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Yup! The molecular formula tells you the actual number of atoms for each element, so you could just count them all up when given a diagram of a molecule. Then, like you said, you can simply the molecular formula to get the empirical formula (unless you can't simplify, then the molecular and empirical formulas are the same).
Yeah this is correct. For the molecular formula because it's the "actual" number of atoms all we had to do was count them and for the empirical formula, because it's the "relative" number of atoms per element, we could use the molecular formula we to find the ratio for the amount of each element, to simplify.
So, in terms of the molecular and empirical formulas being the same, when no simplification can be done, how can we be aware of this occurring in a problem (ie. knowing beforehand if they'll be the same or not) without a diagram?
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