Search found 95 matches

Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:17 am
Forum: *Enzyme Kinetics
Topic: How to distinguish the intermediates and catalysts?
Replies: 8
Views: 104

Re: How to distinguish the intermediates and catalysts?

Intermediates are first seen as products and then are used as a reactant for another step. Catalysts are used first as reactants to speed up a mechanism and then reappear as products as they are never consumed in a reaction (used up and then reform). The overall reaction equation should only include...
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:12 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Replies: 3
Views: 40

Dr. Lavelle said that the pre-equilibrium approach is much simpler than the steady state approach, but it is less flexible. However, if done correctly, they will both have the same results.
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:10 am
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Activation energies for multi-step reactions
Replies: 2
Views: 55

Re: Activation energies for multi-step reactions

Activation energy is determined by the amount of energy needed for the reactants to go to the transitional state, so on a graph, the activation energy will be the amount of energy from the level of the reactants to the peak (transitional state) of the graph.
Thu Mar 12, 2020 8:00 am
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Units
Replies: 8
Views: 124

Re: Units

You can determine the unit of the rate constants for each order reaction by using the rate laws to derive k.
(ex. second-order: mol/L s = k [mol/L][mol/L] --> k = L/mol s)
Thu Mar 12, 2020 7:55 am
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Pre-equilibrium vs Steady state approach
Replies: 3
Views: 49

Re: Pre-equilibrium vs Steady state approach

Dr. Lavelle said we would only be using the pre-equilibrium approach since it is simpler than the steady-state approach.
Wed Mar 04, 2020 9:02 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs Free and Direction of Reaction
Replies: 3
Views: 52

Re: Gibbs Free and Direction of Reaction

When delta G(naught) is positive then more reactants are present than products at equilibrium and vice versa when it is negative.
Wed Mar 04, 2020 8:58 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: different coefficients (3/2,5/2...)
Replies: 3
Views: 120

Re: different coefficients (3/2,5/2...)

These coefficients were experimentally determined, so they are given. They're also on the equation sheet given to us during tests.
Wed Mar 04, 2020 8:53 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Comparing Experimental Data
Replies: 3
Views: 61

Re: Comparing Experimental Data

2.0^m comes from [rate 2's R]^m/[rate 1's R]^m after cancelling out all the constants --> ([rate 2's R]/[rate 1's R])^m = 2.0^m
Wed Mar 04, 2020 8:47 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: 5.61
Replies: 3
Views: 138

Re: 5.61

The equilibrium constant disregards solids and liquids as the concentrations essentially do not change. Thus adding or removing water would not shift the equilibrium in either direction.
Wed Mar 04, 2020 8:45 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Reasonable values for K
Replies: 7
Views: 82

Re: Reasonable values for K

Also, 10^-3 < K < 10^3 means that neither the reactants nor products are favored.
Tue Feb 25, 2020 11:44 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: 6L.3
Replies: 1
Views: 30

Re: 6L.3

H20 is involved in both redox half reactions. If you look in the appendix, you would use O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e2 --> 4 OH2 and O2 + 4 H1+ + 4 e2 --> 2 H2O. Also, for cell diagrams, the left is always the anode (oxidized) while the right is always the cathode (reduced).
Tue Feb 25, 2020 11:40 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Platinum on one side of galvanic diagram
Replies: 3
Views: 43

Re: Platinum on one side of galvanic diagram

You only add platinum/inert solid when the substance present cannot act as electrode itself (conduct). Hg can act as an electrode at its standard state, so you don't need platinum whereas NO/NO3 can't.
Tue Feb 25, 2020 11:33 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: 6L.7
Replies: 1
Views: 30

Re: 6L.7

You would choose the direction and determine the cathode and anode in which the E(cell) is positive since the cell potential must be positive in order to be spontaneous.
Tue Feb 25, 2020 11:31 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Help on 6K.3 part d [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 78

Re: Help on 6K.3 part d[ENDORSED]

