Search found 102 matches

by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:53 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: YouTube videos for Redox Reactions
Replies: 4
Views: 41

Re: YouTube videos for Redox Reactions

"Balancing Redox Reactions in Acidic and Basic Conditions" by Professor Dave Explains had a nice and simplified explanation that really helped. I'll paste the link. Hope this helps and good luck!!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6ivvu6xlog&t=390s
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:50 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Cvm/Cpm
Replies: 3
Views: 34

Re: Cvm/Cpm

they are typically used when using the 2 of the 3 different forms of the entropy equation:

1. Constant volume (isochoric): dS = n*Cv*ln(T2/T1)

2. Constant pressure (isobaric): dS = n*Cp*ln(T2/T1)
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:39 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: expansion
Replies: 5
Views: 45

Re: expansion

it is also important to know the difference between gradual expansion and sudden expansion, in which you would apply the appropriate formula. The questions I have seen typically state whether the process is occurring gradually or suddenly. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:33 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: k
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: k

specifically, if temperature increases, then so does the rate constant. If temperature decreases, the rate constant decreases as well. In short, there is a direct relationship between temperature and the rate constant.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 14, 2020 7:31 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: oh
Replies: 11
Views: 81

Re: oh

OH- is only added when balancing a redox reaction in a basic solution. You add the same number of OH- as you have H+ to both sides of the equation.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:53 am
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: factors that affect k
Replies: 8
Views: 122

Re: factors that affect k

if you are referring to the reaction rate constant (lowercase k), then I believe that varying the temperature and solvent would affect its value.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:46 am
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: Terminology for reaction rate constant
Replies: 3
Views: 65

Re: Terminology for reaction rate constant

The only other name I can think of is reaction rate coefficient, but oftentimes it's just presented as k in a question.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 08, 2020 8:44 am
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: determine n
Replies: 16
Views: 474

Re: determine n

remember when given a table with the concentration of reactants and rates of different reactions, the order can be found by setting up a ratio of the concentration from (ex.) (Conc. Experiment 1 / Conc. Experiment 2)^n = (Rate Experiment 1 / Rate Experiment 2). Remember that the variables that repre...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 07, 2020 9:30 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Basic vs Acidic Conditions.
Replies: 6
Views: 78

Re: Basic vs Acidic Conditions.

I believe so. If I'm understanding your question correctly, the balancing of a redox reaction in basic and acidic conditions follows the same steps. The only difference is that for a basic reaction you add OH- as you did H+ to both sides. The side with both H+ and OH- combines to H2O.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Mar 07, 2020 8:52 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: intermediates
Replies: 4
Views: 96

Re: intermediates

also make sure not to confuse intermediates for catalysts, which are first consumed then produced in a later elementary step, as opposed to intermediates, which are first produced then consumed during a later elementary step.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 01, 2020 10:04 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Redox Reactions
Replies: 2
Views: 32

Re: Redox Reactions

I've learned you balance in order of... Acidic: any element besides O and H, balance O by adding H2O, balance H by adding H+, add electrons to appropriate side Basic: any element besides O and H, balance O by adding H2O, balance H by adding H+, add the same number of OH- (as you did H+ in the previo...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 01, 2020 9:48 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Redox Reactions and Acid/Base Reactions
Replies: 9
Views: 50

Re: Redox Reactions and Acid/Base Reactions

No they are not always acid and base reactions. For a reaction to be considered redox, the number of electrons an element has must change, which can occur in the absence of acids and bases.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 01, 2020 9:40 am
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: homework question 6L.1
Replies: 3
Views: 64

Re: homework question 6L.1

Keep in mind, however, that in order to answer the question correctly, you must write out the half-reactions for both part a and part b. This will allow you to determine how many moles of electrons were transferred, n. Otherwise, all the other needed pieces of information are given.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 01, 2020 9:36 am
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Calculating the value of n (6L.1)
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Re: Calculating the value of n (6L.1)

I think the half reactions should be...

