Search found 74 matches

by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Mar 01, 2021 5:27 pm
Forum: Method of Initial Rates (To Determine n and k)
Topic: Value of k throughout Experiments
Replies: 4
Views: 12

Re: Value of k throughout Experiments

k will be constant no matter the concentrations or the rates resulting from them; that's why you can use any experiment in a rate law problem to solve for k. It could, however, change depending on temperature.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Mar 01, 2021 5:25 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Kinetic vs thermodynamics
Replies: 8
Views: 133

Re: Kinetic vs thermodynamics

Kinetics is for how fast a reaction goes, and thermodynamics is for how favorable a reaction is, how much entropy changes, or how much heat is transferred. Hope this helps!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Feb 26, 2021 3:19 pm
Forum: Kinetics vs. Thermodynamics Controlling a Reaction
Topic: Kinetic stability
Replies: 8
Views: 30

Re: Kinetic stability

Kinetic stability refers to the energy barrier for the reaction. Because the energy barrier for diamond to graphite is so large, the reaction, although spontaneous, is extremely slow that diamond virtually doesn't change. So, while diamond may be thermodynamically unfavorable, it's kinetically stable
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Thu Feb 25, 2021 11:14 am
Forum: Administrative Questions and Class Announcements
Topic: Which percentage corresponds with which grade?
Replies: 8
Views: 63

Which percentage corresponds with which grade?

Hello! I'm wondering what percentage range corresponds with grades in this class. For instance, a B+ is from what percent to what percent? Is there a guide I can consult?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 24, 2021 4:33 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Week 7/8 Sapling #9
Replies: 3
Views: 30

Re: Week 7/8 Sapling #9

Courtney Situ 2B wrote:Hello!

The problem specifies copper (I), and I believe you used the standard reduction potential for copper (II).
To save you the search, here it is:
Cu+(aq) + e– → Cu(s)
+0.52
Hope this helps!


Yes! Be sure to keep track of which ion variant's reduction potential you're using.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 24, 2021 4:12 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Sapling Number 10
Replies: 6
Views: 23

Re: Sapling Number 10

I don't think there's a way around it; you'll have to know the reduction potentials. I'm sure they'll give you that kind of information should you be tested on this.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 22, 2021 4:29 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 30
Views: 71

Re: Salt Bridge

As the redox reaction progresses in the cell, there would start to be a more positive side and a more negative side, and that would persist if it weren't for the salt bridge. The salt bridge is meant to keep the charges balanced across the whole cell.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 22, 2021 4:19 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Oxidizing vs Reducing
Replies: 55
Views: 124

Re: Oxidizing vs Reducing

I make sure to remember that it's swapped. The substance that is gaining electrons (and is being reduced) is the oxidizing agent, and the substance that is losing electrons (and is oxidized) is the reducing agent.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Feb 20, 2021 6:07 am
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Work Formula
Replies: 15
Views: 46

Re: Work Formula

Delta n is just the change in moles of gas, since it's the ideal gas law. Hope this helps.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Feb 20, 2021 6:03 am
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Anode and Cathode
Replies: 9
Views: 23

Re: Anode and Cathode

The anode is where oxidation happens, and electrons are released, which will flow to the cathode. The cathode is where reduction happens.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 17, 2021 4:02 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Redox Charges
Replies: 3
Views: 17

Redox Charges

How do we know what charge (or oxidation number) an ion will have after a redox reaction? For example, how would we know that Mn 2+ is formed and not any other charge? Or would they tell us from the get go?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 17, 2021 4:00 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Redox Mnemonic
Replies: 11
Views: 48

Re: Redox Mnemonic

That helps plenty! I remember both LEOGER and OILRIG.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 10, 2021 3:51 pm
Forum: Calculating Standard Reaction Entropies (e.g. , Using Standard Molar Entropies)
Topic: Self-Test 4H.1A
Replies: 2
Views: 12

Re: Self-Test 4H.1A

Yes, pressure is inverse to volume, so for all other conditions being constant, if pressure decreases, volume increases, and so does entropy.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 10, 2021 3:41 pm
Forum: Calculating Standard Reaction Entropies (e.g. , Using Standard Molar Entropies)
Topic: Complex Moleclues [ENDORSED]
Replies: 3
Views: 26

