Search found 61 matches

by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 24, 2021 3:37 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Strength of Bonds
Replies: 7
Views: 20

Re: Strength of Bonds

You can use the strength of bonds and bond energies to determine if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic by comparing the sum of the bond energies on the reactants side and that of the products side and then comparing the two. If the reactants have a higher total bond energy or have stronger bond...
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 24, 2021 3:31 am
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Diatomic Molecules
Replies: 6
Views: 31

Re: Diatomic Molecules

I think diatomic molecules are just molecules that involve two atoms in total while the diatomic elements allude to the elements that pretty much only exist in a homogenous diatomic arrangement such as O2 and H2.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 24, 2021 3:29 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat released/ gained
Replies: 17
Views: 157

Re: Heat released/ gained

Bonded atoms are stable so it requires energy to break these bonds and move them into a less stable state. Atoms forming bonds go into a more stable state, therefore releasing energy.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 24, 2021 3:26 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: specific vs molar
Replies: 4
Views: 412

Re: specific vs molar

Molar heat capacity alludes to the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one mole of the substance while specific heat alludes to the same concept but for one gram of the substance.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 24, 2021 3:24 am
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Kinetic energy and particle motion
Replies: 4
Views: 12

Re: Kinetic energy and particle motion

Temperature is commonly defined as the average kinetic energy of the molecules. This derives from the increase of heat and temperature as the observed molecules move fast and increase their speed.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 17, 2021 3:41 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Kw constant
Replies: 25
Views: 53

Re: Kw constant

H2O is in excess amounts on both sides of the equation and can therefore be neglected as its minimal changes would not have any considerable effects
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 17, 2021 3:39 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: ICE table and Molarity units
Replies: 18
Views: 41

Re: ICE table and Molarity units

As said above, I think using molarity (mol/L) is the most convenient that volume is already taken care of. However, it can be used with moles and other units of pressure as long as the units throughout the table are consistent.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 17, 2021 3:37 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: When x is negligible in Equilibrium constant
Replies: 34
Views: 105

Re: When x is negligible in Equilibrium constant

According to Lavelle, the safest would be below 10^-4
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 17, 2021 3:35 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Sapling HW #2
Replies: 6
Views: 44

Re: Sapling HW #2

Yep, just use the ice box and the molar ratios for the "change" column. Then use the equilibrium value given to solve for those x's and then plug them back in to get the actual mole values at equilibrium. Then divide by the volume to get M, and then plug it in to the eq. expression.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 17, 2021 3:32 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: hw question #3
Replies: 10
Views: 41

Re: hw question #3

On the right side of the equation, both the numerator and the denominator have a square (once you combine the like terms in the denominator), meaning the entire fraction can be squared. That way, you can square root both sides of the equation and solve with algebra from there.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 10, 2021 10:37 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: How to choose R
Replies: 6
Views: 41

Re: How to choose R

Make sure the units for pressure and volume match(:
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 10, 2021 10:35 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Solids and Concentration
Replies: 8
Views: 37

Re: Solids and Concentration

Their volume does not change and they do not dissolve in solution
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 10, 2021 10:33 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: change in K
Replies: 22
Views: 67

Re: change in K

Yep just temp in K
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 10, 2021 10:27 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K vs. Q
Replies: 53
Views: 170

Re: K vs. Q

Yep, Q is just the expression anytime during the expression wheres as K is the value for when it is in equilibrium.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Jan 10, 2021 10:25 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Units
Replies: 27
Views: 105

Re: Units

bars and atm, so make sure you have the right constant (:
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Dec 06, 2020 10:27 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Polarity
Replies: 14
Views: 89

Re: Polarity

You can't know simply from that. You would need the other bonded atoms as well as the shape of the molecule in order to see if the dipole moments remain or cancel out.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Dec 06, 2020 10:26 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 3
Views: 43

Re: Unhybridized orbitals

Carbon has 4 valence electrons that can form bonds. In CO2, there are 2 regions of electron density in which the sp hybrid orbitals participate. There are still two more electrons, therefore there are two non hybridized orbitals.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Dec 06, 2020 10:20 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized orbitals
Replies: 5
Views: 37

Re: Unhybridized orbitals

I think you would look at the number of regions of electron density vs the number of valence electrons available to that atom. For example, a carbon that has three regions of electron density would have 3 sp3 hybridized orbitals and 1 sp that isn't. Carbon has 4 valence electrons.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Dec 06, 2020 10:18 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Pi Bonds Cannot Rotate
Replies: 23
Views: 167

Re: Pi Bonds Cannot Rotate

In a pi bond orbitals are overlapping outside of the intermolecular axis. Thus, rotating the bond about that axis would break the pi bond. On the other hand, sigma bonds overlap along this axis and thus allowing rotation.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Dec 06, 2020 10:16 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: pi bonds
Replies: 6
Views: 90

Re: pi bonds

Anything that is additional to the single bond would be the pi bond, so you would have to look at the lewis structure.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:50 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Remembering Bond Degrees
Replies: 7
Views: 75

Re: Remembering Bond Degrees

I cement the visualization of the shape and then the associated bond angles using flashcards and I'd say it helped a lot
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:46 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: H2O VSEPR
Replies: 27
Views: 147

