Search found 24 matches

by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Mar 07, 2016 12:58 pm
Forum: *Cyclohexanes (Chair, Boat, Geometric Isomers)
Topic: Boat vs. twist boat conformation
Replies: 1
Views: 590

Boat vs. twist boat conformation

What are the structural differences between the boat conformation and the twist boat conformation? Is one structure preferred over the other?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Fri Mar 04, 2016 8:13 pm
Forum: *Alkanes and Substituted Alkanes (Staggered, Eclipsed, Gauche, Anti, Newman Projections)
Topic: Possible conformations
Replies: 1
Views: 342

Possible conformations

Are the staggered, eclipsed, and Gauche conformations the only ones possible for alkanes? Also, what makes one conformation more stable than another at higher or lower temperatures?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Thu Feb 25, 2016 6:43 pm
Forum: *Free Energy of Activation vs Activation Energy
Topic: Potential Energy Diagram vs. Free Energy Diagram
Replies: 1
Views: 1029

Re: Potential Energy Diagram vs. Free Energy Diagram

In the potential energy reaction profiles, the energy barriers are referred to as activation energies (Ea) and it illustrates the difference in energy between the reactants and intermediates and the difference in energy between the reactants and products. In free energy reaction profiles, the standa...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Thu Feb 18, 2016 5:31 pm
Forum: *Electrophiles
Topic: AlCl3
Replies: 3
Views: 1672

Re: AlCl3

AlCl3 is an electrophile because when you draw its Lewis Structure, you will see that it is neutral and that it has no lone pairs (regions of excess electrons). Thus, it is definitely not an electron-rich nucleophile and will act as an electrophile instead.
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Thu Feb 11, 2016 3:10 pm
Forum: Reaction Mechanisms, Reaction Profiles
Topic: Elementary steps of an overall reaction
Replies: 2
Views: 438

Elementary steps of an overall reaction

Do you have to balance the elementary steps in order to determine the overall reaction and rate of the overall reaction? If not, why? Also, how can you tell which elementary step is the slowest?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Feb 02, 2016 6:40 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Salt Bridge
Replies: 1
Views: 242

Re: Salt Bridge

The anion portion of the salt will always flow to the anode through the salt bridge in order to balance the excess positive charge from the continued oxidation process. If you didn't have a salt bridge, the electrons would stop flowing to the cathode because of the excess negative charge that builds...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Wed Jan 27, 2016 6:03 pm
Forum: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells, Calculating Standard Cell Potentials, Cell Diagrams
Topic: Calculating potential difference for a cell
Replies: 1
Views: 313

Calculating potential difference for a cell

When calculating potential difference for a whole cell using E° = E°(cathode) - E°(anode), will the standard reduction potentials of both the cathode and anode always be negative? Also, would there be a situation where you reverse the sign of one of the standard reduction potentials?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Wed Jan 20, 2016 7:50 pm
Forum: Concepts & Calculations Using Second Law of Thermodynamics
Topic: calculating change in entropy
Replies: 1
Views: 255

calculating change in entropy

Why is the entropy of the system always a positive value (according to the equation ΔS = q/T)? Can the surroundings of a system have a positive entropy value as well?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Jan 11, 2016 6:06 pm
Forum: Heat Capacities, Calorimeters & Calorimetry Calculations
Topic: bomb calorimeters
Replies: 1
Views: 239

bomb calorimeters

Since a bomb calorimeter's volume is kept constant and there is no pressure-volume work, does that always indicate that the heat measured relates to the change in internal energy? (ΔU=qV)
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Thu Jan 07, 2016 11:12 am
Forum: Phase Changes & Related Calculations
Topic: Heat as a State Property
Replies: 1
Views: 326

Heat as a State Property

Why is heat considered a state property only when under constant pressure?
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Nov 30, 2015 3:41 pm
Forum: *Titrations & Titration Calculations
Topic: Titration curve question
Replies: 2
Views: 601

Re: Titration curve question

Buffer solutions have a specific working pH capacity which dictates how much acid/base can be neutralized before pH changes, and the amount by which it will change. Therefore, there is a range starting from the beginning when you start adding the strong base during which the pH resists change and re...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Nov 24, 2015 5:52 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Memorizing types of acids/bases
Replies: 3
Views: 831

Re: Memorizing types of acids/bases

Hey Orly (it's Kayla ;) )! Well how I would go about memorizing those is only memorizing the strong acids and strong bases since that is more manageable. Every other acid or base you will encounter besides those strong ones is weak. Just look over the weak acids and bases to familiarize yourself wit...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Nov 24, 2015 5:49 pm
Forum: Conjugate Acids & Bases
Topic: Conjugate base
Replies: 1
Views: 343

Re: Conjugate base

The conjugate base is correctly Cl-. Since HCL is a strong acid, it completely ionizes and its conjugate base, Cl-, is weak.
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Nov 24, 2015 5:47 pm
Forum: Equilibrium Constants & Calculating Concentrations
Topic: I.C.E. Charts
Replies: 1
Views: 382