Re: Complex Moleclues [ENDORSED]

I believe it has to do with the size of the substance/molecule as well as the number of atoms bonded that the molecule has. C4H10 is more complex and will have a higher entropy than C2H6. Intermolecular forces may also play a role, but I'm not sure. Hope this helps!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 08, 2021 4:08 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Sapling Week 3/4 #18
Replies: 3
Views: 22

Re: Sapling Week 3/4 #18

Cp and Cv are the pressure-constant molar heat and the volume-constant molar heat, respectively.

I haven't used Cv for the delta U portion, though. I just got the change in volume from PV=nRT, then plugged that into w = -P(delta V) and converted that into joules. Afterwards, I did the q + w equation.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 08, 2021 3:53 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Week 4 Sapling #14 Help
Replies: 5
Views: 21

Re: Week 4 Sapling #14 Help

For the moles part, use PV = nRT to get n because the rest of the variables have been given to you.

Now, for Path A, use -nRT ln(V2/V1) where V1 and V2 are the two volumes mentioned, and for Path B, use -P(delta V). Hope this helps!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Feb 06, 2021 3:22 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Sapling Week 3 and 4, Q5
Replies: 4
Views: 26

Sapling Week 3 and 4, Q5

I'm stuck on question 5 of the Sapling homework due tomorrow (W3 and W4) about 2M + 3Cl2 => 2MCl3. Help would be appreciated!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Feb 05, 2021 4:31 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Spontaneous
Replies: 25
Views: 90

Re: Spontaneous

If an equation is spontaneous then it will happen all by itself, without the need for you to add some kind of energy to make it happen. For example, a gas has a disposition to expand to the full volume of the container, so a gas taking up full volume is a spontaneous process.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 03, 2021 4:45 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Solving for change in internal energy
Replies: 6
Views: 45

Re: Solving for change in internal energy

Q is negative when heat is released, but positive when heat is absorbed.

W is negative when work is done by the system, but positive when work is done on the system.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Feb 03, 2021 4:38 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: Entropy definition
Replies: 27
Views: 74

Re: Entropy definition

Entropy is the measure of disorder in a system, and you can really observe entropy in, for example, a gas. A gas won't stay in a small cluster; it will spread out and take up the entire volume of its container, thus indicating an increase in disorder (randomness)
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 01, 2021 3:41 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using First Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: What P when solving for work?
Replies: 5
Views: 17

Re: What P when solving for work?

The external pressure, I presume since work has to do with the pressure exerted on the system.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Feb 01, 2021 3:37 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Gas Constant
Replies: 13
Views: 324

Re: Gas Constant

It depends on the units you're using, for example, for pressure (It differs whether or not you're using atmospheres, bar, Pascal, etc.)
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 27, 2021 5:29 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Sapling Learning Week 3 and 4 Homework Question 10
Replies: 4
Views: 66

Re: Sapling Learning Week 3 and 4 Homework Question 10

What the other comments said. I believe it's mc(delta T) of the liquid water = fusion heat of ice + mc(delta T) of the ice
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 27, 2021 5:26 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Pressure and Systems
Replies: 2
Views: 29

Pressure and Systems

Can somebody help me clarify how pressure works depending on the type of system (open, closed, isolated)?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 25, 2021 4:13 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Extensive Property versus Intensive Property
Replies: 5
Views: 31

Re: Extensive Property versus Intensive Property

Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of the substance, such as the mass or number of moles. Intensive properties are not dependent on the amount of substance; you divided it by the amount, so it's a measure of heat capacity per 1 gram or 1 mole. Specific heat capacity stays the same thro...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 25, 2021 2:43 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: K and K(c)
Replies: 2
Views: 22

K and K(c)

The textbook talks about the conversion between K and Kc, but I'm having trouble understanding the difference between the two, how to convert from one to the other, and which one I should use. Any help would be appreciated!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Jan 22, 2021 4:25 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond Enthalpies of diatomics vs Bond Enthalpies of Everything else
Replies: 2
Views: 20

