Search found 42 matches

by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Wed Mar 09, 2016 7:20 pm
Forum: *Alkanes
Topic: Identifying Longest Carbon Chain with Substituents
Replies: 1
Views: 448

Identifying Longest Carbon Chain with Substituents

When there is a tert, sec, iso, or neo substituent attached to a molecule, and you are naming the molecule using a combination of common names ad IUPAC naming, do you include the carbons in the tert, sec, etc. substituent when identifying the longest carbon chain?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Tue Mar 01, 2016 10:59 pm
Forum: *Nucleophilic Substitution
Topic: Difference between SN2 Reaction and Electrophilic Addition
Replies: 1
Views: 697

Difference between SN2 Reaction and Electrophilic Addition

What is the difference between a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2) and an electrophilic addition reaction? I know the former involves the addition of an electrophile while the latter involve the substitution of a nucleophile, but when given a chemical reaction formula, how would y...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Feb 28, 2016 4:13 pm
Forum: *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E)
Topic: Difference between Geometric and Constitutional Isomers
Replies: 1
Views: 785

Difference between Geometric and Constitutional Isomers

What exactly is the difference between geometric and constitutional isomers? I understand that geometric isomers have the same molecular and structural formula, but how could they have the same structural formula if atoms can be rearranged in cis- and trans- structures?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Feb 28, 2016 4:11 pm
Forum: *Constitutional and Geometric Isomers (cis, Z and trans, E)
Topic: Priority of Atoms in Geometric Isomers
Replies: 3
Views: 501

Priority of Atoms in Geometric Isomers

How does one determine which are the prioritized atoms or the atoms being analyzed when determining whether a molecule is cis- or trans- structured in geometric isomers? Is there a streamlined way of determining this?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Feb 19, 2016 1:23 pm
Forum: General Rate Laws
Topic: Difference Between General Rate Laws and Rate=k[A]^n
Replies: 2
Views: 431

Difference Between General Rate Laws and Rate=k[A]^n

What is the difference between the rate laws that include -(1/a)d[A]/dt and the rate law Rate=k[A]^n? What does one tell you that the other does not?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Tue Feb 09, 2016 7:20 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Adding or Subtracting the E values
Replies: 2
Views: 2185

Adding or Subtracting the E values

I am very confused on what to do when a question asks to calculate E knot for a redox reaction. Are you supposed to add or subtract the E values for the half reactions? Do you add them when you flip one reaction and thus change the sign of one of the E values, and subtract the two E values if neithe...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Feb 07, 2016 2:22 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: Formula for Specific Heat Capacity of a Calorimeter
Replies: 1
Views: 291

Formula for Specific Heat Capacity of a Calorimeter

What is the formula for calculating C sub cal, or the specific heat capacity for a calorimeter?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Feb 04, 2016 10:33 am
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Electromotive Force
Replies: 2
Views: 360

Re: Electromotive Force

Thanks Erin!! Makes a lot of sense now.
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Feb 01, 2016 8:27 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: Electromotive Force
Replies: 2
Views: 360

Electromotive Force

Could someone please clarify what the electromotive force represents and why the maximum voltage difference occurs when there is zero electrical current flowing?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Feb 01, 2016 8:26 pm
Forum: Balancing Redox Reactions
Topic: E Knot and Potential Difference between Electrodes
Replies: 1
Views: 350

E Knot and Potential Difference between Electrodes

What exactly does E knot represent? Why is it used when calculating the potential difference for the whole cell? Moreover, what is the exact definition of a potential difference, and how does it relate to using E knot?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Jan 31, 2016 9:07 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Changes in Volume vs. Pressure
Replies: 2
Views: 410

Re: Changes in Volume vs. Pressure

Makes a lot more sense now!! This did help a lot! Thank you!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Jan 31, 2016 9:06 pm
Forum: Van't Hoff Equation
Topic: Relevance of K in Van't Hoff Equation
Replies: 1
Views: 471

Relevance of K in Van't Hoff Equation

Why is calculating K through the Van't Hoff Equation relevant? What implications does determining K give you?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Jan 31, 2016 5:06 pm
Forum: Entropy Changes Due to Changes in Volume and Temperature
Topic: Changes in Volume vs. Pressure
Replies: 2
Views: 410

