Search found 51 matches

by Sydney Jensen 3L
Tue Dec 15, 2020 11:00 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: (CO3) 2-
Replies: 5
Views: 43

Re: (CO3) 2-

This is because there are two possibilities in which the oxygens can bind to an atom, whether they ave single bonds or they have double bonds.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Tue Dec 15, 2020 10:58 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: sp3 orbitals
Replies: 6
Views: 49

Re: sp3 orbitals

The number in front of the hybridization is referring to the energy level, not with the hybridization, as that is the exponent.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Tue Dec 15, 2020 10:54 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Units for DeBrogile Equation
Replies: 8
Views: 62

Re: Units for DeBrogile Equation

Mass would be measured in kilograms, while velocity would be in meters per second, and wavelength would be measured in meters.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Tue Dec 15, 2020 10:51 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 21
Views: 136

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

A single bond is a sigma bond, but a double bond includes both a sigma bond and a pi bond.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Tue Dec 15, 2020 10:49 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Cobalt vs Cobaltate
Replies: 12
Views: 75

Re: Cobalt vs Cobaltate

The addition of the "ate: suffix is due to the fact that the charge is negative, not a neutral charge.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Dec 03, 2020 6:17 pm
Forum: Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Topic: Hydrogen bonding
Replies: 15
Views: 111

Re: Hydrogen bonding

Coordinate covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds differ because hydrogen bonds are intermolecular forces, while coordinate covalent bonds are intramolecular forces
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Dec 03, 2020 6:15 pm
Forum: Resonance Structures
Topic: Valence Electrons [ENDORSED]
Replies: 43
Views: 247

Re: Valence Electrons [ENDORSED]

The columns on the periodic table correlate with the number of valence electrons when considering the s and p groups.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Dec 03, 2020 6:13 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Dipole arrows
Replies: 8
Views: 46

Re: Dipole arrows

The arrows will point to the more electronegative element, and will occur when there is a dipole moment.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Dec 03, 2020 6:10 pm
Forum: Biological Examples
Topic: Enzyme Function
Replies: 8
Views: 83

Re: Enzyme Function

The molecules bond to the transition metals that are location in the active site of the enzyme.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Dec 03, 2020 6:05 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: Oxidation State
Replies: 16
Views: 72

Re: Oxidation State

The oxidation state is the charge of the said atom.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:50 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: polar v nonpolar molecules
Replies: 30
Views: 135

Re: polar v nonpolar molecules

When there is a large electronegativity difference, then the molecule would be considered polar. The most electronegative elements are fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:47 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 31
Views: 393

Re: Sigma and Pi Bonds

One sigma and two pi bonds make up a triple bond, and there is no particular order or anything for them.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:46 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Remembering Bond Degrees
Replies: 7
Views: 70

Re: Remembering Bond Degrees

It may be helpful to draw out the lewis structure, and be sure to know by heart some of the common bond angles, so you can compare them to which shape you are trying to figure out. Once you know a key few, the rest will start to become easier, and usually the common angles you will begin to pick up ...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:38 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: How to simply determine hybridization
Replies: 27
Views: 184

Re: How to simply determine hybridization

The hybridization is determined on how many bonds or lone pairs are surrounding it, and are indicated by letters, such as s,p, or d. For example, if there are three bonds, the hybridization would be sp^3
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 29, 2020 11:34 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: Solubility
Replies: 4
Views: 75

Re: Solubility

The higher the electronegativity, the higher the ionic character is of the molecule, which correlates to the solubility of the molecule. The more ionic character, the more soluble the said molecule will be, and the ionic character is based on the electronegativity differences.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Mon Nov 23, 2020 2:00 pm
Forum: Properties & Structures of Inorganic & Organic Bases
Topic: Inorganic and Organic
Replies: 7
Views: 66

Re: Inorganic and Organic

Organic molecules have to have carbon within them, while inorganic molecules can have carbon, but they do not have to contain carbon.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Mon Nov 23, 2020 1:58 pm
Forum: Interionic and Intermolecular Forces (Ion-Ion, Ion-Dipole, Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-Induced Dipole, Dispersion/Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole/London Forces, Hydrogen Bonding)
Topic: H-Bonding clarification
Replies: 7
Views: 92

Re: H-Bonding clarification

Hydrogen bonding occurs with those molecules whether or not they have those lone pairs present, as long as they have the high electronegativity.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Mon Nov 23, 2020 1:56 pm
Forum: *Liquid Structure (Viscosity, Surface Tension, Liquid Crystals, Ionic Liquids)
Topic: Boiling and Melting point
Replies: 18
Views: 117

Re: Boiling and Melting point

The stronger the intermolecular forces, the harder it will be to break those bonds, thus resulting in a high boiling and melting point, so it could be safe to say they are related in that sense.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Mon Nov 23, 2020 1:54 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Sigma vs Pi Bonds
Replies: 10
Views: 64

Re: Sigma vs Pi Bonds

A very important note is that the pi bonds cannot rotate due to their orbitals, but the sigma bonds are able to rotate.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Mon Nov 23, 2020 1:53 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: H20 Bent Structure
Replies: 14
Views: 107