Reduction: 2Ce(4+) + 2e- --> 2Ce(3+)
Oxidation: 3I(1-) --> I3(1-) + 2e-

From this we know that the moles of electrons transferred, n, is 2. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Mar 01, 2020 9:29 am
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Values of Standard Electrode Potentials
Replies: 4
Views: 32

Re: Values of Standard Electrode Potentials

In regards to the first part of your question, I believe that a negative value for standard electrode potentials indicates that the element or compound in question forms ions easily.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 23, 2020 4:10 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: salt bridge
Replies: 10
Views: 51

Re: salt bridge

a salt bridge is a device used to neutralize the charges of each half-cell in a galvanic cell. Because it prevents the buildup of charge in both the anode and cathode, the transfer of electrons can continue.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 23, 2020 4:02 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: electrode
Replies: 4
Views: 31

Re: electrode

I believe an electrode is the solid metal that is placed into the solutions. They function to provoke electrical conductivity (can someone confirm this please).
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 23, 2020 3:52 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 9
Views: 38

Re: Salt Bridge

Without a salt bridge, because the anode becomes more positive overtime and the cathode becomes more negative overtime, the cell would no longer cause a transfer of electrons. Electrons would have no reason to leave the anode to the cathode, which is negatively charged (like charges repel each other...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 23, 2020 1:23 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Finding moles of the reaction
Replies: 4
Views: 41

Re: Finding moles of the reaction

In short, what is lost by one half reaction (oxidation) is gained by the other reaction (reduction), therefore representing a transfer of electrons. This is the number that should be inputted for n. in the equation: G = -nFE
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 23, 2020 1:14 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: writing redox equations
Replies: 3
Views: 30

Re: writing redox equations

For example: if given two reduction reactions, the higher the voltage, the more likely the reaction is to occur. Therefore, we know that the lower number is the reaction that we must flip to become an oxidation reaction (because it is less likely to occur as a reduction reaction relative to the othe...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 15, 2020 8:02 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Balanced Chemical Equations
Replies: 4
Views: 69

Re: Balanced Chemical Equations

If you have fractional coefficients, multiplying to yield whole number coefficients would affect every component of the reaction and therefore the ratio should remain the same and so should your answers. I think you should be okay.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:55 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Unit for Pressure in delta G equation
Replies: 2
Views: 25

Re: Unit for Pressure in delta G equation

I'm not completely sure, but I think for this question, since the given pressures would be used to find Qp, the units of bars would cancel out since Q has no units (and because it's products/reactants, so units would cancel) , so as long as the two pressures have the same units, I don't think it mat...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:33 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isothermal
Replies: 9
Views: 73

Re: Isothermal

Additionally, I believe that a system being isothermal suggests that the change in internal energy for the system is 0, meaning that
dU = q + w ==> q = -w
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:30 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isothermal
Replies: 9
Views: 73

Re: Isothermal

To add to the statement above, many questions in the textbook describe systems as isothermally reversible and irreversible, so it is not necessarily correct to consider an isothermal system to be only reversible.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 15, 2020 7:12 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Isobaric systems
Replies: 16
Views: 125

Re: Isobaric systems

During Lyndon and Matt's Pizza Rolls review session, Matt made a comment that might help with remembering the meaning of isobaric. He emphasized the BAR in isoBARic and compared it to BARometer, which is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 09, 2020 1:28 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Calorimeters
Replies: 17
Views: 97

Re: Calorimeters

To answer the question above, I believe it's safe to expect to see both variations. We should know the different conditions that correspond to each type of calorimeter because both types show up in the homework problems. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 09, 2020 1:24 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Calorimeter
Replies: 5
Views: 38

Re: Calorimeter

In regards to calorimeters, it is also important to remember that -q = qcal. In other words, heat that is lost from the system is gained by the calorimeter. Hope this helps.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 09, 2020 1:20 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: reversible vs irreversible work
Replies: 7
Views: 46