That was an error in the solutions manual, so the actual equation should be Cl2(g) --> HClO(aq) + Cl-(g)
Tue Feb 25, 2020 11:24 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Chemical Equation
Replies: 1
Views: 40

Re: Chemical Equation

Given the cell diagram, you would write, balance, and combine the oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) half reactions in order to get the balanced redox equation. Balance the individual half reactions first and then balance both to each other by balancing the number of electrons transferred.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 8:17 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: midterm Q4
Replies: 4
Views: 96

Re: midterm Q4

You can determine which compound is present more by determining Ka for C6H5CH2CH(CH3)NH3+. Since the Ka = [products]/[reactants] and the Ka for the compound is extremely small, you can infer that there is a higher concentration of C6H5CH2CH(CH3)NH3+ (reactant) at equilibrium.
Wed Feb 19, 2020 8:11 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isothermal reversible and irreversible
Replies: 2
Views: 119

Re: Isothermal reversible and irreversible

Typically you can use the same equations for isothermal reversible and irreversible expansion. However when talking about isothermal reversible, q = -w and delta S(total)=0. For isothermal irreversible, delta S(surroundings)=0. All in all, how the equations are used depend on what's occurring in the...
Wed Feb 19, 2020 8:03 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Max Potential
Replies: 5
Views: 51

Max Potential

In lecture today, what did Dr. Lavelle mean when he said that the max potential occurs when there is "very little current flows?" Furthermore, what does max potential in mean?
Wed Feb 19, 2020 8:01 pm
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: Entropy in Van't Hoff Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 51

Entropy in Van't Hoff Equation

For the Van't Hoff equation, is entropy always constant? If not, in what instances would it not be constant?
Wed Feb 19, 2020 7:59 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy Equation that relates K
Replies: 4
Views: 53

Gibbs Free Energy Equation that relates K

For the equation, delta G = delta G (naught) + RTlnQ, what'sthe difference between delta G and delta G (naught)?
Mon Feb 10, 2020 10:22 pm
Forum: Calculating Standard Reaction Entropies (e.g. , Using Standard Molar Entropies)
Topic: higher molar entropies
Replies: 2
Views: 98

Re: higher molar entropies

Monoatomic gases can occupy more space, so more disorder would occur than diatomic gases, which consist of two bonded atoms (more order).
Mon Feb 10, 2020 10:19 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Joules or KJ?
Replies: 14
Views: 205

Re: Joules or KJ?

It usually doesn't matter unless specified. However, the correct number of significant figures will determine if you write your answer in kJ or J.
Mon Feb 10, 2020 10:17 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Molar Internal Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 47

Re: Molar Internal Energy

If he didn't talk about the concept during lectures, it most likely won't be covered on the midterm.
Mon Feb 10, 2020 10:15 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: 4C.7 vaporization enthalpy
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: 4C.7 vaporization enthalpy

To find delta H(vap), you need the energy required for vaporization per mole, so all you do is divide 4.76kJ by 0.579 moles.
Mon Feb 10, 2020 9:27 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Lyndon Review Questions #6
Replies: 2
Views: 80

Lyndon Review Questions #6

You have a system consisting of 0.40 moles of an ideal gas contained in a 100.0L container at 1.0 atm. You just love chemistry to a fault, so you perform a series of steps to the system. First, you perform an isobaric compression of the container to 10.0L. Then, you pressurize the system to 10.0 atm...
Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:46 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: 4.7
Replies: 1
Views: 28

Re: 4.7

To find the work done, you need to use delta n x R x T, and to find delta n, you would need to find the balanced equation and then calculate the total number of moles of gas in the products minus the total number of moles of gases in the reactants.
Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:36 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4D.9
Replies: 1
Views: 30

Re: 4D.9

After finding the enthalpy of the reaction, you want the enthalpy of the reaction per mole of TNT, so you would divide it by 4. You would then proceed to multiply it by the density of TNT while also converting the answer to the correct units (kj/mol of TNT to kJ/g of TNT and cm^3 to L).
Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:32 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4D.9
Replies: 3
Views: 65

