

Strong acids and bases have weaker bonds between the molecules, which means that they dissociate completely in solution
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:34 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Cisplatin
Replies: 17
Views: 279

Re: Cisplatin

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug, and it binds to the nucleotides on DNA to stop cell growth; however, in doing so, it stops the production of normal cells.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:31 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: boiling point
Replies: 8
Views: 257

Re: boiling point

Substances that have a higher boiling point are more polar and greater IMF, such as dipole-dipole interactions, LDFs, hydrogen bonds, ion-ion, and dipole-induced-dipole.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:28 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Stronger acid?
Replies: 9
Views: 395

Re: Stronger acid?

To find out which one is the stronger acid between HClO and HClO2, look at the number of oxygens. Because both molecules have a H and Cl, it falls onto the number of O to determine which is the stronger acid. The general rule is the greater number of O's, the stronger the acid. This is because the o...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:24 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Hydrogen bonds
Replies: 5
Views: 134

Re: Hydrogen bonds

A hydrogen bond is between a H and an N, O, and F. Potential bonding sites are on the lone pairs of N, O, and F.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Dec 02, 2019 12:07 am
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Conjugate Acids and Bases
Replies: 4
Views: 58

Re: Conjugate Acids and Bases

A conjugate acid of a base is the species formed when the base accepts a proton; a conjugate base of an acid is the species formed when the acid donates a proton. Basically, identify the acids and bases in the reactants. Then, look for the species that has an H+ now and didn't have it before–that's ...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Dec 02, 2019 12:00 am
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Definition
Replies: 7
Views: 82

Re: Definition

A Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor and Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:59 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: cisplatin
Replies: 3
Views: 44

Re: cisplatin

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug used to treat cancer. Be sure not to confuse it with transplatin, which has the Cl atoms diagonally across from each other. Cisplatin has the Cl atoms on the same side, which is useful in stopping cell growth and metastasizing cancer.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Dec 01, 2019 11:43 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Relative Acidity
Replies: 4
Views: 52

Re: Relative Acidity

Delocalizing the charge makes the molecule more stable. For instance, between HClO and HClO4, HClO4 would be the stronger acid since it has more oxygens to delocalize the charge. In terms of these molecules too, the greater number of oxygen atoms attached to the central atom makes the molecule a str...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Nov 29, 2019 3:28 am
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Carboxylic Acids
Replies: 5
Views: 55

Carboxylic Acids

Why are all carboxylic acids weak in water?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Tue Nov 26, 2019 6:30 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Ligand of HN(CH2CH2NH2)2
Replies: 1
Views: 22

Ligand of HN(CH2CH2NH2)2

How is HN(CH2CH2NH2)2 tridentate? Is there anyway to think about this without drawing the Lewis structure?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 9:00 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization of PF5
Replies: 4
Views: 135

Hybridization of PF5

The hybridization of the central atom, P, is sp3d because it's shape is trigonal bipyramidal. What is the hybridization of the terminal atoms, F?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 6:38 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Promotion Energy of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine
Replies: 1
Views: 19

Promotion Energy of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine

Why can't nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine use promotion energy to increase the number of bonds it can form? I know it has to do with no empty p-orbitals, but what does that specifically mean?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 6:35 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Tetravalence of Carbon
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Tetravalence of Carbon

How is carbon tetravalent? Also, how does this relate to promotion energy?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 2:37 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Arrhenius, Bronsted, and Lewis
Replies: 1
Views: 26

Arrhenius, Bronsted, and Lewis

What are the differences between Arrhenius, Bronsted, and Lewis acids and bases?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 2:34 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Cisplatin
Replies: 17
Views: 279

Re: Cisplatin

Cisplatin is used in chemotherapy to stop the growth of cancer cells. In the process, it damages DNA and prevents DNA synthesis, which in turn damage the healthy cells.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 25, 2019 2:26 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Amphiprotic
Replies: 11
Views: 115

Re: Amphiprotic

Amphiprotic describes a molecule that can act as a proton donor and as a proton acceptor, such as water. Amphoteric describes a molecule that can react with both acids and bases.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Wed Nov 20, 2019 3:20 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: N2O Lewis Structure/Pi and Sigma Bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 34

N2O Lewis Structure/Pi and Sigma Bonds

In N2O, why is N the central atom instead of O? Also, how many sigma and pi bonds are in this molecule?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Tue Nov 19, 2019 9:38 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Instantaneous Dipole Moment
Replies: 4
Views: 46

Instantaneous Dipole Moment

What is an instantaneous dipole moment and what does it have to do with London forces?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Tue Nov 19, 2019 4:56 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Structure of HCN
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Structure of HCN

Why is C the central atom in HCN? If N was the central atom, there would be formal charges on N and C, which means that it isn't the most stable structure. So, how do we know that C is the central atom?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 18, 2019 6:00 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bonds in VSEPR
Replies: 11
Views: 86

Re: Bonds in VSEPR

Double, single, and triple bonds are considered one unit, which means that it accounts for one area of electron density even though there might be more bonds being used.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 18, 2019 5:58 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: AXE notation
Replies: 10
Views: 86