Re: reversible vs irreversible work

Oftentimes, the question will also state whether the gas in question "expands reversibly" or "expands irreversibly", so be on the look out for key terms when reading the question!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 09, 2020 1:14 am
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: 4A.3 part c
Replies: 3
Views: 35

Re: 4A.3 part c

dU = w whenever there is no each exchanged with the surroundings (a.k.a q = 0). This condition is known as adiabatic.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 09, 2020 1:05 am
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Microstates
Replies: 7
Views: 49

Re: Microstates

Entropy is associated with maximization of the number of microstates or number of arrangements. Spontaneous processes are also characterized by maximizing microstates, and therefore maximizing entropy.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 02, 2020 10:55 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Integrals
Replies: 4
Views: 33

Re: Integrals

I'm pretty sure it's just to understand what is going on conceptually. I think the function of the integral was to clearly show the derivation of the reversible isothermal expansion equation: w = -nRT ln(Vf - Vi) .... (I would focus more on knowing how and when to use this equation. Essentially, the...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 02, 2020 10:38 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Definitions (isochoric/isometric, isothermal, isobaric)
Topic: Adiabatic Wall
Replies: 3
Views: 20

Re: Adiabatic Wall

Since no heat is exchanged with the surroundings in the presence of an adiabatic wall, q=0.

If we apply this fact to the equation, we find that when adiabatic
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Feb 02, 2020 10:26 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Energy Transfer of An Isolated System
Replies: 1
Views: 22

Re: Energy Transfer of An Isolated System

Good question! I'm not entirely sure, but I understand that a closed system has a constant internal energy, since there is no gain or loss of energy/heat. Since internal energy is the heat plus work, I am assuming the definition accounts for work as well. Can someone please double check this? Thanks...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 01, 2020 1:35 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Internal Energy, U
Replies: 6
Views: 50

Re: Internal Energy, U

A counter example would be in an isolated system, where neither heat nor matter can be exchanged, dU = q + w.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Feb 01, 2020 12:59 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Calorimeter
Replies: 8
Views: 58

Re: Calorimeter

Although both are structured differently, it is important to remember that they serve the same function-- to measure specific heat capacity (often referred to as specific heat).
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:37 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Reaction Enthalpy vs Formation Enthalpy??
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Re: Reaction Enthalpy vs Formation Enthalpy??

I'm not too sure about entropy, but some of the enthalpy unit terms we have are: enthalpy itself, which refers to the study of heat released or absorbed in chemical reins and physical changes...it can also refer to the amount of heat released or absorbed at a constant rate if reaction gives a net re...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:26 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Hess's Law
Replies: 2
Views: 22

Re: Hess's Law

According to my notes, the reaction was: N2 +O2 --> 2 NO dHrxn = 180 kJ + 2 NO + O2 --> 2 NO2 dHrxn = -112 kJ as you can see, the product of the first reaction is found in the reactants of the second reactions. That means that it is an intermediate component and can be cancelled out. Additionally, t...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:19 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: State Function
Replies: 7
Views: 46

Re: State Function

Examples of other state properties include: energy, pressure, volume, temperature, density, and heat capacity

In contrast, work and heat both depend on the path taken to from its initial value to its final value, preventing them from being considered state functions
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:15 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Hess's Law
Replies: 3
Views: 25

Re: Hess's Law

This is very similar to how when reactions took multiple steps to reach equilibrium we would multiply the equilibrium (K) values from each step. When you put products over reactants of each step and multiplied, any intermediate components were cancelled out. Kind of similar to Hess's law, so we've s...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 26, 2020 8:00 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Steam vs Water
Replies: 6
Views: 32

Re: Steam vs Water

All of the above in addition to the fact that water vapor is at a higher temperature when it is in the form of steam can be visualized by looking at the cooling/heating chart that professor Lavelle went over during lecture. Hope this helps with understanding!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 3:38 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: 5J.1 a)
Replies: 5
Views: 37

Re: 5J.1 a)