Re: Bond Enthalpies of diatomics vs Bond Enthalpies of Everything else

For diatomic elements, the diatomic molecular form is the most stable form; thus, they naturally exist that way, and the bond connecting them doesn't change. However, in other elements, the bond's strength and properties may change depending on what molecule it's in or what state it is; that's why t...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Jan 22, 2021 4:22 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Preferred way to calculate enthalpy
Replies: 6
Views: 46

Re: Preferred way to calculate enthalpy

I believe Hess's law is used when working with a multi-step reaction, and standard enthalpy of formation is used for calculating the enthalpy of a one-step reaction. I'm sure the latter could also be used for multi-step though.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:42 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Endothermic v. Exothermic
Replies: 105
Views: 321

Re: Endothermic v. Exothermic

I believe so; endothermic reactions will always have a positive enthalpy and exothermic reactions will always have a negative enthalpy.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 20, 2021 3:35 pm
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Phase change and temperature
Replies: 6
Views: 19

Re: Phase change and temperature

I believe it's because of the enthalpy of vaporization in reverse that comes from the vapor condensing into a liquid. The heat is being released when a gas condenses into a liquid (phase change); that's why the temperature wouldn't change at that time. A larger difference in heat released (more nega...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Jan 15, 2021 4:11 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: KA KB predicting trends (outline)
Replies: 6
Views: 44

Re: KA KB predicting trends (outline)

The higher the Ka, the stronger the acid, and the higher the Kb, the stronger the base!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 13, 2021 4:38 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: How to calculate the pKa
Replies: 14
Views: 130

Re: How to calculate the pKa

pKa is defined as -log(Ka), Ka being the acidity constant, and "log" being log base 10.

If you were given pKa you would probably have to find Ka, in that case, it would be 10^(-pKa). Hope this helps!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 13, 2021 4:36 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: What is the Conjugate Seesaw
Replies: 11
Views: 78

Re: What is the Conjugate Seesaw

The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base, and the stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid. This is because, for example in strong acids, the proton transfer equilibrium favors the formation of H3O+ ions, therefore, the splitting of the H+ ion from the strong acid. Thus, the conj...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 11, 2021 4:53 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Sapling Homework Week 1-Problem#2
Replies: 5
Views: 74

Re: Sapling Homework Week 1-Problem#2

It's always best to convert to molar concentrations first. Divide 0.920 by 5 and 0.150 by 5 and you get Initial concentration of SO3 = 0.184 M Equilibrium concentration of O2 = 0.030 M When you do ICE for the reaction, 0.184 <---> 0 0 -2x +2x +x ---------------------------------- 0.184-2x 2x 0.030 y...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 11, 2021 4:07 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: Pressure and partial pressure
Replies: 12
Views: 62

Re: Pressure and partial pressure

If there are multiple gases in one container, partial pressure is the pressure of a single type of gas. Total pressure is the combined pressure of all gases in a container. So if there was a jar filled with nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, the pressure of oxygen in the jar would be a partial pr...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Jan 08, 2021 4:30 pm
Forum: Applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Changes in Chemical & Physical Conditions
Topic: Increasing the Volume
Replies: 5
Views: 41

Re: Increasing the Volume

Yes! I've tried it out with a calculator, and when the volume is increased, the reaction will begin to favor the side with more moles of gas.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 06, 2021 4:29 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: PV=nRT
Replies: 74
Views: 515

Re: PV=nRT

P = pressure
V = volume
n = moles
R = gas constant (around 0.08206 I believe)
T = temperature in Kelvin
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Jan 06, 2021 3:53 pm
Forum: Ideal Gases
Topic: What makes an ideal gas an ideal gas?
Replies: 9
Views: 72

What makes an ideal gas an ideal gas?

Is it just about PV equaling nRT, or is there a property about those gases that makes them ideal? I must have forgotten from the last time I did chem.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 04, 2021 4:24 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Kp (pressure used as concentration?)
Replies: 3
Views: 27

Re: Kp (pressure used as concentration?)