Re: AXE notation

AXE is the generic VSEPR formula, and it helps identify molecular shapes based on the combinations of atoms and lone pairs attached to the central atom. In this formula, A represents is the central atom, X is the attached atoms, and E is the lone pairs present. By understanding this formula, you can...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 18, 2019 5:55 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR Notation
Replies: 7
Views: 72

Re: VSEPR Notation

When there are no lone pairs, there will be no E in the notation
by Sean Sugai 4E
Wed Nov 13, 2019 1:14 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: VSEPR model
Replies: 4
Views: 154

Re: VSEPR model

VSEPR stands for Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion, and it extends Lewis's theory by adding rules that explain bond angles and molecular shapes brought on by lone pairs. According to this model, regions of high electron density repel one another and these regions move to the most distant locatio...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Tue Nov 12, 2019 11:30 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Single/Double Bonds in Resonance
Replies: 6
Views: 66

Single/Double Bonds in Resonance

Because single and double bonds are considered one unit in the VSEPR model, does it matter which of the Lewis structures contribute to the resonance structure? What's an example of this?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:49 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone Pairs and Molecular Shape
Replies: 3
Views: 35

Lone Pairs and Molecular Shape

In a molecule with lone pairs, the valence electrons play a role in electron arrangement about the central atom. How do lone pair electrons distort the shape of a molecule?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:47 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: H2O and Ionic Compounds
Replies: 3
Views: 37

H2O and Ionic Compounds

Why is water a good solvent for ionic compounds? I understand that water's polarity plays a factor but what does that mean and is there anything else that makes it a good solvent for ionic compounds?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:45 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Diatomic Molecules
Replies: 6
Views: 46

Diatomic Molecules

Why are all diatomic molecules composed of two different elements at least slightly polar?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:41 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Difference Between Lewis Structure and VSEPR Model
Replies: 3
Views: 348

Difference Between Lewis Structure and VSEPR Model

What are the differences between lewis structures and VSEPR model? Also, what are the rules when doing VSPER models and is there an easy way of thinking about them?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:39 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Determining Bond Angles
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Determining Bond Angles

How do you find the bond angles of molecules that are not fixed by symmetry? By extension, how was H2O's bond angle found?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 6:04 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: What is isoelectronic?
Replies: 13
Views: 89

Re: What is isoelectronic?

Atoms and ions with equal number of electrons are isoelectronic. Examples include Na+, F-, and Mg2+. Be cautious, however, as these three ions have the same electron configuration (same number of electrons) but their radii differ because they have different nuclear charges. This means that the Mg2+ ...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:53 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Dilution Equation
Replies: 4
Views: 155

Re: Dilution Equation

It depends on what the question is asking. For example, if the question is asking for V2 in mL, then it keep V1 in mL. Likewise, if the question is looking for V2 in L, then convert V1 to L. Be sure to stay consistent with your units as you're solving.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:46 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Biological Impacts of Radicals
Replies: 4
Views: 51

Biological Impacts of Radicals

From lecture, we know that radicals are exceptions to the octet rule because they have an odd number of electrons, which makes the octet formation numerically impossible, as well as having electrons with unpaired spins, overall making the molecule unstable and highly reactive. In the body, these rad...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:40 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: radical
Replies: 5
Views: 90

Re: radical

The octet rule is a general rule of thumb, stating that each atom seeks to have eight valence electrons in its outermost shell. Exceptions to this rule include molecules with an odd number of electrons, which means that the octet formation is numerically impossible. This odd number of valence electr...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Nov 03, 2019 5:29 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Characteristics of Metallic and Nonmetallic Elements
Replies: 2
Views: 33

Characteristics of Metallic and Nonmetallic Elements

Because of periodic trends, we can predict, at least in a general sense, the properties of elements. With this in mind, what is the difference between metallic and nonmetallic elements, such as their physical and chemical properties? Is there any easy way or trick to memorizing/thinking about the di...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:52 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Pointers For Appropriate Resonance Structures
Replies: 2
Views: 39

Pointers For Appropriate Resonance Structures

Besides understanding that a formal charge of 0 yields the most stable resonance structure, what other pointers are there for drawing structures and predicting which one contributes the most to the actual structure?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:48 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge Vs. Oxidation Number
Replies: 4
Views: 60

Formal Charge Vs. Oxidation Number

Formal charge and oxidation number both give the number of electrons in a compound; in that sense, they are similar conceptually. However, how are they different?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:39 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge
Replies: 5
Views: 60

Re: Formal Charge

The formal charge of an atom is the measure of redistributed electrons in a Lewis structure. Essentially, it is the charge an atom would have if it shared a perfectly covalent bond with other atoms. To find formal charge, use the equation: FC=V–(L+S/2), where V represents the number of valence elect...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:32 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Orbital Energies
Replies: 1
Views: 31

Orbital Energies

Why do p-electrons penetrate much less than s-electrons? What does this have to do with wave function, probability density, and shielding?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 27, 2019 4:27 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Effective Nuclear Charge
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Effective Nuclear Charge