It's also important to understand that partial pressure is different from total pressure, in which the total number of moles on each side of the reaction would be considered.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:44 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 92

Re: Partial Pressure

How do we know when to use K_c and when to use Partial Pressure Notation? Kc notation is used when the reactants and products of a homogeneous reaction are in the aqueous phase, while partial pressure notation is used when the reactants and products of a homogeneous reaction are in the gas phase. K...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:39 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 92

Re: Partial Pressure

Why are solids and liquids not included when calculating K values? I believe solids and liquids are not included when calculating K values because their concentrations don't change significantly over the course of a reaction. Can anyone confirm this? I'm not exactly sure if this is the right explan...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:34 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Partial Pressure
Replies: 19
Views: 92

Re: Partial Pressure

In regards to what the difference is between Kc and Kp:

Kc represents the equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products, while Kp suggests the equilibrium partial pressures of the reactants and products
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Jan 18, 2020 2:17 pm
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Q < K
Replies: 16
Views: 79

Re: Q < K

A method I use to remember the meanings of when Q>K and Q<K is to think of Q wanting to approach K. This can be visualized as a number line with K placed in the center. If Q is less than K, then the reaction must proceed in the forward direction in order to reach K. Conversely, if Q is greater than ...
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:22 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Dissociated Ionic Compounds
Replies: 5
Views: 44

Re: Dissociated Ionic Compounds

In regards to the activity of each ion, I believe they are referring to the ion's respective concentration. I hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:18 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: appliction of principle
Replies: 5
Views: 33

Re: appliction of principle

Essentially, this principle applies to changes in all physical parameters, as stated in lecture
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 12:07 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Le Chatelier's Principle
Replies: 5
Views: 28

Re: Le Chatelier's Principle

Le Chatelier's Principle tells us that chemical reactions adjust to minimize the effect of changes, but because solids and liquids are negligible in equilibrium equations, adding or removing them will not have an effect on the equilibrium.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:53 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Textbook Help
Replies: 4
Views: 64

Re: Textbook Help

Try searching for a free (or even cheaper) download for the textbook PDF. It would likely be easier to use and you'd save money!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:37 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Topics on Test 1
Replies: 37
Views: 268

Re: Topics on Test 1

He usually will let us know in lecture. I assume everything in outline 1 and all other material covered during lecture up until the test, unless otherwise stated. Your TAs might also be able to provide a more definite answer. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Jan 12, 2020 11:32 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV = nRT
Replies: 16
Views: 99

Re: PV = nRT

Knowing these comes in handy when given their values and you have to rearrange them in order to find a solutions concentration, for example. Notably, concentration (or n/V) = P/RT.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:42 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: boiling point
Replies: 8
Views: 170

Re: boiling point

It is also important to remember that boiling does not break bonds. So when explaining the effect that boiling point has, my TA suggested avoiding using the phrase "break bonds" and use "overcome intermolecular forces" instead.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:34 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Strength
Replies: 6
Views: 75

Re: Strength

Yes, it is the weakest relative to the others and its strength (compared to other molecules with only LDFs present) increases with size.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:15 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: H bonding
Replies: 4
Views: 77

Re: H bonding

Yes, it is also important to understand that hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms are not counted when determining possible hydrogen bonding sites.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 9:01 pm
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Logarithm sigfigs with O
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Re: Logarithm sigfigs with O

^I understand that this is true for conventional numbers, however, for pH specifically, my TA mentioned that each number after the decimal point is a significant figure. Please double check with another source, though.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Dec 08, 2019 8:54 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: HELP WITH UNITS
Replies: 6
Views: 147

Re: HELP WITH UNITS

Yeah! This video (https://youtu.be/7N0lRJLwpPI) helped me with this topic. Hope this is what you're looking for!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:47 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Melting Points
Replies: 8
Views: 134

Re: Melting Points

I think in terms of this unit, we just need to know that boiling point and melting point are when a molecule changes its phase. If the intermolecular forces are stronger in one molecule as opposed to another, it will have a higher boiling point and higher melting point relative to the other molecule...
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:22 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: boiling point
Replies: 6
Views: 108

Re: boiling point

To add to this, among molecules that contain only London dispersion forces, the way to tell whether one is stronger than another is by the size of the entire molecule. The larger the molecule is, the greater the strength of LDFs.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 6:12 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Polar or nonpolar?
Replies: 4
Views: 842

Re: Polar or nonpolar?