Re: 4D.9

All the enthalpies of formation are found in Appendix 2A of the textbook. After finding the enthalpy for the reaction, you need to find how much energy is released per mole of TNT. The reaction requires 4 moles of TNT, but since you want the energy per mole of TNT, you divide the reaction enthalpy b...
Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:19 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4E.5
Replies: 1
Views: 38

Re: 4E.5

In these types of problems, you only add and subtract the bond enthalpies of bonds that are broken and created. Therefore, since nothing happens to the C-H bonds, you do not have to account for their bond enthalpies.
Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:17 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4E.7
Replies: 2
Views: 31

Re: 4E.7

It's easier to tell if you draw the lewis structure of the entire reaction. In this case, one O-H is broken, and one C-O and one C-H bond is created.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 8:57 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Homework 4A.9
Replies: 3
Views: 58

Re: Homework 4A.9

I think we went over something similar during lecture where Dr. Lavelle said the heat released by a reaction = - heat absorbed by the solution. The negative sign is just referring to the heat being released, which is negative. Heat released = - (heat absorbed), while - (heat released (-)) = heat abs...
Wed Jan 29, 2020 8:53 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Open vs Isolated System
Replies: 15
Views: 637

Re: Open vs Isolated System

An isolated system is a closed system that is insulated. Anything that has to do with bomb calorimetry is referring to an isolated system.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 8:51 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4D.7: Finding change in internal energy through ideal gas equation
Replies: 4
Views: 77

Re: 4D.7: Finding change in internal energy through ideal gas equation

Since there is no work being done on the system, delta U = q, and q = deltaH x n, where n = moles. Therefore deltaU = -318 x 1.00 mol OF2.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 8:46 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: 4F
Replies: 2
Views: 26

Re: 4F

We're still technically in the "Thermochemistry" section even though we started talking about thermodynamics. 4F is in the thermodynamics section, so no, we haven't talked about anything that will help solve 4F.
Wed Jan 29, 2020 8:44 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat, Temperature, Enthalpy
Replies: 4
Views: 31

Re: Heat, Temperature, Enthalpy

Enthalpy is the amount of heat absorbed or released during a reaction. Heat is the transfer of energy caused by a temperature difference that occurs in a system; and temperature represents the random motion of particles
Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:55 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: exothermic reactions
Replies: 19
Views: 200

Re: exothermic reactions

ALegala_2I wrote:Does this mean that cooling an exothermic reaction will favor the products?

By "cooling," I assume you mean removing heat, so yes, cooling an exothermic reaction will remove the heat "on the product side" and will therefore favor the products (shift right).
Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:52 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Chemical Equilibrium Part 4 Question 13
Replies: 3
Views: 35

Re: Chemical Equilibrium Part 4 Question 13

You can also determine whether the reaction shifts left or right when volume is increased or decreased by determining if the concentration increases or decreases. When volume decreases, pressure increases and concentration also increases so Q < K and the reaction will shift right. Vice versa when vo...
Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:45 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Acids and Bases
Replies: 7
Views: 59

Re: Acids and Bases

We learned in 14A how to determine if a molecule is an acid or base. You can determine by its characteristics. Lewis acids accept electron pairs, so they tend to have a negative charge (Lewis acid), produce H3O+ (Arrhenius acid), and donate H+ (Bronsted acid). On the other hand, bases donate electro...
Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:40 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: When to Use Q
Replies: 3
Views: 45

Re: When to Use Q

The quotient, Q, shows us the concentration of the reactants and products at any time while K shows us the unique concentrations for each when at equilibrium. Because reactions are in constant motion to reach equilibrium, you can use Q and compare to K to determine if the reaction will move forward ...
Tue Jan 21, 2020 8:36 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: pKa, Ka, and strength of acid
Replies: 3
Views: 16

Re: pKa, Ka, and strength of acid

Stronger acids completely dissociate, so they will at equilibrium there will be more products (H3O+) than there will be reactants [Products]>[Reactants]. Thus, stronger acids will have higher Ka.
Tue Jan 14, 2020 5:10 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Why Ignore Liquid or Solid Volume When Calculating K
Replies: 7
Views: 65