Re: H2O VSEPR

2 lone pairs and 2 bonding domains on the central atom in O for H2O forms a "bent" shape
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:45 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Hydrogen Bonds
Replies: 16
Views: 124

Re: Hydrogen Bonds

Nope because hydrogen bonding denotes an intermolecular force
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:43 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Phosphate
Replies: 7
Views: 39

Re: Phosphate

Phosphate has access to the 3d state, which means it can add extra valence electrons
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:42 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Question on Radicals
Replies: 7
Views: 55

Re: Question on Radicals

yep it seems like it, probably synonymous as long as the specie has one unpaired electron making it unstable and existing only for a short amount of time
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 22, 2020 11:40 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole-dipole and london-dispersion IMF
Replies: 7
Views: 55

Re: Dipole-dipole and london-dispersion IMF

Dipole-dipole interactions occur between the partial positive and partial negative ends of two polar molecules. London-Dispersion Forces occur as a result of temporary and arbitrary electron position within its density, which means it occurs in all molecules.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 22, 2020 11:26 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Lone Pair E-
Replies: 47
Views: 271

Re: Lone Pair E-

Yep, thus affecting the shape of the molecule. Their repulsion is stronger than bonding pairs.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 22, 2020 11:22 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Non-Polar Bonds
Replies: 3
Views: 41

Re: Non-Polar Bonds

Keep in mind that though some molecules have polar bonds, these molecules can be non polar still based on their shape.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 22, 2020 11:11 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 25
Views: 133

Re: Bond Angles

I think it would be safe to know the bond angles with the common shapes and geomteries.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 22, 2020 11:09 pm
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: Just to clear it up
Replies: 13
Views: 239

Re: Just to clear it up

Yep because Lewis Bases are defined to donate electrons.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 15, 2020 4:55 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: lewis base or acid
Replies: 15
Views: 119

Re: lewis base or acid

Izamary Marquez 2L wrote:Would this make cations and anions more likely to be acids or donors? Is there a correlation?

Cations donate electrons, resulting in their positive charge, making them Lewis bases. Anions accept electrons and then become negatively charged, making them Lewis acids.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 15, 2020 4:52 am
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Covalent Bond Length
Replies: 13
Views: 133

Re: Covalent Bond Length

Electronegativity, atomic radius, and either being a single, double, triple bond contributes to bond length.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 15, 2020 4:51 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Identifying Radicals
Replies: 24
Views: 176

Re: Identifying Radicals

Having a single unpaired electron would form a radical.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 15, 2020 4:45 am
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 19
Views: 100

Re: Resonance

Resonance structures are just different Lewis structures of the same molecule. The most stable resonance structures would have the least number of atoms with a formal charge and most especially a sum closest to 0 for formal charges of the whole molecule.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 15, 2020 4:43 am
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: When do we use it
Replies: 9
Views: 59

Re: When do we use it

When only one of the atoms in a covalent bond donates both electrons that are shared, that bond is considered a coordinate covalent bond.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 08, 2020 11:31 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge Equation
Replies: 16
Views: 72

Re: Formal Charge Equation

L is the number of unpaired electrons. In other words, count the number of electrons around an atom that is not participating in a bond.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 08, 2020 11:30 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Valence Electrons [ENDORSED]
Replies: 43
Views: 328

Re: Valence Electrons [ENDORSED]

Based on the group that the element falls under on the periodic table, you can determine the number of valance electrons. On the S block, Group 1 (alkali metals) have 1 valence electron and Group 2 (alkali earth metals) have 2 valence electrons. Skipping all the way to the p block, the Boron group h...
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 08, 2020 11:24 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: central atom
Replies: 2
Views: 19

Re: central atom

Keep track of the number of valence electrons it has by looking at what group it is under in the periodic table. The number of bonds can surpass that however if that central element is passed period 3 because these elements can use their 3d state to accommodate extra valence electrons past 8.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 08, 2020 11:22 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: formal charge
Replies: 8
Views: 39

Re: formal charge

The formal charge of an atom in a molecule will tells you the charge associated with it. We use them to determine the best Lewis Structure for a molecule that has different possibilities. We want the lowest energy, and separating charges takes energy, therefore we want FC's of 0 ideally.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 08, 2020 11:20 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Octet rule exceptions
Replies: 15
Views: 75

Re: Octet rule exceptions

These atoms do not have up to 8 protons and therefore do not have enough to fullfill 8 valence electrons in its outer shell.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 5:03 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Where should the Rydberg Equation be used?
Replies: 11
Views: 82

Re: Where should the Rydberg Equation be used?