I believe we plug in the moles of that specific gas into the ideal gas law, along with the total volume of the container, to get the partial pressure.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Jan 04, 2021 4:13 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Solids Not Having Concentration
Replies: 7
Views: 82

Re: Solids Not Having Concentration

Solutes and solvents' molar concentrations are capable of changing; however,
for pure substances such as solids and pure liquids, their concentrations would not change. That's why we leave them out of the equation.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Dec 11, 2020 2:15 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Post All Chemistry Jokes Here
Replies: 8791
Views: 1491691

Re: Post All Chemistry Jokes Here

I don't like getting acid all over me. Nothing really happens; it just gets under my skin.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Dec 09, 2020 3:27 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Acidic, basic, or neutral?
Replies: 8
Views: 87

Re: Acidic, basic, or neutral?

It's all in whether or not the ions can form a strong acid/base or a weak acid/base. If both the acid and base are strong, the ion is neutral. If one's a weak acid and the other a strong base, the salt is basic. If one's a strong acid and the other a weak base, the salt is acidic.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Dec 09, 2020 3:21 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Titration Diagram
Replies: 5
Views: 23

Re: Titration Diagram

These points just represented the pH at different volumes; they're supposed to demonstrate the change in pH before and after the stoichiometric point
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Dec 07, 2020 3:29 pm
Forum: Identifying Acidic & Basic Salts
Topic: Which salts are acids or bases?
Replies: 4
Views: 52

Re: Which salts are acids or bases?

Some salts are neutral salts, and they generally come from the reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. In addition, the ions of a neutral salt in water aren't effective in changing the pH of a solution.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Dec 07, 2020 2:28 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: neutralization reactions
Replies: 5
Views: 60

Re: neutralization reactions

That's how I've been comprehending it! I usually think of neutralization reactions between strong acids and strong bases in this formula: Acid + Base -> Salt + Water. It makes sense that strong acids and strong bases would produce water because all the strong bases have OH and the strong acids have...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Dec 04, 2020 3:17 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Acids
Topic: Acid strength and bond length
Replies: 11
Views: 125

Re: Acid strength and bond length

HBr would be the stronger acid. The longer the bond in a binary acid, the stronger it will be. When the bond is weaker, the H+ ion is easier to remove, meaning the acid would release more H+ ions into a solution by dissociating. Hence, the acid would be stronger.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Dec 02, 2020 3:47 pm
Forum: Amphoteric Compounds
Topic: Amphoteric vs Amphiprotic
Replies: 13
Views: 516

Re: Amphoteric vs Amphiprotic

All amphiprotic substances are amphoteric, because they all act like either acids or bases depending on the situation. However, not all amphoteric substances are amphiprotic, because amphiprotic substances donate or accept hydrogen ions, and some amphoteric substances don't have to donate or accept ...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Dec 02, 2020 3:31 pm
Forum: Bronsted Acids & Bases
Topic: Molarity and Strong Acid Ionization
Replies: 3
Views: 35

Re: Molarity and Strong Acid Ionization

HCl, as a strong acid, will dissociate in water, and the H+ ion will be accepted by H2O to create H3O+. The acid-base interaction is as follows: HCl + H2O <--> H3O+ + Cl- All it takes from here is stoichiometry. The ratio of HCl to H3O+ is 1:1, same with HCl to Cl-. That's why there is 0.1 M H3O+ an...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 30, 2020 2:56 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Hemoglobin vs. Myoglobin
Replies: 29
Views: 254

Re: Hemoglobin vs. Myoglobin

Myoglobin transports oxygen in muscle tissue, whereas hemoglobin transports oxygen in blood. In addition, hemoglobin transports more oxygen than myoglobin because hemoglobin has four myoglobin-like structures that can carry oxygen. Hope this helps!
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 30, 2020 2:54 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Naming Conventions for Polyatomic Ion Ligands
Replies: 2
Views: 35

Naming Conventions for Polyatomic Ion Ligands

Are there any naming rules for polyatomic ions that are ligands in a coordination compound? I'm talking about chlorite, chlorate, phosphate, etc. They wouldn't just be called "chloro", right? That's the ligand name of chloride ions. What are the naming conventions besides adding "o&qu...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Nov 27, 2020 2:35 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Unhybridized Orbital
Replies: 1
Views: 18