Re: Why Ignore Liquid or Solid Volume When Calculating K

Liquids and Solids don't have/have minimal changes in pressures nor concentrations, so they are typically not involved in computing the equilibrium constant.
Tue Jan 14, 2020 5:06 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Replies: 8
Views: 159

From what I've heard, Dr. Lavelle has a system that automatically checks whether we post 5 things each week. The TAs don't have any control over Chemistry Community.
Tue Jan 14, 2020 5:04 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Test 1
Replies: 2
Views: 55

Re: Test 1

His tests usually cover up to all the material up to the Friday of the week before the week before the test. So depending on if he goes over titrations this week, it may or may not be on next week's test. But, I assume that he will finish teaching all of acid and base equilibria, which includes titr...
Tue Jan 14, 2020 5:00 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: concentrations
Replies: 5
Views: 31

Re: concentrations

Reactions of specific conditions have a unique equilibrium constant (unique equilibrium concentrations). Changing concentrations of any of the reactants or products will not affect K, because the reaction will occur in the direction that will return the reaction to its unique equilibrium concentrati...
Tue Jan 14, 2020 4:56 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: pressure
Replies: 5
Views: 47

Re: pressure

Pressure only affects reactants and products when decreasing/increasing volume is involved. Decreasing the volume will increase the concentration of the gases in which [reactants]>[products] while increasing the volume will decrease the concentration of the gases in which [reactants]<[products]. Whe...
Tue Jan 07, 2020 4:04 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Converting Kc to Keq
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: Converting Kc to Keq

I believe Keq and Kc are the same. Kc seems to be just a type of Keq.
Tue Jan 07, 2020 4:03 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Kc versus K
Replies: 4
Views: 61

Re: Kc versus K

K is also the same as Keq, which can be specified as Kc when using concentrations or Kp when using partial pressures.
Tue Jan 07, 2020 4:02 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Keq vs Kc
Replies: 6
Views: 160

Re: Keq vs Kc

Maya Beal Dis 1D wrote:When would we need to specify and use Kc as opposed to just using Keq?

I believe we should use Kc any time we use concentrations to calculated Keq.
Tue Jan 07, 2020 4:01 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Keq vs Kc
Replies: 6
Views: 160

Re: Keq vs Kc

Ipsita Srinivas 1K wrote:Ok, just to clarify, Kc and Kp are just types of Keq, and you label the equilibrium constant depending on whether Keq is calculated using partial pressure or molar conc. ?

Yes, Kc and Kp are both types of Keq, and Keq is labelled based on whether you use concentration or partial pressures.
Tue Jan 07, 2020 3:58 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Equilibrium Constant
Replies: 4
Views: 82

Re: Equilibrium Constant

The reaction quotient demonstrates the relative amounts of reactants and products at any given particular time whereas the equilibrium constant demonstrates the favored direction of the reaction when the forward and reverse reaction rates are at equilibrium.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 9:51 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: HCl and HI
Replies: 10
Views: 111

Re: HCl and HI

Strong acids tend to have weaker bonds because when bonds are more easily broken, protons are more easily given off, which is a characteristic of strong acids.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 9:45 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: 6A.15
Replies: 2
Views: 54

Re: 6A.15

Lewis bases also tend to have lone pairs to donate while lewis acids don't. Furthermore, the F- anion has a negative charge so it will tend to donate a lone pair to stabilize it.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 9:42 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: How to identify acid vs. base
Replies: 4
Views: 68

Re: How to identify acid vs. base

Lewis bases typically have a lone pair in its structure to give off while lewis acids typically don't.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 9:38 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: 6C.21
Replies: 2
Views: 68

Re: 6C.21

He did discuss the concept that is used to solve this problem using these formulas. It was from the Dec. 2nd lecture when he discussed the relative strength of acids.
Tue Dec 03, 2019 9:35 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Definition of Acid
Replies: 4
Views: 56

