## Search found 62 matches

Sat Jan 16, 2021 11:06 am
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: What Does Monoprotic Mean?
Replies: 8
Views: 27

### Re: What Does Monoprotic Mean?

Monoprotic acids can only give away one proton, while polyprotic acids can donate more than one. I believe it is the same rule for monoprotic bases, where a monoprotic base can only accept one proton.
Sat Jan 16, 2021 11:02 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: n/V = concentration
Replies: 19
Views: 73

### Re: n/V = concentration

Remember that molarity and concentration are basically the same thing. The formula for molarity is M=mol (n)/volume (L). So for the formula PV=nRT, we can divide both sides by volume and get P=MRT.
Sat Jan 16, 2021 10:50 am
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Conjugate Seesaw Application
Replies: 2
Views: 12

### Re: Conjugate Seesaw Application

I think you're applying it correctly. That was my understanding when Dr. Lavelle explained it.
Sat Jan 16, 2021 10:45 am
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Weak versus Strong Acid and Base
Replies: 10
Views: 23

### Re: Weak versus Strong Acid and Base

There are some guidelines to figure out if an acid or base is weak, but in general you will need to memorize the strong acids. The strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, and HClO3. You can assume any other acid is not a strong acid. Additionally, acids with Carbon are usually weak. Stron...
Sat Jan 16, 2021 10:38 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: When x is negligible in Equilibrium constant
Replies: 34
Views: 93

### Re: When x is negligible in Equilibrium constant

It is safest to assume this only when K is less than 10^-4. Remember this is not the same as assuming x is zero in all cases, because we still need to solve x for the problem.
Fri Jan 08, 2021 12:11 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Resources Outside of Class
Replies: 6
Views: 38

### Re: Resources Outside of Class

If you don't fully understand the topics or just want a review, step-up sessions are good. If you mostly understand the content and want more practice problems, go to the workshop sessions. The drop-in sessions are for when you have either homework or concept questions.
Fri Jan 08, 2021 11:59 am
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV=nRT and concentration
Replies: 27
Views: 96

### Re: PV=nRT and concentration

Molarity and concentration are the same for the purpose of these problems. Just remember that molarity is mol/volume (L), and "n" refers to moles.
Fri Jan 08, 2021 11:47 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Chemistry Community Quota
Replies: 13
Views: 72

### Re: Chemistry Community Quota

They shouldn't expect you to make up for last quarter. Just inform your TA so they are aware when they input the grades.
Fri Jan 08, 2021 11:44 am
Forum: Non-Equilibrium Conditions & The Reaction Quotient
Topic: Q>K
Replies: 10
Views: 48

### Re: Q>K

You are correct that a reaction at equilibrium will not naturally make more products and have a Q value greater than the equilibrium constant. Examples of when Q will be higher are due to external factors (reactants have been removed) or the reaction has not yet reached equilibrium .
Fri Jan 08, 2021 11:39 am
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Textbook Problem 5.35
Replies: 2
Views: 26

### Textbook Problem 5.35

Number 35 says: The following plot shows how the partial pressures of reactant and products vary with time for the decomposition of compound A into compounds B and C. All three compounds are gases. Use this plot to do the following: (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b) Calcul...
Wed Dec 09, 2020 7:09 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Amphoteric
Replies: 11
Views: 90

### Re: Amphoteric

One of the UAs mentioned that most of the metalloid oxides such as Al2O3 are amphoteric.
Wed Dec 09, 2020 7:05 pm
Forum: General Science Questions
Topic: study methods/recs
Replies: 37
Views: 278

### Re: study methods/recs

Since he said there will be textbook problems on the final, you should focus on those first. The review sections this week will definitely be helpful as well.
Wed Dec 09, 2020 2:58 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: Proton vs H+
Replies: 14
Views: 101

### Re: Proton vs H+

Yes! H+ and proton are interchangeable. If you take the LS7 series they also reference H+ as protons.
Tue Dec 08, 2020 12:58 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Textbook Fundamentals J.9
Replies: 1
Views: 33

### Textbook Fundamentals J.9

Identify the salt that is produced from the acid–base neutralization reaction between (b) ammonia and phosphoric acid, Write the complete ionic equation for each reaction. I understand how to identify the salt, but I'm not sure how to write the ionic equation. Can anybody go through their thought pr...
Tue Dec 08, 2020 12:31 am
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Textbook Fundamentals J.7
Replies: 2
Views: 56

### Textbook Fundamentals J.7

Select an acid and a base for a neutralization reaction that results in the formation of (a) potassium bromide; (b) zinc nitrite; (c) calcium cyanide, Ca(CN) 2 ; (d) potassium phosphate. Write the balanced equation for each reaction. I understand how to do part A, but I'm stuck on part B. I don't un...
Wed Dec 02, 2020 5:08 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Strong Acid vs. Weak Acid
Replies: 7
Views: 59