My TA told me that generally if there is at least one atom that is not the same (amongst the outside 4 atoms of a tetrahedral) then the molecule as a whole is polar.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:57 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Question on Test 2
Replies: 11
Views: 173

Re: Question on Test 2

In response to Matthew ILG 1L, I believe the term "hydrogen-bonding sites" refers to the places where hydrogen bonds can potentially form as well as where they already exist, which is why you would include the H-bonds already present in order to find the total number of bonding sites.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 30, 2019 5:28 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Replies: 9
Views: 66

Re: Sigma & Pi Bonds

I believe the bond formed between an s-orbital and an s-orbital is a sigma bond.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 12:12 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: transition metals
Replies: 2
Views: 37

Re: transition metals

I believe this only applies to transition metals, as the central atom of a coordination compound is a metal and the surrounding atoms are nonmetals/ligands. I think it would be different for other compounds. Can someone please confirm this though?
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:59 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Double/Triple Bonds in Coordination Compounds
Replies: 2
Views: 34

Re: Double/Triple Bonds in Coordination Compounds

I believe this is because you are counting the number of atoms directly bonded to the central atom, not necessarily the number of bonds they contain. Hope this makes sense!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:49 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Coordination Number
Replies: 2
Views: 28

Re: Coordination Number

^I agree. It may help to know that ligands directly attached to the central atom make up the coordination sphere, so it makes sense that the number of bonds attached to the central atom are what comprise the molecule's coordination number (this is how I try to remember it).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:44 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Naming Ligands
Replies: 2
Views: 37

Re: Naming Ligands

I also believe that we have to use these principles for naming ligands in 14B, so it would be helpful to have them memorized, as later chapters likely build upon this knowledge
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 23, 2019 11:39 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: [Fe(CN)6]4-
Replies: 5
Views: 45

Re: [Fe(CN)6]4-

I believe it is CN-, meaning it can form the coordinate covalent bond. However, I'm not exactly sure why the total charge is 4-.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 12:34 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Exceptions
Replies: 5
Views: 56

Re: Exceptions

I believe that H, He, Be, and Li are also exceptions in that they are content with having less than 8 valence electrons.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 12:03 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar Molecules
Replies: 4
Views: 43

Re: Polar Molecules

I believe so, this is according to the example he gave during lecture regarding cis-DICHLOROETHENE (polar) v.s. trans-DICHLOROEHTENE (non-polar). The arrangement of the Cl atoms influences the polarity it seems.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:54 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Shapes We Are Expected to Know
Replies: 6
Views: 53

Re: Shapes We Are Expected to Know

Sorry I put square pyramid twice, I meant square planar for that last one
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:51 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Shapes We Are Expected to Know
Replies: 6
Views: 53

Re: Shapes We Are Expected to Know

To add on to these responses, I believe this includes: linear, trigonal planar, bent/angular (<120 degrees), tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent/angular (<<109 degrees), trigonal bipyramid, seesaw, T-shape, octahedral, square pyramid, square pyramid (So about 12 shapes, double check just in case)
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:44 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Van Der Waals Interaction
Replies: 11
Views: 79

Re: Van Der Waals Interaction

In terms of molecules containing only Van Der Waals interactions: the larger the size of the molecule, the more interactions there are, meaning that the interactions in that given molecule are stronger relative to one with a smaller size/less interactions.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 17, 2019 11:24 am
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Ions
Replies: 3
Views: 69

Re: Ions

It is also important to keep in mind that in addition to all of this, the number of protons remains the same in the given cation or anion. Isoelectronicity means that the number of valence electrons is the same between two different elements, not the number of protons.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:22 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Orbital angular momentum
Replies: 4
Views: 90

Re: Orbital angular momentum

I don't believe that knowing the equation is necessary. I think it's just important to know that angular momentum is denoted by the letter "l" and that it can be calculated by subtracting the principle quantum number, n, by 1.

