Search found 62 matches

by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 3:38 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: 5J.1 a)
Replies: 5
Views: 20

Re: 5J.1 a)

It's also important to understand that partial pressure is different from total pressure, in which the total number of moles on each side of the reaction would be considered.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:44 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 46

Re: Partial Pressure

How do we know when to use K_c and when to use Partial Pressure Notation? Kc notation is used when the reactants and products of a homogeneous reaction are in the aqueous phase, while partial pressure notation is used when the reactants and products of a homogeneous reaction are in the gas phase. K...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:39 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 46

Re: Partial Pressure

Why are solids and liquids not included when calculating K values? I believe solids and liquids are not included when calculating K values because their concentrations don't change significantly over the course of a reaction. Can anyone confirm this? I'm not exactly sure if this is the right explan...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:34 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 46

Re: Partial Pressure

In regards to what the difference is between Kc and Kp:

Kc represents the equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products, while Kp suggests the equilibrium partial pressures of the reactants and products
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:17 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Q < K
Replies: 7
Views: 20

Re: Q < K

A method I use to remember the meanings of when Q>K and Q<K is to think of Q wanting to approach K. This can be visualized as a number line with K placed in the center. If Q is less than K, then the reaction must proceed in the forward direction in order to reach K. Conversely, if Q is greater than ...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:22 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Dissociated Ionic Compounds
Replies: 4
Views: 20

Re: Dissociated Ionic Compounds

In regards to the activity of each ion, I believe they are referring to the ion's respective concentration. I hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:18 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: appliction of principle
Replies: 5
Views: 16

Re: appliction of principle

Essentially, this principle applies to changes in all physical parameters, as stated in lecture
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:07 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Le Chatelier's Principle
Replies: 5
Views: 15

Re: Le Chatelier's Principle

Le Chatelier's Principle tells us that chemical reactions adjust to minimize the effect of changes, but because solids and liquids are negligible in equilibrium equations, adding or removing them will not have an effect on the equilibrium.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:53 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Textbook Help
Replies: 4
Views: 44

Re: Textbook Help

Try searching for a free (or even cheaper) download for the textbook PDF. It would likely be easier to use and you'd save money!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:37 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Topics on Test 1
Replies: 23
Views: 94

Re: Topics on Test 1

He usually will let us know in lecture. I assume everything in outline 1 and all other material covered during lecture up until the test, unless otherwise stated. Your TAs might also be able to provide a more definite answer. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:32 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV = nRT
Replies: 16
Views: 49

Re: PV = nRT

Knowing these comes in handy when given their values and you have to rearrange them in order to find a solutions concentration, for example. Notably, concentration (or n/V) = P/RT.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:42 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: boiling point
Replies: 8
Views: 39

Re: boiling point

It is also important to remember that boiling does not break bonds. So when explaining the effect that boiling point has, my TA suggested avoiding using the phrase "break bonds" and use "overcome intermolecular forces" instead.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:34 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Strength
Replies: 6
Views: 36

Re: Strength

Yes, it is the weakest relative to the others and its strength (compared to other molecules with only LDFs present) increases with size.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:15 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: H bonding
Replies: 4
Views: 32

Re: H bonding

Yes, it is also important to understand that hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms are not counted when determining possible hydrogen bonding sites.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:01 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Logarithm sigfigs with O
Replies: 2
Views: 31

Re: Logarithm sigfigs with O

^I understand that this is true for conventional numbers, however, for pH specifically, my TA mentioned that each number after the decimal point is a significant figure. Please double check with another source, though.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:54 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: HELP WITH UNITS
Replies: 6
Views: 70

Re: HELP WITH UNITS

Yeah! This video (https://youtu.be/7N0lRJLwpPI) helped me with this topic. Hope this is what you're looking for!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:47 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Melting Points
Replies: 8
Views: 93

Re: Melting Points

I think in terms of this unit, we just need to know that boiling point and melting point are when a molecule changes its phase. If the intermolecular forces are stronger in one molecule as opposed to another, it will have a higher boiling point and higher melting point relative to the other molecule...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:22 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: boiling point
Replies: 6
Views: 78

Re: boiling point

To add to this, among molecules that contain only London dispersion forces, the way to tell whether one is stronger than another is by the size of the entire molecule. The larger the molecule is, the greater the strength of LDFs.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:12 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Polar or nonpolar?
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Re: Polar or nonpolar?