Re: H20 Bent Structure

The two lone electron pairs want to stay as far apart as possible, and they repulse, causing the shape to be bent and the lone pairs to be as far away as possible.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:46 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: boiling point and IMS
Replies: 5
Views: 35

Re: boiling point and IMS

The stronger the bonds and forces between them, then the harder it will be to disrupt and break these forces, so the boiling point of these bonds will be very high, as it will take much to disrupt them.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:44 pm
Forum: Sigma & Pi Bonds
Topic: Sigma Vs Pi
Replies: 12
Views: 281

Re: Sigma Vs Pi

If there is a triple bond, the first bond will be a sigma bond, and the rest of the bonds will both be pi bonds. Also, Sigma bonds cannot rotate, but the pi bonds are able to rotate.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:42 pm
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: H-Bonds
Replies: 14
Views: 107

Re: H-Bonds

Hydrogen bonding occurs with hydrogen and another element that is electronegative, such as Oxygen, Hydrogen, fluorine, etc. These when bonded to hydrogen form the hydrogen bonds that are quite strong.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:38 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Bond Strengths
Replies: 10
Views: 79

Re: Bond Strengths

I believe that the number of bonds has a large impact on the strengths of said bonds. The more amount of bonds means the bonds are shorter, hence they are closer together, meaning they are harder ot break. If the bonds are hard to break, then they will be seen as strong compared to a long single bon...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:35 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Memorizing oxidation numbers
Replies: 6
Views: 54

Re: Memorizing oxidation numbers

On the periodic table, the different groups can help one determine the oxidation numbers. For example, oxygen is in group 16, which is two away from 18. At group 18, those elements have the full octet of electrons, hence the 18 for 8 electrons. In group 16, there are 6 valence electrons, and they ne...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 15, 2020 1:30 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Explanation of Lewis acids & Bases
Replies: 7
Views: 63

Re: Explanation of Lewis acids & Bases

A lewis base will be the one that donates a pair of electrons to the lewis acid, and in this case the F- is the lewis base due to the fact that it can donate electrons due to its charge being negative. BF3 is neutral, so it will gladly accept an electron from the F-, meaning it is the lewis acid tha...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 08, 2020 12:29 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Naming compounds
Replies: 21
Views: 192

Re: Naming compounds

Similarly to how you begin to memorize molar masses off of the periodic table for elements, some compounds that are common you will more than likely begin to memorize just be the repetition of practice problems.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 08, 2020 12:28 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: ml and number of possible electrons
Replies: 6
Views: 51

Re: ml and number of possible electrons

For ms, it depends on the spin, which is only in two directions of up or down, so there are only two options for ms.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 08, 2020 12:26 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: valence electrons
Replies: 7
Views: 87

Re: valence electrons

For the transition metals, I believe that you only have to find out the electron configuration, not the amount of valence electrons that are present.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 08, 2020 12:25 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Nitrite and Nitrate Lewis Structures
Replies: 3
Views: 20

Re: Nitrite and Nitrate Lewis Structures

As you do more problems, you will more than likely start memorizing some of the ions and their charges, similarly to how as you do more stoich problems, you memorize some of the molar masses off of the periodic table for the elements.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Nov 08, 2020 12:23 pm
Forum: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers
Topic: Formal Charge of the Same Element
Replies: 15
Views: 60

Re: Formal Charge of the Same Element

The formal charge varies, and it depends on the amount of bonds and valence electrons that are present.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:48 am
Forum: Dipole Moments
Topic: Lone pairs
Replies: 6
Views: 160

Re: Lone pairs

If electrons are on the opposite sides of one another due pt them repelling, they then can cancel out, which creates a dipole dipole moment with these lone pairs of electrons.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:46 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Electronegativity of Atoms We Should Know About
Replies: 4
Views: 176

Re: Electronegativity of Atoms We Should Know About

Knowing the trend of increasing electronegativity as you move to the right and to the top of the periodic table will be beneficial for what the questions will ask you.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:44 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Electrons in Lewis Structures
Replies: 8
Views: 41

Re: Electrons in Lewis Structures

When determining the number of electrons, look at which family they are at on the periodic table, and the second digits corresponds to the amount of valence electrons they have to offer, which will come in handy when drawing these structures and knowing both the amount of bonds necessary, but also t...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:41 am
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionic Radius
Replies: 8
Views: 60

Re: Ionic Radius

The ionic radius has to do with the distance from the nucleus, and when there are more protons, this leads to a greater attraction to the nucleus, causing the distance to be smaller, which equates to a smaller ionic radius. An ion with a negative charge would not be as attracted to the nucleus as th...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:38 am
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Are there subshells past f?
Replies: 28
Views: 166

Re: Are there subshells past f?