### Re: Strong Acid vs. Weak Acid

In general, strong acids have weaker bonds. Acids with Carbon are also weak. However, we will likely need to memorize the list because these trends are not inclusive of all types of acids.
Wed Dec 02, 2020 5:05 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Pi Bonds Cannot Rotate
Replies: 23
Views: 156

### Re: Pi Bonds Cannot Rotate

Wed Dec 02, 2020 4:53 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Why is HF a weak acid?
Replies: 5
Views: 81

### Re: Why is HF a weak acid?

HF is a weak acid because the bond between Hydrogen and Fluorine is so short. It is more difficult for the bond to be broken, so it will not completely dissociate in water.
Wed Dec 02, 2020 4:48 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Bronsted Acids vs Strong Acids
Replies: 4
Views: 41

### Re: Bronsted Acids vs Strong Acids

I believe weak acids can be characterized as Bronsted acids as well. As long as it donates protons it will be a Bronsted acid.
Wed Dec 02, 2020 4:02 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Comparing Acid Strength
Replies: 1
Views: 19

### Comparing Acid Strength

Professor Lavelle mentioned in lecture that HBR is stronger than HCl. I just wanted to confirm that the weaker the bond is the stronger the acid is. So HAt would be a much stronger acid than HCl?
Fri Nov 27, 2020 11:29 am
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: What does delocalized π bond mean?
Replies: 18
Views: 132

### Re: What does delocalized π bond mean?

All double bonds have one pi bond. Since resonance structures are a blend of the possible structures (delocalized electrons), the pi bonds in a resonance structure would also be delocalized.
Fri Nov 27, 2020 11:26 am
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Chelates
Replies: 2
Views: 20

### Re: Chelates

It is important to know that it would more tightly connected due to multiple bonding sites.
Fri Nov 27, 2020 11:19 am
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sp3d or dsp3
Replies: 22
Views: 854

### Re: Sp3d or dsp3

They both are correct. You can use either one of them.
Fri Nov 27, 2020 11:17 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Periodic Table Trend
Replies: 37
Views: 387

### Re: Periodic Table Trend

Since Fluorine has the highest electronegativity, I try to remember the trend as the closer you get to Fluorine (top & right) the more electronegative.
Fri Nov 27, 2020 11:13 am
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Final Exam Tips
Replies: 24
Views: 139

### Re: Final Exam Tips

Definitely try to go to the UA sessions if you can. They're super helpful.
Wed Nov 18, 2020 2:41 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Nodes in the d orbital
Replies: 4
Views: 51

### Re: Nodes in the d orbital

I believe that is correct. One of the LAs informed me that the number of nodes is related to the "l" orbital angular momentum quantum number. Since the d orbital is "l"=2, it will have two nodal planes.
Wed Nov 18, 2020 2:32 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarizing Power/Polarizability Trend?
Replies: 4
Views: 43

### Re: Polarizing Power/Polarizability Trend?

In general, polarizability will increase down and to the left because those elements have a larger radius and more electrons; so, Francium would have a high polarizability. Polarizing power increases as the size gets smaller and the charge of the cation increases. For example, an Aluminum 3+ cation ...
Wed Nov 18, 2020 2:26 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: 2.a.13 part d sappling
Replies: 2
Views: 27

### Re: 2.a.13 part d sappling

Copper is one of the exceptions to the standard electron configuration rules. The other exception is chromium. Based on the rules we learned, it would appear copper's electron configuration would be [Ar] 4s^2, 3d^9. However, the d subshell would be very reactive because it only needs one more electr...
Wed Nov 18, 2020 2:10 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Resonance
Replies: 11
Views: 80

### Re: Resonance

It is also good to know that resonance structures are indicative of stability because they represent delocalization of electrons. They spread energy over a larger
area rather than keeping it confined to a small area.
Wed Nov 18, 2020 2:00 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Multiple Lone Pairs in a Lewis Structure
Replies: 1
Views: 26

### Multiple Lone Pairs in a Lewis Structure

Why is it when you draw H2O's Lewis structure you draw both lone pairs on the same side pushing down the bonds? I thought you were supposed to put the lone pairs as far away as possible like in XeF4's structure.
Tue Nov 10, 2020 5:37 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Test Anxiety
Replies: 62
Views: 327

### Re: Test Anxiety

A good method to stay on track for a class is to make sure you truly understand all the material from one lecture before next class. That way you won't fall behind and feel overwhelmed. Right before starting a test if I feel nervous, I like to close my eyes for a few seconds and take a deep breath. ...
Tue Nov 10, 2020 5:26 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Interaction
Replies: 3
Views: 32

### Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Interaction

Can anybody explain the logic behind induced dipole-induced dipole interactions?
Tue Nov 10, 2020 5:23 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Hydrogen Bonding
Replies: 6
Views: 55

### Hydrogen Bonding

How is Hydrogen bonding different than normal bonding? I think he mentioned that Hydrogen can form a bond with a lone pair, but I didn't understand why this is possible.
Tue Nov 10, 2020 5:03 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Dissociation Energy Trend
Replies: 2
Views: 25

### Dissociation Energy Trend

Can anyone explain the dissociation energy trend in the periodic table? I want to make sure I understand it correctly.
Tue Nov 10, 2020 4:50 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Polar vs Nonpolar
Replies: 3
Views: 21

### Polar vs Nonpolar

Can anybody explain what makes a molecule polar vs. nonpolar and how it relates to dipoles? I know he mentioned it in lecture, but I didn't really understand it.
Wed Nov 04, 2020 5:18 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Constants and Equations Page
Replies: 8
Views: 71

### Re: Constants and Equations Page

The Rydberg constant (R) should be in the formula. On the online version its in a different font and italicized. It appears very lightly when printed, so maybe that's why it didn't appear on your sheet.
Wed Nov 04, 2020 5:12 pm
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Step Up Sessions
Replies: 71
Views: 4568

### Re: Step Up Sessions

Agreed. I'm so glad Professor Lavelle organized these study sessions. The LAs have have been extremely helpful, and they always make great practice worksheets.
Wed Nov 04, 2020 2:11 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Coordinate Covalent Bonds & Lewis Acid-base Reactions
Replies: 6
Views: 47

### Coordinate Covalent Bonds & Lewis Acid-base Reactions

What type of reactions are acid-base reactions? Do coordinate covalent bonds only occur in Lewis acid-base reactions or can they occur in any molecule?
Wed Nov 04, 2020 2:03 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Exception to Octet Rule
Replies: 2
Views: 11

### Exception to Octet Rule

In the Lewis structure for BF3 , why can't there be a double bond with one of the Fluorine atoms? Is formal charge always more important than having an octet?
Wed Nov 04, 2020 1:31 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Expanded Octet
Replies: 6
Views: 37

### Expanded Octet

Can anybody explain which elements can have an expanded octet? In lecture he mentioned something about the d-block, but I didn't really understand.
Mon Oct 26, 2020 5:40 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Potassium & Calcium Electron Configurations
Replies: 1
Views: 30

### Potassium & Calcium Electron Configurations

In lecture Professor Lavelle mentioned that the 4s orbitals of Potassium and Calcium were occupied sooner than expected, but I don't really understand what it means when writing their electron configuration. Can anybody clarify?
Mon Oct 26, 2020 5:15 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Writing Electron Configurations
Replies: 5
Views: 35

### Writing Electron Configurations

Why do we write electron configurations from lowest energy to highest energy? Wouldn't writing it from highest to lowest give you more information at first glance?
Mon Oct 26, 2020 4:53 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Degenerate Orbitals
Replies: 3
Views: 32

### Degenerate Orbitals

Are degenerate orbitals just orbitals with the same energy? Is hydrogen the only atom that will have degenerate orbitals because its a one electron system?
Mon Oct 26, 2020 4:22 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Wave Function Quantum Numbers
Replies: 11
Views: 113

### Wave Function Quantum Numbers

Can anybody help explain the relationship the quantum numbers n, l, and m have with each other?
Mon Oct 26, 2020 4:08 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Lyman VS Balmer series
Replies: 5
Views: 47

### Re: Lyman VS Balmer series

Yes, you're correct. Also remember that the Lyman Series corresponds with UV light, while the Balmer Series corresponds with visible light. Sometimes questions online provide the wavelength of the incident light, so memorize the general wavelength range for UV light & visible light.
Thu Oct 22, 2020 5:24 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Topic: Kilograms SI unit?
Replies: 4
Views: 35

### Re: Kilograms SI unit?

Yes, kg is the SI unit for the formulas. Be careful because a lot of problems give values, especially electron or proton mass, in grams.
Thu Oct 22, 2020 5:19 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Calculator
Replies: 2
Views: 24

### Re: Calculator

The mode of the calculator shouldn't matter for this test. Just remember to try and use parentheses so there aren't errors when doing arithmetic with X10^x values.
Thu Oct 22, 2020 5:14 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: What is a nodal plane?
Replies: 4
Views: 37