In other words, l = n-1
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:12 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Best way to study for this topic?
Replies: 8
Views: 178

Re: Best way to study for this topic?

I find watching videos very helpful. It's a change of pace from lecture since we usually have to copy down stuff. Videos give me a chance to just listen. If the modules that are provided aren't enough, then I suggest watching Crash Course or Bozeman Science videos on YouTube.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:07 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: binding energy
Replies: 3
Views: 107

Re: binding energy

Yes, but this should not be confused with the ionization energy. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a different state of matter, which is not the same as removing it form a metal surface.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 11:00 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisenberg Indeterminacy Equation
Replies: 6
Views: 135

Re: Heisenberg Indeterminacy Equation

The delta x is the uncertainty in position and the delta p is uncertainty in momentum. The product of these two are greater than or equal to Planck's constant divided by 4*pi.

If we know the position, then the momentum is uncertain, and vice versa.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Nov 05, 2019 10:53 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: +- vs Uncertainty
Replies: 3
Views: 93

Re: +- vs Uncertainty

I believe the rule is to multiply the uncertainty by two
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:28 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]
Replies: 18
Views: 1938

Re: Uncertainty in Speed [ENDORSED]

In response to Brennayoung's question, I believe that we will only be applying this to hydrogen for now. This principle is used when measuring position and momentum of a particle.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 9:19 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Photoelectric effect
Replies: 5
Views: 132

Re: Photoelectric effect

Crash Course has a quantum mechanics series out on YouTube, which is pretty helpful as well!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:55 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Rounding
Replies: 6
Views: 144

Re: Rounding

I believe .9 and above is a safe range for rounding up. Anything lower I would multiply to get the numbers behind the decimal point to 0.9 or higher. Hope this helps.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Nov 03, 2019 8:37 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Do you always convert to SI units for calculations?
Replies: 3
Views: 87

Re: Do you always convert to SI units for calculations?

Yes, I agree. SI units are a great way of checking whether or not your are on the right track. If the units, when cancelled out, leave you with the desired units, you can assume that your answer is right (given the math is done correctly).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Nov 02, 2019 8:44 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: using indeterminancy
Replies: 3
Views: 60

Re: using indeterminancy

I believe so, as that's what Lyndon did during Dino Nuggets
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:52 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Molecular Geometry
Replies: 4
Views: 53

Re: Molecular Geometry

I wouldn't rule it out completely, especially if we are learning hybridization soon, as it is known to have an influence on molecular geometry. But for now I can assume it's a no.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:42 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 4
Views: 44

Re: Resonance

That being said, some structures are more stable than others, even though the substance is the same. This is where the calculation of formal charges comes into play. Substances that have more atoms with a formal charge of 0 will be more stable.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:40 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Lewis Structure bonds
Replies: 4
Views: 146

Re: Lewis Structure bonds

MichelleRamirez_2f, yes. The formal charge helps us indicate which structure is the most stable (more formal charges of 0), which is favored.
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:36 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Reading the textbook [ENDORSED]
Replies: 134
Views: 91023

Re: Reading the textbook [ENDORSED]

From what I have seen, the topics covered in lecture correlate to what appears on the test. If anything, the textbook may go into more detail than need, which isn't necessarily a bad thing. However, in terms of maximizing studying, I would rely more on the notes from lecture. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sun Oct 27, 2019 1:34 am
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]
Replies: 169
Views: 122468

Re: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]

I'm not sure what the likelihood of this is, but if you still have your notes from chemistry in high school (perhaps in a binder), revisiting those may help clear up any misunderstandings
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 10:12 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Lyman and Balmer
Replies: 3
Views: 56

Re: Lyman and Balmer

In addition to these, it may be relevant for you to know about the paschen (n=3), brackett (n=4), and pfund (n=5) series.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:48 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: how to prepare
Replies: 22
Views: 187

Re: how to prepare

Also, if none of the above works, you can always resort to YouTube! Hearing it repeatedly could help retain information. Plus, if you're a visual learner, YouTube is a nice and convenient method that doesn't require access to a textbook or notes. Hope this helps!
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:24 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Practice Problems?
Replies: 11
Views: 216

Re: Practice Problems?