My TA told me that generally if there is at least one atom that is not the same (amongst the outside 4 atoms of a tetrahedral) then the molecule as a whole is polar.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:57 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Question on Test 2
Replies: 11
Views: 114

Re: Question on Test 2

In response to Matthew ILG 1L, I believe the term "hydrogen-bonding sites" refers to the places where hydrogen bonds can potentially form as well as where they already exist, which is why you would include the H-bonds already present in order to find the total number of bonding sites.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:28 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Replies: 9
Views: 42

Re: Sigma & Pi Bonds

I believe the bond formed between an s-orbital and an s-orbital is a sigma bond.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 12:12 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: transition metals
Replies: 2
Views: 25

Re: transition metals

I believe this only applies to transition metals, as the central atom of a coordination compound is a metal and the surrounding atoms are nonmetals/ligands. I think it would be different for other compounds. Can someone please confirm this though?
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:59 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Double/Triple Bonds in Coordination Compounds
Replies: 2
Views: 27

Re: Double/Triple Bonds in Coordination Compounds

I believe this is because you are counting the number of atoms directly bonded to the central atom, not necessarily the number of bonds they contain. Hope this makes sense!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:49 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Number
Replies: 2
Views: 20

Re: Coordination Number

^I agree. It may help to know that ligands directly attached to the central atom make up the coordination sphere, so it makes sense that the number of bonds attached to the central atom are what comprise the molecule's coordination number (this is how I try to remember it).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:44 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Naming Ligands
Replies: 2
Views: 24

Re: Naming Ligands

I also believe that we have to use these principles for naming ligands in 14B, so it would be helpful to have them memorized, as later chapters likely build upon this knowledge
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:39 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: [Fe(CN)6]4-
Replies: 5
Views: 34

Re: [Fe(CN)6]4-

I believe it is CN-, meaning it can form the coordinate covalent bond. However, I'm not exactly sure why the total charge is 4-.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 12:34 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Exceptions
Replies: 5
Views: 31

Re: Exceptions

I believe that H, He, Be, and Li are also exceptions in that they are content with having less than 8 valence electrons.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 12:03 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar Molecules
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Re: Polar Molecules

I believe so, this is according to the example he gave during lecture regarding cis-DICHLOROETHENE (polar) v.s. trans-DICHLOROEHTENE (non-polar). The arrangement of the Cl atoms influences the polarity it seems.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:54 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Shapes We Are Expected to Know
Replies: 6
Views: 38

Re: Shapes We Are Expected to Know

Sorry I put square pyramid twice, I meant square planar for that last one
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:51 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Shapes We Are Expected to Know
Replies: 6
Views: 38

Re: Shapes We Are Expected to Know

To add on to these responses, I believe this includes: linear, trigonal planar, bent/angular (<120 degrees), tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent/angular (<<109 degrees), trigonal bipyramid, seesaw, T-shape, octahedral, square pyramid, square pyramid (So about 12 shapes, double check just in case)
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:44 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Van Der Waals Interaction
Replies: 11
Views: 47

Re: Van Der Waals Interaction

In terms of molecules containing only Van Der Waals interactions: the larger the size of the molecule, the more interactions there are, meaning that the interactions in that given molecule are stronger relative to one with a smaller size/less interactions.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:24 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Ions
Replies: 3
Views: 29

Re: Ions

It is also important to keep in mind that in addition to all of this, the number of protons remains the same in the given cation or anion. Isoelectronicity means that the number of valence electrons is the same between two different elements, not the number of protons.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:22 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Orbital angular momentum
Replies: 4
Views: 50

Re: Orbital angular momentum

I don't believe that knowing the equation is necessary. I think it's just important to know that angular momentum is denoted by the letter "l" and that it can be calculated by subtracting the principle quantum number, n, by 1.