Changes in Volume vs. Pressure

How come in the equations for entropy change involving changes in volume and temperature, part of the equation is to take the natural logarithm of T sub 2 over T sub 1, versus in the equation to calculate change in entropy due to change in pressure, you take the natural logarithm of P sub 1 over P s...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Jan 24, 2016 9:02 pm
Forum: Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations
Topic: Definition of Gibbs Free Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 379

Definition of Gibbs Free Energy

What exactly does Gibbs free energy tell you about a chemical reaction and its spontaneity? What exactly does Gibbs free energy represent, and how does entropy relate to it?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Jan 22, 2016 8:43 pm
Forum: Calculating Work of Expansion
Topic: Reversible vs. Irreversible Reactions
Replies: 3
Views: 487

Reversible vs. Irreversible Reactions

What is the difference between a reversible and on-reversible reaction, and what does each entail/mean?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Jan 18, 2016 3:20 pm
Forum: Thermodynamic Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
Topic: Enthalpy in a System
Replies: 2
Views: 409

Enthalpy in a System

Why is that q(system)+q(surroundings)=0 in a system? Is this only true when certain conditions are present, such as a constant volume or pressure? Or is it always true?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Jan 07, 2016 11:32 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Temperature Changes during Phase Changes
Replies: 1
Views: 349

Temperature Changes during Phase Changes

Why is it that the temperature of a sample remains constant even though heat is being supplied during melting or boiling? Furthermore, why is it that water continues to hold the temperature of 0 degrees Celsius as ice melts but remains a liquid and not a solid?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Dec 04, 2015 9:28 am
Forum: *Making Buffers & Calculating Buffer pH (Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation)
Topic: Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 691

Re: Henderson-Hasselbach Equation

Thank you! This did in fact help a lot! However, I'm still a bit confused on how you would know whether you are dealing with a typical acid-base reaction requiring the use of ICE boxes or if you are dealing with buffer solutions. Any clarification would be greatly appreciated. Thank you again!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Dec 03, 2015 9:13 pm
Forum: *Making Buffers & Calculating Buffer pH (Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation)
Topic: Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
Replies: 3
Views: 691

Henderson-Hasselbach Equation

Could someone please explain the derivation of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation and what exactly it represents? When would you use it and how would you know when to use it?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Nov 27, 2015 11:19 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Video: Chemical Equilibrium when K < 10^-3
Replies: 1
Views: 261

Video: Chemical Equilibrium when K < 10^-3

Video by Sebastian Hurtado and Alia Persad.
In this video we explain how to calculate the concentrations of different substances in a reaction at equilibrium when disregarding the value of x when it is insignificant and a small enough value to ignore in the calculations.
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Nov 15, 2015 5:03 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Determining Chelating Ligands
Replies: 2
Views: 433

Re: Determining Chelating Ligands

Thanks for the clarification!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Sun Nov 15, 2015 5:02 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Determining Dentate
Replies: 2
Views: 383

Re: Determining Dentate

Thank you! This was very helpful in clarifying polydentate compounds.
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Nov 12, 2015 5:14 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Determining Chelating Ligands
Replies: 2
Views: 433

Determining Chelating Ligands

How can one determine whether a ligand is a chelate or not just by looking at the Lewis structure of a molecule? For example, in question 17.35, how do we determine which structure is a chelating one simply by looking at the Lewis structures with the ligands?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Nov 12, 2015 5:12 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Determining Dentate
Replies: 2
Views: 383

Determining Dentate

How would one determine whether a coordinating compound's ligand is mono-, bi-, or polydentate when given a molecular formula or name of a ligand, such as water or HNCCH2CH2? I know it has to do with the number of lone pairs, but I see some of these molecules having several lone pairs but their pref...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Nov 12, 2015 5:02 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: Effects of Pressure and Volume on Shifts in Equilibrium
Replies: 2
Views: 402

Effects of Pressure and Volume on Shifts in Equilibrium

When given a question such as "How would you change overall container pressure or overall container volume (I know they are related) to shift equilibrium left or right?", how would you approach it to answer it? I know that, according to Boyle's law, increase in pressure results in a decrea...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Nov 02, 2015 11:25 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Determining Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 454