Unhybridized Orbital

I'm still not sure as to why, for example, when carbon bonds with 3 atoms and one of the bonds is a double bond, how the unhybridized orbital forms. Are there simply not enough hybridized orbitals for four electrons?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 25, 2020 3:29 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Homework question Sapling
Replies: 6
Views: 71

Re: Homework question Sapling

If it were linear and the two lone pairs cancel its forces out, then the angle between the lone pair and the bond would be 90 degrees, and electron repulsion wouldn't allow that. When there are four regions of electron density, the electron geometry is tetrahedral and the bond angles are 109.5 degre...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 25, 2020 2:54 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Nature of Transition Metals
Replies: 1
Views: 12

Nature of Transition Metals

What is it about transition metal cations specifically, that are responsible for them binding to ligands, and how can it bind with 6 ligands? Does it work the same way as an ionic compound?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 23, 2020 2:02 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: regions of electron density
Replies: 7
Views: 56

Re: regions of electron density

The number of regions of electron density has to do with how many lone pairs and bonding areas there are (single, double, and triple bonds are counted as one bonding region). CH 4 has 4 bonds, therefore, 4 regions of electron density. Likewise, NH 3 has 3 bonds and 1 lone pair on nitrogen, making up...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 23, 2020 1:59 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Bond Order and Hybridization
Replies: 1
Views: 27

Bond Order and Hybridization

I'm having trouble understanding the connection between the presence of sigma VS pi bonds, and the hybridization of orbitals. Assuming, of course, there is one.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 18, 2020 9:29 am
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Covalent Character and Polarizability
Replies: 4
Views: 62

Covalent Character and Polarizability

I'm a little confused as to how stronger polarizing power (cation) and higher polarizability (anion) could result in the bond having more covalent character. If those forces are greater, I'd have assumed it would have more ionic character.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 18, 2020 9:25 am
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarizability of Anions and Cations
Replies: 6
Views: 48

Re: Polarizability of Anions and Cations

Generally smaller, highly-charged cations, such as Al 3+ , will have a greater polarizing power because of a greater effective nuclear charge, whereas larger anions will be more polarizable (i.e. their electron cloud will be more distorted), because their nuclei have a weaker pull on their valence e...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 16, 2020 10:46 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Why don't other np4 elements behave like oxygen in terms of ionization?
Replies: 2
Views: 42

Why don't other np4 elements behave like oxygen in terms of ionization?

I understand why oxygen is the exception to the trend of ionization energy and why it's lower. However, I want to clarify why other Group 16 elements (Sulfur, Selenium, etc.) don't have a lower ionization energy like oxygen? Or hold on, do they?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Nov 14, 2020 6:15 pm
Forum: Student Social/Study Group
Topic: Post All Chemistry Jokes Here
Replies: 8791
Views: 1491691

Re: Post All Chemistry Jokes Here

I like talking to particles, but sometimes they just wave, and it gets really annoying.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Nov 14, 2020 6:09 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization and Steric Number [ENDORSED]
Replies: 1
Views: 76

Hybridization and Steric Number [ENDORSED]

What does steric number have to do with hybridization? I know how to assign hybridizations based on steric number, but does a larger steric number mean more hybrid orbitals?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Sat Nov 14, 2020 6:05 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bent Shape
Replies: 31
Views: 1029

Re: Bent Shape

The bent molecule shapes are either AX2E, or AX2E2, meaning the central atom would have either one or two lone pairs.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 11, 2020 7:41 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Hydrogen Bonding
Replies: 6
Views: 73

Re: Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen bonding happens between molecules; the slightly positive hydrogen is attracted to the slightly negative side of a polar molecule. Normal bonding happens within a molecule and binds the atoms in a molecule together
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Nov 11, 2020 7:36 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole dipole vs LDF
Replies: 10
Views: 76

Re: Dipole dipole vs LDF

London Dispersion forces happen between every type of molecule, because it has to do with the very brief polarizability of an electron field. Dipole-dipole forces have to happen between two polar molecules, because the unequal covalent bond makes the opposite ends of each molecule attract, pulling t...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 09, 2020 3:48 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Negative energies? [ENDORSED]
Replies: 7
Views: 81