In other words, l = n-1
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:12 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Best way to study for this topic?
Replies: 8
Views: 101

Re: Best way to study for this topic?

I find watching videos very helpful. It's a change of pace from lecture since we usually have to copy down stuff. Videos give me a chance to just listen. If the modules that are provided aren't enough, then I suggest watching Crash Course or Bozeman Science videos on YouTube.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:07 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: binding energy
Replies: 3
Views: 53

Re: binding energy

Yes, but this should not be confused with the ionization energy. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a different state of matter, which is not the same as removing it form a metal surface.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:00 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisenberg Indeterminacy Equation
Replies: 6
Views: 80

Re: Heisenberg Indeterminacy Equation

The delta x is the uncertainty in position and the delta p is uncertainty in momentum. The product of these two are greater than or equal to Planck's constant divided by 4*pi.

If we know the position, then the momentum is uncertain, and vice versa.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 10:53 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: +- vs Uncertainty
Replies: 3
Views: 51

Re: +- vs Uncertainty

I believe the rule is to multiply the uncertainty by two
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:28 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]
Replies: 18
Views: 868

Re: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]

In response to Brennayoung's question, I believe that we will only be applying this to hydrogen for now. This principle is used when measuring position and momentum of a particle.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:19 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Photoelectric effect
Replies: 5
Views: 72

Re: Photoelectric effect

Crash Course has a quantum mechanics series out on YouTube, which is pretty helpful as well!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:55 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Rounding
Replies: 6
Views: 76

Re: Rounding

I believe .9 and above is a safe range for rounding up. Anything lower I would multiply to get the numbers behind the decimal point to 0.9 or higher. Hope this helps.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:37 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Do you always convert to SI units for calculations?
Replies: 3
Views: 53

Re: Do you always convert to SI units for calculations?

Yes, I agree. SI units are a great way of checking whether or not your are on the right track. If the units, when cancelled out, leave you with the desired units, you can assume that your answer is right (given the math is done correctly).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 02, 2019 8:44 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: using indeterminancy
Replies: 3
Views: 48

Re: using indeterminancy

I believe so, as that's what Lyndon did during Dino Nuggets
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:52 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Molecular Geometry
Replies: 4
Views: 38

Re: Molecular Geometry

I wouldn't rule it out completely, especially if we are learning hybridization soon, as it is known to have an influence on molecular geometry. But for now I can assume it's a no.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:42 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 4
Views: 29

Re: Resonance

That being said, some structures are more stable than others, even though the substance is the same. This is where the calculation of formal charges comes into play. Substances that have more atoms with a formal charge of 0 will be more stable.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:40 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Lewis Structure bonds
Replies: 4
Views: 121

Re: Lewis Structure bonds

MichelleRamirez_2f, yes. The formal charge helps us indicate which structure is the most stable (more formal charges of 0), which is favored.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:36 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Reading the textbook [ENDORSED]
Replies: 132
Views: 76543

Re: Reading the textbook [ENDORSED]

From what I have seen, the topics covered in lecture correlate to what appears on the test. If anything, the textbook may go into more detail than need, which isn't necessarily a bad thing. However, in terms of maximizing studying, I would rely more on the notes from lecture. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:34 am
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]
Replies: 168
Views: 102396

Re: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]

I'm not sure what the likelihood of this is, but if you still have your notes from chemistry in high school (perhaps in a binder), revisiting those may help clear up any misunderstandings
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 10:12 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Lyman and Balmer
Replies: 3
Views: 39

Re: Lyman and Balmer

In addition to these, it may be relevant for you to know about the paschen (n=3), brackett (n=4), and pfund (n=5) series.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:48 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: how to prepare
Replies: 22
Views: 135

Re: how to prepare

Also, if none of the above works, you can always resort to YouTube! Hearing it repeatedly could help retain information. Plus, if you're a visual learner, YouTube is a nice and convenient method that doesn't require access to a textbook or notes. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:24 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Practice Problems?
Replies: 11
Views: 159

Re: Practice Problems?