Re: Definition of Acid

Lewis acid and Bronsted acid can be the same. When an acid donates a proton (bronsted), sometimes the lone pair from the bronsted base is given to the acid, which also makes it a lewis acid.
Tue Nov 19, 2019 11:45 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: NH2OH
Replies: 2
Views: 49

Re: NH2OH

NH2OH is polar. The dipole moment distributions are not balanced, so there is an overall dipole moment.
Tue Nov 19, 2019 11:40 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Bond length
Replies: 5
Views: 174

Re: Bond length

Yes, they are. The bonds of a resonance structure are partial bonds so they are all the same length. The length is the average of the bond lengths of all the possible resonance structures.
Tue Nov 19, 2019 11:34 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: hybridization
Replies: 11
Views: 94

Re: hybridization

The number of hybrid orbitals are consistent with the number of electron densities of the molecule determined using its VSEPR model. In hybrid orbitals, the max number of orbitals of each shape are s:1, p:3, d:5, etc. The orbitals are then filled using the number of electrons in the atomic orbital o...
Tue Nov 19, 2019 11:29 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Stability of bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 34

Re: Stability of bonds

Sigma bonds allow atoms to rotate whereas pi bonds are created by overlaps so the bound atoms can't rotate. When the atoms of a pi bond rotate, the pi bond breaks. Moreover, sigma bonds are always the first interactions between atoms, so that also makes it more stable than pi bonds.
Tue Nov 19, 2019 11:24 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds and Resonance
Replies: 3
Views: 37

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds and Resonance

In resonance structures, the number of sigma and pi bonds are not affected because resonance only affects the location of the electrons on the molecules.
Wed Nov 13, 2019 7:31 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: 2D.9
Replies: 3
Views: 137

Re: 2D.9

Smaller cations have higher polarizing due to the minimal amount of electrons between the nucleus and the outer shell. When there is less electrons, the positive charge of the nucleus is able to distort the electron cloud of anions more easily.
Wed Nov 13, 2019 7:27 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Interaction Potential Energy equation
Replies: 7
Views: 103

Re: Interaction Potential Energy equation

Kellylin_4D wrote:What is this equation? Was it in lecture or the textbook? Any help would be great please.

Dr. Lavelle talked about it during the lecture last Friday I believe. All I understand is that it has to do with the energy contributed when two atoms or molecules are attracted to each other.
Wed Nov 13, 2019 7:19 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Do lone pairs repel more?
Replies: 5
Views: 59

Re: Do lone pairs repel more?

bonding-bonding pair < lone-bonding pair < lone-lone pair
Wed Nov 13, 2019 7:15 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone pairs of other atoms in molecule
Replies: 3
Views: 47

Re: Lone pairs of other atoms in molecule

VSEPR models center around the electrons/electron pairs of the central atom.
Wed Nov 13, 2019 7:13 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar vs. Nonpolar
Replies: 12
Views: 198

Re: Polar vs. Nonpolar

A molecule is polar when then there is a clear dipole moment, meaning there is one end that is distinctly partially negative and the other end that is distinctly partially positive. A molecule is nonpolar when there is no dipole moment or when the dipole moments cancel each other out by the same par...
Thu Nov 07, 2019 7:08 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond Dissociation Energies vs. Bond enthalpy
Replies: 2
Views: 33

Re: Bond Dissociation Energies vs. Bond enthalpy

Yes, dissociation energy is the same as bond enthalpy since they're both the amount of energy stored in bonds.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 7:02 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Replies: 5
Views: 121

Typically radicals are formed by breaking bonds, so wherever the bond is broken is where the single lone electron will be. Other than that, I think they're usually placed at the central atom, such as in methyl and hydroxyl.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 6:57 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: covalent relationship to polarizability
Replies: 4
Views: 55

Re: covalent relationship to polarizability

High polarizability and high polarizing power contributes to more covalent character because the electron cloud is being distorted towards the cation and therefore the electrons are being "shared" like in a covalent bond.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 6:55 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Polarizability
Replies: 6
Views: 111