Re: I.C.E. Charts

You use I.C.E. charts when dealing with reversible equilibrium reactions (like weak acids, weak bases, or complex ion formations). Since strong acids and bases tend to completely ionize, there is no need to use an I.C.E. chart involving them.
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Wed Nov 18, 2015 7:46 pm
Forum: Shape, Structure, Coordination Number, Ligands
Topic: Shape when dealing with polydentates
Replies: 2
Views: 487

Re: Shape when dealing with polydentates

The coordination number counts the number of bonds (not the number of ligands) so a complex ion with two bidentate ligands would have a coordination number of 4 (because of the 4 bonds). I am pretty sure that the shape also depends on the regions of electron density (hence the arrangement of bonds) ...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Nov 09, 2015 3:57 pm
Forum: Naming
Topic: HW 17.31
Replies: 1
Views: 362

HW 17.31

In homework problem 17.31, it asks you to write the formula for each of the listed coordination compounds. Part (d) lists gives the name: sodium bisoxalato(diaqua)ferrate (III). I got Na[Fe(C2O4)2 (OH2)2 ]^- as my answer. However, the back of the book has the order of the ligands switched in the coo...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Nov 03, 2015 6:02 pm
Forum: Heisenberg Indeterminacy (Uncertainty) Equation
Topic: Finding minimum uncertainty in velocity
Replies: 2
Views: 7516

Re: Finding minimum uncertainty in velocity

You would find uncertainty in velocity by using the deBroglie equation and substituting delta p (uncertainty in momentum) with m (mass) times delta v (uncertainty in velocity). Then rearrange the equation so you can solve for the uncertainty in velocity. Use 300 X 10^-12 m for delta x since the radi...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Tue Nov 03, 2015 5:56 pm
Forum: Hybridization
Topic: Hybridization of the N atom in proline (fall 2012 #6A)
Replies: 1
Views: 476

Re: Hybridization of the N atom in proline (fall 2012 #6A)

Yes, a lone pair exists on the nitrogen atom since nitrogen always obeys the octet rule.
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Wed Oct 28, 2015 3:25 pm
Forum: Lewis Acids & Bases
Topic: Determining Lewis Acid or Base
Replies: 1
Views: 408

Re: Determining Lewis Acid or Base

Lewis acids are defined as being capable of accepting a pair of electrons while Lewis bases are capable of donating an unshared pair of electrons. Lewis bases can include neutral molecules (such as NH3) in which one of the atoms has at least one lone pair of electrons and negative ions (like F-, Cl-...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Oct 19, 2015 3:27 pm
Forum: Determining Molecular Shape (VSEPR)
Topic: Bond Angles
Replies: 1
Views: 399

Re: Bond Angles

I'm pretty sure that the presence of a double bond doesn't affect the bond angle since double bonds and single bonds are considered equivalent regions of high density electrons when considering VSEPR and CO3^2- ends up with a trigonal planar shape. However, the presence of the double bond does affec...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Wed Oct 14, 2015 9:30 pm
Forum: Lewis Structures
Topic: ONF Lewis structure
Replies: 1
Views: 876

ONF Lewis structure

In question 33 from the Chapter 3 homework (3.33), part c asks to draw the Lewis structure of the molecule ONF. I recall that during lecture, Dr. Lavelle said that the central atom should be the one with the lowest ionization energy. However, in Chapter 2's homework problem 81 (2.81), it says that t...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Oct 05, 2015 4:07 pm
Forum: Electron Configurations for Multi-Electron Atoms
Topic: Coulomb Potential Energy
Replies: 2
Views: 653

Coulomb Potential Energy

In the course reader, it says that electrostatic (Coulomb) potential energy ∝(q1 x q2)/r where r is the distance between charges. Since it doesn't specify, I just wanted to verify that q1 and q2 represent the magnitude and value of the charges of the electrons and if this equation can be used for in...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Sun Oct 04, 2015 10:00 pm
Forum: *Shrodinger Equation
Topic: Conceptual Explanation of Schrod. Equ. Pls!
Replies: 1
Views: 491

Re: Conceptual Explanation of Schrod. Equ. Pls!

"Operating a change" just means taking a Hamiltonian (a double derivative in this case) of the mathematical wave function representing the position of an electron in three-dimensional space. Since electrons have wavelike properties, taking a double derivative of the wave function (using a ...
by Kayla Mashoudy 1B
Mon Sep 28, 2015 4:41 pm
Forum: Properties of Light
Topic: Hw 1.7
Replies: 2
Views: 495

Hw 1.7

In part B, the problem says that an electron beam strikes a block of copper and x-rays with a frequency of 2.0x10^18 Hz are emitted. It then asks for the wavelength of these x-rays. I used the formula E=hv, substituted v for c/λ, and rearranged the equation to give me λ=hc/E. I got an answer of 150 ...

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