The AAP program also provides peer learning facilitators who function the same. If you are eligible to join, I would recommend doing so, as they tend to consist of less people (typically around 10 max).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:19 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: balancing chemical reactions
Replies: 7
Views: 401

Re: balancing chemical reactions

To add to this most recent comment, an example would be in combustion reactions, where oxygen gas is always by itself on the reactant side of the chemical equation.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 2:39 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]
Replies: 168
Views: 102396

Re: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]

Personally, simply reviewing the tables and charts in the textbook helped me sharpen up on high school chemistry. YouTube videos are also a great resource!
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:34 am
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Significant Figures
Replies: 10
Views: 148

Re: Significant Figures

Yes, your last question was correct. For example, if you were adding 3.5 and 2.11, you'd get 5.61; however, in order for the answer to be rounded to the correct number of significant figures, you'd have to make your final answer 5.6. This is because the final answer must take the same amount of numb...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:26 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Word Problem Efficiency
Replies: 7
Views: 94

Re: Word Problem Efficiency

I typically read each sentence and underline as I go. Although it sounds pretty elementary, I've found that it helps me better pick out the relevant information, while also ensuring that I don't miss anything that can be used to help solve the problem. Breaking it down sentence by sentence helps tre...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:20 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield
Replies: 38
Views: 432

Re: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield

If given the values of the other terms, you could simply solve the equation for the missing value. For example: if solving for actual yield, the question would likely provide the values of theoretical yield and percent yield, so you can solve for actual yield by multiplying the theoretical yield by ...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:15 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Test 1 [ENDORSED]
Replies: 107
Views: 2716

Re: Test 1 [ENDORSED]

No, all compounds will be given in terms of their formulas.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Oct 08, 2019 11:11 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Are there going to be any questions on this week's test regarding Quanta and Photons?
Replies: 5
Views: 72

Re: Are there going to be any questions on this week's test regarding Quanta and Photons?

Yeah, this week's test only consists of everything up until Quanta and Photons; however, for the homework we are able to turn in problems relating to the Quanta and Photons lessons in addition to those relating to the high school chemistry review lessons.
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:17 am
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Memorizing Metric Conversions
Replies: 8
Views: 137

Re: Memorizing Metric Conversions

Knowing the prefixes will be useful when using conversion factors to get to a final answer, so I do think memorizing prefixes will be necessary. In regards to fento, atto, and angstrom, I'm not too sure. I would focus more on the angstrom, since that's what he touched on the most during lecture. Hop...
by CMaduno_1L
Thu Oct 03, 2019 5:03 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Delta
Replies: 2
Views: 48

Re: Delta

I don't think the delta has anything to do with the removal of products, it just signifies that the reaction requires a high temperature in order to occur. For example, the conversion of limestone into quicklime takes place at about 800 degrees Celsius (found in the textbook).
by CMaduno_1L
Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:30 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Test #1
Replies: 3
Views: 80

Re: Test #1

I'm going to assume that the questions will resemble the practice we do during discussion, so free response. That way they can [censored] our ability to work through the problems, use sig figs etc..
by CMaduno_1L
Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:27 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Formatting homework
Replies: 12
Views: 152

Re: Formatting homework

Hey Matthew, I think it'd be a good idea that way you can distinguish when/if you refer back to homework to study. Boxed answers might also help the TAs grade a little faster, as they wouldn't have to search for your answers within your work.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Sep 28, 2019 4:12 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]
Replies: 129
Views: 2877

Re: Advice from a Medical Student - Part II [ENDORSED]

Thank you for that advice! I will definitely try to adopt that approach, as it seems to be working very well for you. Have you encountered any fields you may want to specialize in?

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