Search found 19 matches

by nickgonzalez 1j
Thu Mar 10, 2016 11:39 am
Forum: *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers)
Topic: Chair and Boat Bond Angles
Replies: 3
Views: 579

Re: Chair and Boat Bond Angles

No, 109 degrees is the ideal bond angle for the sp3 hybridized carbons and so when the cyclohexane adopts different conformations in order to become more stable, the bond angles get closer to the ideal so when it is in the chair conformation, the bond angles are roughly 110.9 degrees.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Wed Mar 09, 2016 9:30 am
Forum: *Alcohols
Topic: Difference between hydroxy and alcohol?
Replies: 1
Views: 1931

Re: Difference between hydroxy and alcohol?

You are correct in that both are an -OH group branched off a C parent chain. Which name you use depends on the presence of other functional groups. Other functional groups would take precedence over the alcohol so when it comes to naming you use the suffix of the other functional group and the alcoh...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Mar 08, 2016 8:12 pm
Forum: *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers)
Topic: Stable chair conformations with substituents
Replies: 1
Views: 302

Re: Stable chair conformations with substituents

The substituents prefer to be in the equatorial position because they are farther away from each other in this postion because when they are in the axial position, there tends to be more unfavorable interactions with other axial atoms.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Mon Mar 07, 2016 9:18 am
Forum: *Alkanes and Substituted Alkanes (Staggered, Eclipsed, Gauche, Anti, Newman Projections)
Topic: Eclipsed (0) vs. Eclipsed(+120)
Replies: 1
Views: 433

Re: Eclipsed (0) vs. Eclipsed(+120)

I don't think that this would always be the case, it depends on the molecule. For example, if you have ethane, the energy would be the same no matter what angle it is eclipsed at as no matter how it were to be arranged, the hydrogens would be eclipsed. A case where the molecule eclipsed at 0 degrees...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Mon Mar 07, 2016 9:02 am
Forum: *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E)
Topic: cis and trans preference
Replies: 1
Views: 431

Re: cis and trans preference

In general, the trans isomer is more stable than the cis isomer. This means that the trans isomer is preferred as there is reduced steric interactions of the substituents in this configuration because molecules tend to obtain a more stable configuration when their atoms are distant from one another.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Thu Mar 03, 2016 1:22 pm
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: Steric Contribution
Replies: 1
Views: 340

Re: Steric Contribution

The steric contribution does prevent molecules from combining as the orientations of the reactants will be specified which means there will be less disorder, so entropy decreases(a negative value) and is unfavorable.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Wed Feb 24, 2016 9:18 am
Forum: *Electrophilic Addition
Topic: Charges in Transition State
Replies: 1
Views: 665

Re: Charges in Transition State

To find charges you can find the dipole moments that occurs whenever there is a separation of positive and negative charges so you can find partial charges. Note that δ- shows an increase in negative charge and δ+ shows an increase in positive charge.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Wed Feb 24, 2016 9:14 am
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: Transition State
Replies: 1
Views: 318

Re: Transition State

In general, you can always examine a reaction energy diagram and qualitatively calculate the energies of a reaction. The difference between the energy of the starting material and the transition state is called the activation energy. So given a diagram for the progress of a reaction, you can figure ...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Feb 23, 2016 9:41 pm
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: Psuedo-thermodynamics
Replies: 2
Views: 510

Re: Psuedo-thermodynamics

The reactants go in the forward direction as a certain degree of energy is supplied as activation energy, however the amount supplied is not enough to go over the energy barrier so since it can not go over the energy barrier, the reactants must return in reverse direction to where they started.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Feb 23, 2016 9:32 pm
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: Catalysts
Replies: 2
Views: 490

Re: Catalysts

You are correct in that it will not always necessarily be a completely different pathway, but the activation energy will be lower. This is an example in which the pathway is different as there is an intermediate when the catalyst is present http://cnx.org/resources/a3b9ba50216bc4406ac642188bf4cfed73...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Feb 23, 2016 9:25 pm
Forum: *Organic Reaction Mechanisms in General
Topic: Curved Arrow
Replies: 2
Views: 389

Re: Curved Arrow

A reaction in which you would need to use a half curved arrow would be when you have a radical, or an atom with a single unpaired electron, involved in the reaction
by nickgonzalez 1j
Thu Nov 12, 2015 2:04 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Ligand Binding Sites
Replies: 1
Views: 444

Re: Ligand Binding Sites

Ligands act as Lewis bases, or electron pair donors, and therefore have at least one donor atom with an electron pair used to form covalent bonds with the central atom. The term monodentate can be translated to "one tooth" meaning that a monodentate ligand has only one donor atom used to b...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Nov 10, 2015 3:48 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Cis and trans forms of coordination compounds
Replies: 1
Views: 551

Re: Cis and trans forms of coordination compounds

In order to differentiate between the cis and trans forms of the same compound when looking at the compound, you must first look for the atoms where there are two of that same atom bonded to the central atom. A compound is cis- when the two atoms are next to each other. On the other hand, the compou...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Tue Nov 03, 2015 3:39 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Molecular orbital theory
Replies: 1
Views: 362

Re: Molecular orbital theory

You would do the one where Z<8 because as long as one atom has Z<8 (the Carbon in this case), you must use that layout for that diagram.
by nickgonzalez 1j
Sun Nov 01, 2015 6:29 pm
Forum: Polarisability of Anions, The Polarizing Power of Cations
Topic: Polarity of AX5 molecule
Replies: 1
Views: 791

Re: Polarity of AX5 molecule

A molecule with a formula of AX5 would have a trigonal bipyramidal shape. The reason this is nonpolar is because the three atoms on the plane are all equidistant from each other(120 degrees) therefore those three all cancel out. In addition to these, the other two atoms that are not in the plane are...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Thu Oct 22, 2015 4:16 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: How to tell the hybridization of an atom?
Replies: 1
Views: 372

Re: How to tell the hybridization of an atom?

The specific hybridization will actually vary as hybridization is dependent on the number of atoms bonded plus any lone pairs(or simply the regions of electron density around the atom). Knowing this, you simply follow a pattern: so if there are two regions of electron density, hybridization would be...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Thu Oct 22, 2015 3:46 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: AX3E2 structure
Replies: 1
Views: 1198

Re: AX3E2 structure

AX3E2 forms a T-shape because you can think of it as starting at a trigonal bipyramidal shape(AX5) as it has 5 regions of electron densities. From here, if you remove one of the bonded atoms and replace it with a lone pair, you will get a see saw shape with bonds that are less than 120 degrees, less...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Sun Oct 18, 2015 9:24 pm
Forum: Bond Lengths & Energies
Topic: Covalent Radii
Replies: 2
Views: 440

Re: Covalent Radii

Covalent radii typically decrease from left to right across a period. This is because the increasing effective nuclear charge draws in the electrons and makes the atom more compact, similar to the trend for atomic radii. Also like atomic radii, covalent radii increase down a group because the valenc...
by nickgonzalez 1j
Wed Oct 14, 2015 9:23 pm
Forum: Wave Functions and s-, p-, d-, f- Orbitals
Topic: Finding Quantum Numbers
Replies: 2
Views: 569

Re: Finding Quantum Numbers

in order to find l, you must first know the principle quantum number (n) which is also the shell the electron exists in. From there, you can then find the angular momentum quantum number (l) which is equal to numbers ranging from 0 to n-1. Finally, the magnetic quantum number (m(l)) is equal to valu...

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