I think you can choose either. In the lecture, he clearly showed that using the empirical formula twice and then subtracting worked just as well as using the ryderberg equation but it helps teach the concepts. Just be careful with the Ryderberg constant
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:59 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: ionic radius
Replies: 14
Views: 68

Re: ionic radius

Cations would be smaller than their normal atoms because there are more protons than there are electrons, reducing electron repulsion as well allowing the protons to pull tighter on the lesser number of electrons, making that ionic radius smaller.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:57 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Electron Affinity vs Electronegativity
Replies: 7
Views: 55

Re: Electron Affinity vs Electronegativity

While they can be used to imply one another, they directly mean two different things. One has to do with energy changes once electrons are accepted while the other deals with the ability of an atom to attract other atoms.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:54 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Atomic Radius
Replies: 30
Views: 421

Re: Atomic Radius

The decrease of atomic radius as you travel across the periodic table horizontally is a result of increasing number of protons, pulling the electrons closer without the electrons jumping further away as they would down a group.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:50 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Ground State vs. Excited State Question
Replies: 8
Views: 62

Re: Ground State vs. Excited State Question

This post really helped me a lot! The way I tend to look at it is as if an electron isn't where it's supposed to be because in the configuration, it appears as if an energy level has been skipped, which is kind of what the electron does during its excited state.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:48 pm
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: E=hv vs E=hf
Replies: 15
Views: 120

Re: E=hv vs E=hf

I think the distinction is based mostly on context.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:47 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: rydberg's constant
Replies: 11
Views: 95

Re: rydberg's constant

It depends on which equation you plug it into because like they said, same value but different units and the relation is based on the light energy equaiton.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:40 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Lyman Series
Replies: 30
Views: 200

Re: Lyman Series

Yes, but for future references, keep in mind that this is for Hydrogen atom only.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 4:39 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Sapling HW Question 25
Replies: 8
Views: 83

Re: Sapling HW Question 25

You can find the velocity based because you know the wavelength and mass values. So, isolate v in wavelength = h/mv and plug it into 1/2 mv^2.
by Gian Boco 2G
Sun Nov 01, 2020 11:21 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Is c always the speed of light?
Replies: 88
Views: 457

Re: Is c always the speed of light?

Yep, and it will always equal wavelength * frequency when taken from the EM spectrum
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 15, 2020 8:56 am
Forum: Einstein Equation
Topic: e=hv used for particles?
Replies: 9
Views: 225

Re: e=hv used for particles?

My understanding is that it is only applicable to photon energy for electromagnetic waves.
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 15, 2020 8:54 am
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: protons and electrons
Replies: 33
Views: 191

Re: protons and electrons

Protons and neutrons have very similar mass. In fact, their masses together form the atomic mass of that element. Electrons however are so much smaller than them that the mass of electrons is neglected when dealing with atomic mass.
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 15, 2020 8:53 am
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Kinetic energy of electrons
Replies: 3
Views: 46

Re: Kinetic energy of electrons

Yep reference sheets for constants are useful! I imagine that our assessments in the future, we will be provided with these needed constants along with our periodic table.
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 15, 2020 8:48 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Calculator number meaning
Replies: 6
Views: 70

Re: Calculator number meaning

Like the previous replies said, e is used to mean "10 to the power of." You can even input your own "E" by pressing "2nd" and then "," (comma) on the TI-84 if you have one. This makes it a lot easier to input very low/high values without *10^x and adding all t...
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 15, 2020 8:34 am
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Photoelectric spectrum
Replies: 24
Views: 163

Re: Photoelectric spectrum

I think that it's safe to assume that we would be given an image or reference of the spectrum. But, I think it would probably be really helpful to be familiar with some of the ranges such as that of visible light.
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 8:57 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Textbook
Replies: 2
Views: 37

Re: Textbook

I'm in the same situation, and yes you can access the textbook. It should be on the right-hand side when you open Sapling as an ebook. I had to make an account to use the textbook. Omg how did I not see the giant textbook on the right hand side of the screen I'm so blind HAHA. Thank you so much thi...
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 8:32 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: #10 in the sapling
Replies: 6
Views: 87

Re: #10 in the sapling

I just googled the molar masses of the molecules ahaha. I feel like in the future we would be given the molar masses of molecules that we aren't familiar with such as this.
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 8:08 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Textbook
Replies: 2
Views: 37

Textbook

My textbook has yet to arrive along with my sapling code. However, I do have the free trial for sapling. Is it possible to access the book through the free trial of sapling?
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 8:06 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Sapling Hw Week 1 #10
Replies: 20
Views: 286

Re: Sapling Hw Week 1 #10

How do we know that the ratio for the problem is 1 to 1 to 1? Are we just assuming this or do we have to figure that out? If so, how do we find the ratio? I assumed that it would be 1:1 because there's no way would be expected to balance it even if it wasn't. Also if you work out the problem using ...
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 3:20 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Sapling Question #10
Replies: 9
Views: 132

Re: Sapling Question #10

I googled the molar masses as well hahaha! I think it's clear that having prior understanding of what these organic compounds are is unrealistic for us to already know. It's safe to assume that for future tests or quizzes, we are most likely to be given these molar masses as well other information w...
by Gian Boco 2G
Thu Oct 08, 2020 3:09 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Sapling Q #10-Balancing
Replies: 3
Views: 56

Re: Sapling Q #10-Balancing

I initially thought that the number before the organic compound was the number of moles but I realized that that was part of the name hahaha. Because I don't see how we can be expected to be familiar with these compounds and balance the equation, I think we should be safe to assume that they are all...

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