The AAP program also provides peer learning facilitators who function the same. If you are eligible to join, I would recommend doing so, as they tend to consist of less people (typically around 10 max).
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 9:19 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: balancing chemical reactions
Replies: 7
Views: 482

Re: balancing chemical reactions

To add to this most recent comment, an example would be in combustion reactions, where oxygen gas is always by itself on the reactant side of the chemical equation.
by CMaduno_1L
Sat Oct 19, 2019 2:39 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]
Replies: 169
Views: 122468

Re: Rusty on High School Chem [ENDORSED]

Personally, simply reviewing the tables and charts in the textbook helped me sharpen up on high school chemistry. YouTube videos are also a great resource!
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:34 am
Forum: Significant Figures
Topic: Significant Figures
Replies: 10
Views: 212

Re: Significant Figures

Yes, your last question was correct. For example, if you were adding 3.5 and 2.11, you'd get 5.61; however, in order for the answer to be rounded to the correct number of significant figures, you'd have to make your final answer 5.6. This is because the final answer must take the same amount of numb...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:26 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Word Problem Efficiency
Replies: 7
Views: 147

Re: Word Problem Efficiency

I typically read each sentence and underline as I go. Although it sounds pretty elementary, I've found that it helps me better pick out the relevant information, while also ensuring that I don't miss anything that can be used to help solve the problem. Breaking it down sentence by sentence helps tre...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:20 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield
Replies: 38
Views: 1266

Re: Theoretical vs. Actual Yield

If given the values of the other terms, you could simply solve the equation for the missing value. For example: if solving for actual yield, the question would likely provide the values of theoretical yield and percent yield, so you can solve for actual yield by multiplying the theoretical yield by ...
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 11, 2019 10:15 am
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Test 1 [ENDORSED]
Replies: 107
Views: 4006

Re: Test 1 [ENDORSED]

No, all compounds will be given in terms of their formulas.
by CMaduno_1L
Tue Oct 08, 2019 11:11 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Are there going to be any questions on this week's test regarding Quanta and Photons?
Replies: 5
Views: 96

Re: Are there going to be any questions on this week's test regarding Quanta and Photons?

Yeah, this week's test only consists of everything up until Quanta and Photons; however, for the homework we are able to turn in problems relating to the Quanta and Photons lessons in addition to those relating to the high school chemistry review lessons.
by CMaduno_1L
Fri Oct 04, 2019 12:17 am
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Memorizing Metric Conversions
Replies: 8
Views: 181

Re: Memorizing Metric Conversions

Knowing the prefixes will be useful when using conversion factors to get to a final answer, so I do think memorizing prefixes will be necessary. In regards to fento, atto, and angstrom, I'm not too sure. I would focus more on the angstrom, since that's what he touched on the most during lecture. Hop...
by CMaduno_1L
Thu Oct 03, 2019 5:03 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Delta
Replies: 2
Views: 62

Re: Delta

I don't think the delta has anything to do with the removal of products, it just signifies that the reaction requires a high temperature in order to occur. For example, the conversion of limestone into quicklime takes place at about 800 degrees Celsius (found in the textbook).
by CMaduno_1L
Thu Oct 03, 2019 12:30 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Test #1
Replies: 3
Views: 106

Re: Test #1

I'm going to assume that the questions will resemble the practice we do during discussion, so free response. That way they can [censored] our ability to work through the problems, use sig figs etc..

Go to advanced search