### Re: What is a nodal plane?

Just think of a nodal plane as a place electrons won't be. You are correct only p, d, and f orbitals have a nodal plane, while the s orbital does not. Nodes are points of zero amplitude along a standing wave, which means there are no electrons present.
Thu Oct 22, 2020 4:55 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Wavelengths in Light Spectrum
Replies: 9
Views: 78

### Re: Wavelengths in Light Spectrum

In general, you should how the wavelengths of each group relate to each other. The important ones to take note of are visible light (red and blue), UV light, microwaves, x-rays, gamma, and infrared. I doubt he would ask for the specific wavelengths without providing extra information.
Thu Oct 22, 2020 4:50 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Conceptual difference between momentum and velocity
Replies: 4
Views: 26

### Re: Conceptual difference between momentum and velocity

I definitely agree with what everyone else has been saying. Velocity is speed in a given direction, while momentum is the motion of an object. The equation illustrates that momentum is directly proportional to an object's mass and directly proportional to the object's velocity. Just be aware that a ...
Thu Oct 22, 2020 4:41 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Hydrogen Emission Spectrum
Replies: 3
Views: 46

### Hydrogen Emission Spectrum

I was confused by a practice problem from one of the TA's worksheets. An electric current is passed through a tube that contains Hydrogen gas. Light is then passed through the prism and the emission spectrum of Hydrogen gas is recorded. A band was recorded, and it has a frequency of 6.1684E14 hz. Wh...
Tue Oct 13, 2020 6:17 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Replies: 2
Views: 44

### Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

What happens if $\Delta p X \Delta x$ is less than Planck's/4pi? or is that not possible?
Tue Oct 13, 2020 6:12 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Electromagnetic Spectrum
Replies: 5
Views: 38

### Re: Electromagnetic Spectrum

You probably won't need to know the specific wavelengths, but definitely know the general size of each group compared to the rest. The common ones we will see are UV, X-rays, visible (know red and blue), microwaves, and infrared.
Tue Oct 13, 2020 6:04 pm
Forum: Bohr Frequency Condition, H-Atom , Atomic Spectroscopy
Topic: Balmer & Lyman Series
Replies: 2
Views: 25

### Balmer & Lyman Series

What do the Balmer & Lyman Series represent in atomic spectroscopy? Can anyone explain why they are important?
Tue Oct 13, 2020 5:56 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Using Non-metals for the Photoelectric Effect? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 2
Views: 53

### Using Non-metals for the Photoelectric Effect?[ENDORSED]

Does anyone know if you can only use metals for the photoelectric effect experiment? If so, why don't non-metals work for it?
Tue Oct 13, 2020 5:49 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Wavelike characteristics of objects
Replies: 4
Views: 46

### Re: Wavelike characteristics of objects

Correct! It is way too small for us to observe. Wavelength is inversely proportional to mass, so the larger the object the smaller the wavelength.
Wed Oct 07, 2020 5:48 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Textbook Example 1B.2
Replies: 1
Views: 19

### Textbook Example 1B.2

The question asks what is (a) the energy of a single photon of blue light of frequency 6.4 X 10^14 Hz; (b) the energy per mole of photons of the same frequency. Once you calculate part a, how do you find the energy per mole of photons? The formula they used is E(per mole of photons) = N(subscript A)...
Mon Oct 05, 2020 4:35 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Mol VS Mole
Replies: 17
Views: 213

### Re: Mol VS Mole

Yes, they are both the same. Be careful not to confuse them as a shortened version of molecule, especially when doing conversions.
Mon Oct 05, 2020 4:32 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Accuracy vs Precision
Replies: 20
Views: 212

### Re: Accuracy vs Precision

The analogies they have given are really good. Accuracy is how close the measurement is to the correct value, while precision is how close a group of measurement are to each other.
Mon Oct 05, 2020 4:23 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Molar mass for O2 vs O
Replies: 11
Views: 116

### Re: Molar mass for O2 vs O

Oxygen is a diatomic molecule, so when it is by itself as the air we breathe the atomic mass is 32g instead of 16g. The other diatomic molecules you should be aware of are Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine.
Mon Oct 05, 2020 4:15 pm
Forum: SI Units, Unit Conversions
Replies: 15
Views: 168

### Re: SI Units in Answer?

You can use any unit while working through the problem. Be aware that certain formulas use specific units such as liters. It is easy to make mistakes if you plug in the amount in millimeters without converting it.
Mon Oct 05, 2020 4:09 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Determining Molar Mass
Replies: 19
Views: 210

### Re: Determining Molar Mass

In this case it shouldn't make much of a difference. Just be careful not to round too much for elements with decimals not so close to whole numbers. I personally round them to the hundredths place.