Search found 20 matches

by Ryan Williams 1E
Sun Mar 06, 2016 6:15 pm
Forum: *Cyclopropanes and Cyclobutanes
Topic: Torsional vs Steric Strain
Replies: 1
Views: 436

Re: Torsional vs Steric Strain

Steric strain involves atoms in the same molecule trying to occupy the same space. These are considered nonbonded interaction strains because the atoms in question are never directly bonded to each other. This occurs more often in larger molecules, where there are more potential atom interaction sit...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Sun Feb 28, 2016 6:33 pm
Forum: *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E)
Topic: Constitutional isomers
Replies: 2
Views: 427

Re: Constitutional isomers

Sorry the formatting didn't come out right. Here's another example

http://www.chemguide.co.uk/basicorg/isomerism/diclethene.GIF
by Ryan Williams 1E
Sun Feb 28, 2016 6:31 pm
Forum: *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E)
Topic: Constitutional isomers
Replies: 2
Views: 427

Re: Constitutional isomers

For a cis- isomer, matching substituents will be located on the same side of a central atom (they will be next to each other). On the other hand, trans- isomers have matching substituents locates on opposite sides of a central atom (they will be across from each other). An example for dichloromethan...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Mon Feb 22, 2016 6:53 pm
Forum: *Cycloalkanes
Topic: Quiz 3 prep #1 Cyclo problem
Replies: 2
Views: 442

Re: Quiz 3 prep #1 Cyclo problem

The lowest number always goes to the first substituent in the named compound. An example of this can be found on page 99 in the course reader, where the answer to the second example is 1-tert-butyl-4-methylcyclopentane. The tert-butyl gets the 1 instead of the four because it comes first in the name...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Fri Feb 12, 2016 8:46 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Given Half life, calculate initial concentration
Replies: 1
Views: 425

Re: Given Half life, calculate initial concentration

It says the reaction is first ordering the question. This applies to both the original amount of phenobarbitol used and the new total amount after some is added to the dog later.
by Ryan Williams 1E
Thu Feb 04, 2016 10:28 pm
Forum: Work, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell (Redox) Potentials
Topic: Gibbs Free Energy vs. Cell Potential
Replies: 2
Views: 450

Re: Gibbs Free Energy vs. Cell Potential

Gibbs free energy is always has the sign opposite of cell potential. The relation between Gibbs free energy and cell potential is shown in the equation G = -nFE. F is the faraday constant and is always positive, and you cannot have a negative number of electron moving in the cell. Therefore, n and F...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Sat Jan 30, 2016 9:53 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Max Potential
Replies: 1
Views: 356

Re: Max Potential

A galvanic cell is at its maximum potential when the electrical switch is first closed and electrons begin to start moving. At that time, the difference in voltage between the anode and the cathode is at its highest because the electrons have yet to reduce anything. As time passes, the number of ele...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Thu Jan 21, 2016 8:00 pm
Forum: Third Law of Thermodynamics (For a Unique Ground State (W=1): S -> 0 as T -> 0) and Calculations Using Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
Topic: Ideal Monatomic Gas Entropy
Replies: 1
Views: 509

Re: Ideal Monatomic Gas Entropy

Its easiest to explain this with an example. Take diatomic fluorine. F2 is always in equilibrium with its monatomic form, F, as shown below: F2 <--> 2F When diatomic fluorine is heated, not only will it gain entropy due to the energy transfer, but some of the diatomic molecules will split, effective...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Mon Jan 18, 2016 1:19 pm
Forum: Reaction Enthalpies (e.g., Using Hess’s Law, Bond Enthalpies, Standard Enthalpies of Formation)
Topic: Bond Formations
Replies: 1
Views: 311

Re: Bond Formations

You should add the bond enthalpies for both C-O and O-H. In the molecule, the C(OH) is actually constructed like this: C-O-H. There are two bonds so both of them need to be taken into account.
by Ryan Williams 1E
Fri Jan 08, 2016 1:46 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Heat Capacity
Replies: 2
Views: 357