Re: Determining Sigma and Pi Bonds

Thanks, Pauline!!! The clarification really helped!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Nov 02, 2015 11:21 pm
Forum: *Molecular Orbital Theory (Bond Order, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism)
Topic: Determining Unpaired Electrons and Magnetism
Replies: 1
Views: 245

Determining Unpaired Electrons and Magnetism

When given a diatomic molecule with a certain charge, such as C(subscript 2)-, so with a charge of -1, do you include an extra electron in the MO diagram? If so, where do you write this extra electron? Do you put an extra one on both carbons in the diagram or just in the middle part of the diagram w...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Oct 26, 2015 5:26 pm
Forum: NEWS & RESOURCES
Topic: Molecular Orbital Diagrams
Replies: 1
Views: 1514

Molecular Orbital Diagrams

When constructing a molecular orbital diagram, how come some of the electrons atomic orbitals and their electrons do not overlap, sucha s in the antibonding molecular orbital? During chemical reactions, where is this antibonding molecular orbital present? Additionally, how do you figure out the vale...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Oct 26, 2015 5:22 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Determining Sigma and Pi Bonds
Replies: 2
Views: 454

Determining Sigma and Pi Bonds

When you figure out the hybridization of a molecule's orbitals, how do you then determine what type and the number of bonds it forms? For example, how do you determine the sigma and pi bonds that would form in a molecule of ethene?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Mon Oct 12, 2015 4:12 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: H, He, Li, and Be Octet Rule
Replies: 3
Views: 1548

Re: H, He, Li, and Be Octet Rule

Thank you all for the clarification!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Oct 09, 2015 2:59 pm
Forum: Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Topic: H, He, Li, and Be Octet Rule
Replies: 3
Views: 1548

H, He, Li, and Be Octet Rule

Why are H, He, Li, and Be exceptions to the octet rule? What about the atoms of the element make them unable to reach a noble gas configuration?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Oct 09, 2015 2:57 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionization Energy for Elements in the Solid Phase
Replies: 1
Views: 278

Ionization Energy for Elements in the Solid Phase

I know that ionization energy is defined as the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase, but what if the atom is in a solid phase? Is there a new name/term for this situation?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Oct 09, 2015 2:57 pm
Forum: Trends in The Periodic Table
Topic: Ionization Energy for Elements in the Solid Phase
Replies: 1
Views: 346

Ionization Energy for Elements in the Solid Phase

I know that ionization energy is defined as the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase, but what if the atom is in a solid phase? Is there a new name/term for this situation?
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Oct 09, 2015 2:55 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Magnetic Quantum Number
Replies: 2
Views: 730

Re: Magnetic Quantum Number

Perfect, thanks for the clarification!
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Fri Oct 09, 2015 2:54 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Degeneracy and Energy Levels
Replies: 2
Views: 366

Re: Degeneracy and Energy Levels

Perfect!! Thanks for the clarification.
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Wed Oct 07, 2015 10:33 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Degeneracy and Energy Levels
Replies: 2
Views: 366

Degeneracy and Energy Levels

How come orbitals of the same shell are only degenerate, or all having the same energy, with the hydrogen atom but no other multi-electron electron configurations? Does it have to do with the fact that multi-electron models contain multiple electrons that interfere with one another and result in the...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Wed Oct 07, 2015 10:26 pm
Forum: Quantum Numbers and The H-Atom
Topic: Magnetic Quantum Number
Replies: 2
Views: 730

Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that the third quantum number for an atom, the magnetic quantum number, denotes "orientation," but what exactly does this mean in relation to the visual lobes and their position in the model? When one knows the magnetic quantum number, what further information does it give you in re...
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Wed Oct 07, 2015 5:42 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Question: Wave Model vs. Photon Model of Light
Replies: 7
Views: 2024

Re: Question: Wave Model vs. Photon Model of Light

Thank you all!! It's much clearer now, and I definitely have a better understanding. Thanks for the clarification.
by Sebastian Hurtado 1J
Thu Oct 01, 2015 2:25 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Question: Wave Model vs. Photon Model of Light
Replies: 7
Views: 2024

Question: Wave Model vs. Photon Model of Light

I know that the Photoelectric Effect shows that light can be thought of as tiny packets of energy in the form of photons because when the amplitude/intensity of the wavelengths of light (under the wave model) was increased, electrons were still not released from the metal surface. I just don't reall...

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