In multi-electron atoms, each electron is repelled by other present electrons. How do more electrons affect shielding and nuclear attraction?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:23 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Quantum Numbers: Size of An Atom
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Quantum Numbers: Size of An Atom

The state of an electron is defined by n, l, Ml, and Ms. Why does the size of an atom increase as n increases?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 10:16 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: The Work Function
Replies: 15
Views: 149

Re: The Work Function

The work function is the energy required to remove an electron from a metal, which means that the work function is not constant and changes depending on the metal used. In addition, the kinetic energy of an ejected electron is equal to the difference between the energy from the photon and the work f...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 9:59 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: What are the units of hertz
Replies: 41
Views: 393

Re: What are the units of hertz

Hz is a unit of frequency that denotes the number of complete cycles per second. 1 Hz=1/sec
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 9:56 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Stern & Gerlach Experiment
Replies: 3
Views: 60

Re: Stern & Gerlach Experiment

In this experiment, Stern and Gerlach initially pushed a narrow stream of silver atoms through a magnet to determine if the magnetic field would push atoms by different degrees based on the orientation of the electron's spin. This is what they observed at first, but it proved to be misleading since ...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 20, 2019 9:30 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Mass of an Electron
Replies: 14
Views: 205

Re: Mass of an Electron

9.109 x 10^-31 kg is the set mass of an electron, and we recognize this as a constant. This goes alongside the masses for protons and neutrons, which are about 1.67 x 10-27 kg each. These masses are constants as well.
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:03 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Wavelength, Frequency, and Intensity
Replies: 7
Views: 64

Wavelength, Frequency, and Intensity

When discovering the photoelectric effect, why did short wavelengths (high frequencies) eject electrons but long wavelengths (low frequencies) couldn't? Also, why did the intensity of the light not matter?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:56 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Frequency, Wavelength, Amplitude, and Velocity
Replies: 4
Views: 62

Frequency, Wavelength, Amplitude, and Velocity

What is the relationship between frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and velocity (in terms of light, consider the speed of light)?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:44 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: Einstein's Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 56

Einstein's Equation

What does Ek=hv–Φ mean in terms of kinetic energy, electron ejection, intensity of the wave, and work function? Also, what interpretations were made from this equation regarding the photoelectric effect?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:35 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Deriving De Broglie's Equation
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Deriving De Broglie's Equation

Using the equations c=λv, E=mc^2, and E=hv, how can you derive De Broglie's equation?
by Sean Sugai 4E
Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:09 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Avogadro's number
Replies: 7
Views: 106

Re: Avogadro's number

Avogadro's number is used to find the number of objects, molecules, atoms, particles, etc. in one mol of an object. More specifically, there are 6.0221 x 10^23 objects in 1 mole of said objects. Mathematically, Avogadro's number is used in a ratio to convert the number of moles to the number of obje...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:15 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Fractions in front of compounds
Replies: 12
Views: 149

Re: Fractions in front of compounds

When you have a fraction as a stoichiometric coefficient, multiply both sides of the equation by the denominator of the fraction. For example, NH3 + O2 => NO + H2O, depending on the way you balance the equation, you might get: 2 NH3 + 5/2 O2 => 2 NO + 3 H2O In this case, you multiply both sides of t...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:04 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield
Replies: 38
Views: 1924

Re: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield

The actual yield for an experimental reaction is not equal to the theoretical yield because of side reactions that occur as well as impurities in the container that might hinder the reaction. Additionally, no reaction is ever 100% complete since the reactants don't completely react with each other, ...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Oct 04, 2019 2:14 am
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Tips for Finding Which Number to Multiply a Decimal By to Get a Whole Number
Replies: 10
Views: 203

Re: Tips for Finding Which Number to Multiply a Decimal By to Get a Whole Number

There isn't really a faster way of doing it, but it helps to think about it as simple as possible. For instance, if I'm trying to find a number to multiply 1.33 by to get a whole number, I think about what number can I multiply 3 to get a number roughly close to 10. In this case, multiplying 3 by 3 ...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Oct 04, 2019 1:56 am
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: When to know to multiply by a whole number when finding the empirical formula
Replies: 5
Views: 77

Re: When to know to multiply by a whole number when finding the empirical formula

I'm doing Fundamentals F.11 letter B and I was dividing 31.91 K/30.0983 and it gave me 1.060. I found the rest of the calculations for the other elements and I ended up dividing each of the numbers by the smallest number which was 0.8160. I got 1.299 for K. When do I know when to multiply to find a...
by Sean Sugai 4E
Fri Oct 04, 2019 1:30 am
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: G 13
Replies: 3
Views: 188

Re: G 13

To solve this equation, use the dilution equation, M1V1=M2V2, in which M1 and V1 represent the initial molarity and the volume of the solution, respectively, and M2 and V2 represent the final molarity and volume, respectively. The problem provides M1 (0.2M NH4NO3), V1 (1L), and V2 (4L; because the f...

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