Re: Polarizability

Polarizability increases as the size of the anion increases. The larger electrons cloud, the more susceptible it can be distorted since the electrostatic attraction of the outer electrons being reduced.
Thu Nov 07, 2019 6:53 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: polarizing power
Replies: 7
Views: 74

Re: polarizing power

Polarizability, which is a characteristic of anions, increases down and left as the size increases. Polarizing power, which is a characteristic of cations, increases up and to the right as the size decreases.
Fri Nov 01, 2019 10:23 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: important part of photoelectric effect
Replies: 5
Views: 100

Re: important part of photoelectric effect

Yes, the main demonstration of the photoelectric effect is to explain that light doesn't act like a classical wave when it is emitted as a particle (photon).
Fri Nov 01, 2019 10:15 pm
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity in Lewis Structure
Replies: 2
Views: 38

Re: Electronegativity in Lewis Structure

I think the central atom is usually the one with the least electronegativity. Like in CCl4, the carbon atom is the central atom and has the smaller electronegativity.
Fri Nov 01, 2019 9:39 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Octet Exception
Replies: 5
Views: 77

Re: Octet Exception

Elements with expanded electron shells (with electrons more than s2p6), lewis acids and bases, Group 13 elements, and radicals (compounds with unpaired electrons) are all exceptions to the octet rule.
Fri Nov 01, 2019 9:31 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Covalent character in ionic bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 61

Re: Covalent character in ionic bonds

Yes, the ionic bond has more or less covalent character depending on the anion's polarizability and the cation's polarizing power. It has less covalent character when there is the anion is less polarizable and/or the cation has high polarizing power. It has more covalent character when there is high...
Fri Nov 01, 2019 9:26 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Ionic/Covalent
Replies: 6
Views: 66

Re: Ionic/Covalent

Ionic bonds have covalent properties because the electrons of the anion enter the bonding region between the cation and anion as the cation polarize the anion.
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:48 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Bond Lengths
Replies: 5
Views: 379

Re: Bond Lengths

Resonance structures are just different versions of the actual structure. This means that the resonance hybrid has a blend of all these structures. As a result, the bond lengths of the actual structure is a blend of both the single and double bonds thus creating equal bond lengths all around.
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:45 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Charges on atoms with lower e- affinity
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Re: Charges on atoms with lower e- affinity

More charges means positive formal charge.
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:41 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Expanded Valence Shells
Replies: 4
Views: 46

Re: Expanded Valence Shells

Dr. Lavelle told us in class that elements have expanded valence shells when they can orbitals that can accommodate more than the usual octet, so I think the exception applies to elements that go beyond s2p6.
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:37 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge and Molecules
Replies: 4
Views: 64

Re: Formal Charge and Molecules

The formal charge of each atom always adds up to the charge of the molecule.
Fri Oct 25, 2019 3:30 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Electron Affinity and Formal Charge
Replies: 3
Views: 48

Re: Electron Affinity and Formal Charge

Negative formal charge is determined when there are more lone and shared electrons than the valence electrons. This is basically the same as having more electron attraction, known as electron affinity. So all in all, negative formal charge is paired with the atom with higher electron affinity.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:44 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Threshold Energy
Replies: 7
Views: 124

Re: Threshold Energy

If the energy of the light equals the wave function (threshold), electrons will still be emitted, but there wouldn't be any excess energy (kinetic energy).
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:37 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Rydberg and De Brogile
Replies: 3
Views: 79

Re: Rydberg and De Brogile

The Rydberg can be only used for calculating the change in energy between quantum levels for light emitted by H-atoms. DeBroglie's wave equation is used to determine if a particle with momentum has detectable wave properties.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:29 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Problem 1E.7
Replies: 2
Views: 35

Re: Problem 1E.7

Ground state electron configuration means the lowest energy electron configuration. This configuration follows all the all the principle when determining electron configuration that we learned in class. I assume that an excited state electron configuration means that there are electrons misplaced in...
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:25 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: p- and d- orbitals and zero e- density
Replies: 5
Views: 54