Re: Negative energies? [ENDORSED]

When ions interact, it's because the resulting compound would be more stable than if they were individual ions. That's why when they interact and form an ionic bond, they release energy.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Nov 06, 2020 3:50 pm
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Phosphorus and d-Orbital
Replies: 7
Views: 67

Re: Phosphorus and d-Orbital

I'm not sure, but I think it has to do with the d-subshell being on the same energy level (same quantum number) as 3p. The expanded octet works by using a different type of orbital.
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Nov 06, 2020 3:47 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Difference in ionic and covalent Lewis structures
Replies: 9
Views: 94

Re: Difference in ionic and covalent Lewis structures

Covalent Lewis structures are drawn how a normal Lewis structure is drawn, but ionic Lewis structures are drawn with the cation between brackets and the charge indicated, and the anion drawn the same way next to the cation structure. (E.x. [Li]+[| F |]-, I don't quite know how to type out a lewis st...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Nov 06, 2020 2:51 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Atomic Radius
Replies: 38
Views: 259

Re: Atomic Radius

As we go across a period, the number of protons increase one by one, which would result in a progressively higher electrostatic attraction
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Nov 06, 2020 2:48 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Electronegativity Difference Between 1.5 and 2
Replies: 4
Views: 66

Electronegativity Difference Between 1.5 and 2

In Dr. Lavelle's latest lecture, he gives a rough guide that electronegativity differences higher than 2 indicate ionic bonds, whereas electronegativity differences lower than 1.5 indicate covalent bonds. How about electronegativity differences between 1.5 and 2? If such bonds exist, what is the nat...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 02, 2020 3:31 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: When to use formal charge or octet rule?
Replies: 12
Views: 106

Re: When to use formal charge or octet rule?

Usually the octet rule has to be kept in mind when showing a Lewis structure and when calculating formal charge, but formal charge is used to see which Lewis structure is the most stable. Also, some elements (those of level n=3) can expand their octet to make their formal charge 0. Phosphorus can fo...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Nov 02, 2020 3:19 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: "Charge Separation"?
Replies: 3
Views: 62

"Charge Separation"?

In a part of Dr. Lavelle's lecture, he mentions charge separation between sulfur and oxygen atoms in sulfate. What does that mean exactly? I feel like it's kind of making sense, but it's also far from my grasp. Would anyone clarify what he meant and what this means for formal charges?
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Wed Oct 21, 2020 3:09 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Indeterminacy for Electrons in Bohr's Model of Atoms?
Replies: 3
Views: 78

Indeterminacy for Electrons in Bohr's Model of Atoms?

I'd just finished watching the section of Dr. Lavelle's most recent lecture, about how electrons cannot be confined to the space of the nucleus because the indeterminacy of velocity would be way too high, higher than the speed of light. What would the indeterminacy equation look like for Bohr's mode...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Oct 19, 2020 2:45 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Connection of De Broglie with Photoelectric Effect?
Replies: 1
Views: 54

Connection of De Broglie with Photoelectric Effect?

I was watching Dr. Lavelle's latest lecture, and his discussion of whether or not an object's De Broglie wavelength can be analyzed as a wave depending on how short it is. If they're too short, they can't be analyzed as waves (and are instead analyzed by particles, from my understanding.) Does that ...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Mon Oct 12, 2020 2:15 pm
Forum: Properties of Electrons
Topic: Quantum Principles and Neuron Principles?
Replies: 1
Views: 63

Quantum Principles and Neuron Principles?

I have just started watching the October 12th lecture about quantum mechanics, and the explanation of quantum mechanics involving discrete amounts instead of continuous ones (e.x. electrons cannot be in between two energy levels), reminded me of a principle that has to do with the activity of neuron...
by Joseph_Armani_3K
Fri Oct 09, 2020 4:25 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Why do salts with different cations burn different colors?
Replies: 2
Views: 46

Why do salts with different cations burn different colors?

I would like to know more about how salts burning in differently colored flames is related to how the electrons of an element's atoms release energy when they traverse through energy levels to the ground state. Is it that most electrons emit the energy wavelength equivalent to red when they're stimu...

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