Yes, there are subshells at a higher energy level than f, which you may run across as you take higher chemistry courses, but for this course, it will not be necessary to know those energy levels.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:36 am
Forum: Octet Exceptions
Topic: Boron
Replies: 8
Views: 151

Re: Boron

Boron is in group 13, which indicates that only three valence electrons included, meaning that only three covalent bonds can be formed. This leads us to conclude that Boron is an exception to the octet rule, as the octet rule would not be satisfied.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:33 am
Forum: Electronegativity
Topic: Increasing/Decreasing Electronegativity
Replies: 14
Views: 263

Re: Increasing/Decreasing Electronegativity

The element with the highest electronegativity is fluorine, and it is easier to just know that as you get closer to that fluorine, that the electronegativity increases. There are so many different periodic trends to remember, so it is good at this trend has a set elements that one could just remember.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:28 am
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: Electron Affinity
Replies: 5
Views: 43

Re: Electron Affinity

As you go to the right of the periodic table, the electron affinity increases, so Cl would be the higher electron affinity, as it is more to the right on the periodic table. Also, as you go up the periodic table, the electron affinity increases, so elements that are higher on the periodic table have...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:25 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: S and P electrons
Replies: 14
Views: 114

Re: S and P electrons

The farther away the electrons are from the nucleus, the higher amount of energy is needed in order to keep the electrons connected. Each distance from the nucleus is another energy level, and the farther away an electron is, the higher the energy level is.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:19 am
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Why is the 4s state filled before the 3d state?
Replies: 14
Views: 122

Re: Why is the 4s state filled before the 3d state?

The energy levels that are lowest are the ones that are filled up first, and although 4 is after 3, the s sublevel has a lower energy state than the p sublevel, and when looking at the periodic table, the 3d sublevel is the first d level, which is a larger jump than the 3s to 4s subelevel, meaning i...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 25, 2020 10:21 pm
Forum: Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Topic: Rounding up Molar Ratios
Replies: 6
Views: 75

Re: Rounding up Molar Ratios

If a number is a decimal that is very close to a whole number, I would round to said whole number. If it is a decimal that could be multiplied as a common factor to the other numbers to get a molecular formula for an equation, then I would od so in order to get all of the coefficients to be whole nu...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 25, 2020 10:16 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: Detecting wavelike properties
Replies: 5
Views: 29

Re: Detecting wavelike properties

I believe that 10^-15 is the estimated cutoff for the wavelike properties to be detected, but when in doubt and the number is close, such as 10^-16, that could also possibly detect wavelike properties because it is relatively close, so it may depend on the context of the problem, or what the exam qu...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 25, 2020 10:12 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Polar or Nonpolar
Replies: 13
Views: 220

Re: Polar or Nonpolar

The central atom has much to do with the VESPR model of molecules, and the different shapes can determine the different polarities based on the symmetry pf the central atoms and their charge distribution. For example, the molecule is nonpolar if it is symmetrical, and if the shape is asymmetrical if...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 25, 2020 10:07 pm
Forum: DeBroglie Equation
Topic: De Broglie Equation v. Speed of Light Equation
Replies: 14
Views: 101

Re: De Broglie Equation v. Speed of Light Equation

The equations for the speed of light refer to protons, so any other object that has mass can have the wavelength or frequency calculated by utilizing the De Broglie equation.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 25, 2020 10:02 pm
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: Frequency and energy
Replies: 15
Views: 77

Re: Frequency and energy

Yes, they are directly related because as frequency increases, the amount of energy also increases. For frequency, the wavelength is inversely related, as when the frequency is higher, then the waves are shorter, so the waves occur more often, but are short.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 11, 2020 10:05 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Periodic Table
Replies: 50
Views: 482

Re: Periodic Table

It is not necessary to memorize the atomic numbers and atomic mass for any certain elements, but over time you will find yourself memorizing the atomic masses of the most commonly used elements, such as oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, chlorine, etc.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 11, 2020 9:53 pm
Forum: Balancing Chemical Reactions
Topic: Molar Mass
Replies: 23
Views: 181

Re: Molar Mass

I generally will stick to around five significant figures, but if the numbers are slightly different, there is not a huge impact on the final answer, especially when we have to round and cut it off at a certain number of significant figures for the final answer.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 11, 2020 9:44 pm
Forum: Limiting Reactant Calculations
Topic: Actual yield
Replies: 20
Views: 194

Re: Actual yield

The actual yield will be provided, even if it not explicitly spelled out, will be in the problem, and then you just calculate the theoretical yield, and then divide actual by theoretical yield, and then multiply by 100 to get the percent yield.
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 11, 2020 9:34 pm
Forum: Accuracy, Precision, Mole, Other Definitions
Topic: Standard Number of Digits for Avogadro's Number?
Replies: 5
Views: 64

Re: Standard Number of Digits for Avogadro's Number?

Because Avogradro's Number is a constant, the number of significant figures of the other numbers do not have an impact on the constant. It is 6.022x10^23, whether there is one significant figure, or there are five significant figures. The other values' significant figures have an impact on the final...
by Sydney Jensen 3L
Sun Oct 11, 2020 9:25 pm
Forum: Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions
Topic: Fundamentals G.11
Replies: 4
Views: 50

Re: Fundamentals G.11

I believe that you just have to attempt to make sure the units match with the units in the problem, and if there are no units specified, then you should use the answer that has the correct amount of significant figures, and that looks the most reasonable, without an abundance of zeros in the front. ...

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