Re: Heat Capacity

You are correct. Specific heat capacity is the heat capacity/grams of substance. The only reason he showed us heat capacity is because specific heat capacity and molar heat capacity are derived from heat capacity. Each is derived by dividing by the amount of substance, in the first case, grams, and ...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Mon Nov 30, 2015 12:19 pm
Forum: Polyprotic Acids & Bases
Topic: Polyprotic Acids Tendency
Replies: 1
Views: 434

Re: Polyprotic Acids Tendency

It depends on whether or not they are strong or weak. Common polyprotic acids like H2SO3 and H2S are weak, and have KA1 values far below 1. The KA2 values are so low that it doesn't affect the reaction (10E-8). On the other hand, strong polyprotic acids like H2SO4 have a very high KA1 value, and a s...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Sun Nov 22, 2015 5:28 pm
Forum: Acidity & Basicity Constants and The Conjugate Seesaw
Topic: Acid strength w/o Table
Replies: 1
Views: 486

Re: Acid strength w/o Table

Typically, organic acids are weaker than other acids. If you had to answer the question without a table, you could assume that BrO- is a stronger acid than C17H19O3N, as the latter is n organic acid. However, it would be safer to use a table.
by Ryan Williams 1E
Sun Nov 15, 2015 9:06 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Acids
Replies: 1
Views: 321

Re: Acids

Bronsted acids are defined as molecules that donate proton pairs in solution (ex: HF, HCl, HBr). Lewis acids are defined as molecules that accept electron pairs (ex: BH3).
by Ryan Williams 1E
Thu Nov 05, 2015 9:10 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Naming Ligands
Replies: 1
Views: 417

Re: Naming Ligands

You put the ligands in alphabetical order. For example, if yet compound has ammine and aqua groups, you would name amino before aqua.
by Ryan Williams 1E
Mon Nov 02, 2015 9:41 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Bond Order and Bond Length
Replies: 2
Views: 1666

Re: Bond Order and Bond Length

As bond order increases, bond length decreases. The bond order represents the strength of the bond, which becomes stronger as its length decreases.
by Ryan Williams 1E
Tue Oct 27, 2015 8:27 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Energy Level Diagrams
Replies: 1
Views: 322

Re: Energy Level Diagrams

He hasn't reached it in lecture yet, but there is a rule for MO diagrams involving smaller atoms. Atoms with an atomic number of 8 or more, like the oxygen in the O2 example from class, have MO diagrams where the 2p sigma orbital is lower than the 2p pi orbitals. This makes the 2p sigma anti-bonding...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Fri Oct 23, 2015 2:36 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: electron repulsion
Replies: 1
Views: 281

Re: electron repulsion

Free electrons are only bound to one orbital and interact with only one nucleus of positively charged protons. Electrons which compose bonds are shared between two orbitals and interact with charges from two nuclei. As a result, they are "bound" to their region of electron density more so ...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Thu Oct 15, 2015 11:40 am
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: Radicals
Replies: 1
Views: 352

Re: Radicals

Radicals are created by energizing a molecule. While burning compounds is the easiest way to create radicals, which adds energy in the form of heat, there are other ways of creating radicals. Anything that could energize particles on a subatomic scale would do it. Examples include electron bombardme...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Tue Oct 06, 2015 3:08 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle Module Question
Replies: 2
Views: 1094

Re: Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle Module Question

The radius of the atom represents 1/2 of the uncertainty of the position of the electron, the diameter equaling the entire uncertainty. You are correct in that the size of the atom represents the uncertainty in position. You can use this uncertainty, as well as the mass of an electron and the consta...
by Ryan Williams 1E
Thu Oct 01, 2015 9:31 am
Forum: Photoelectric Effect
Topic: How to use wavelength to calculate KE
Replies: 1
Views: 2554

Re: How to use wavelength to calculate KE

If you were only off by .03, it may be a problem with your significant figures. KE = Total Energy - Work Function. You calculated the work function correctly and it sounds like you were able to derive E = hc/wavelength correctly for total energy. Go through again with a calculator and keep a close e...

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