Re: p- and d- orbitals and zero e- density

Electron density is basically the probability of finding an electron in the region in question. Because electrons tend to be found in higher electron density, a region with zero electron density has probability of close to zero of finding an electron in said region.
Fri Oct 18, 2019 3:16 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Hund's Rule
Replies: 3
Views: 55

Re: Hund's Rule

Doubling up before occupying each state with one electron would cause asymmetry and thus make the atom unstable. By occupying each state before doubling up, the atom becomes more symmetrical and is thus more stable.
Thu Oct 10, 2019 2:58 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Decreasing gap between energy level
Replies: 6
Views: 123

Re: Decreasing gap between energy level

The gaps between the energy levels decrease as the levels increase because as the levels increase, they get farther from the "gravity" of the nucleus, which means that higher energy levels require less energy to remove the electrons from said level. Vice versa, lower energy levels require ...
Thu Oct 10, 2019 2:53 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Topic 1A.3
Replies: 2
Views: 39

Re: Topic 1A.3

The extent of the change in energy corresponds to the slope of the electric field. Decreasing the frequency widens the wavelength which then decreases the slope/extent of change. As for the others: Speed is constant Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency Energy is directly proportional to...
Thu Oct 10, 2019 2:48 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: High Intensity
Replies: 5
Views: 68

Re: High Intensity

In the photoelectric effect, intensity has little to do with the intensity of the light. Because the energy emitted in this experiment doesn't act like a wave, high intensity/amplitude does not eject electrons and produce kinetic energy from the metal surface unless the E(photon) is greater than or ...
Thu Oct 10, 2019 2:38 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Problem A.15 values of n
Replies: 2
Views: 44

Re: Problem A.15 values of n

After converting the wavelength of the spectral line to the energy it emits, you have to use E=E(final)-E(initial) to figure out the n values.You're already given the n value for the final energy as UV follows the Lyman series stating from any n value, the electron must return to ground state at n=1...
Thu Oct 10, 2019 2:24 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Waves/Particles
Replies: 14
Views: 164

Re: Waves/Particles

The particle part of the wave-particle duality derives from the characteristics of photons as they act as bundles of electromagnetic radiation when an electron emits it.
Wed Oct 02, 2019 6:30 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Steps to calculate limiting reagant
Replies: 4
Views: 85

Re: Steps to calculate limiting reagant

(1) Find the moles of each reactant. Converting the mass to moles will allow easier comparison between different reactants. (2) Use molar ratios in order to calculate the required moles needed for the reaction to occur. (3) Compare the required moles to the available moles (from step 1) to determine...
Wed Oct 02, 2019 6:18 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Combustion Reaction Notation
Replies: 6
Views: 105

Re: Combustion Reaction Notation

Given that we're only reviewing the fundamentals right now, it's not necessary to indicate how much energy was used nor how much was produced. But I think later on when we learn different concepts such as thermodynamics, we'll have to indicate the energy (heat) input/output in a combustion and other...
Wed Oct 02, 2019 6:11 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Limiting Reactant
Replies: 2
Views: 66

Re: Homework M.5

In order to find the moles needed to produce a certain product or needed to react with another reactant, you should always compare molar ratios using the limiting reactant. This is because the limiting reactant is always the first to run out, so it determines how much product can be produced or how ...
Wed Oct 02, 2019 1:35 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: M11 limiting reactant
Replies: 2
Views: 35

Re: M11 limiting reactant

P4 isn't considered when finding the limiting reactant of the second reaction between O2 and P4O10 because P4 isn't its own reactant in the second reaction.
Wed Oct 02, 2019 1:28 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Homework M11
Replies: 4
Views: 59

Re: Homework M11

Yes, you need to use the information in the first reaction to solve the second reaction. After finding the limiting reactant of the first reaction, find the remaining moles of the excess reactant as well as the moles of P4O6 produced. You can then use that information to find the limiting reactant, ...