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You can simply look it up, but the naming conventions are useful to memorize. "Sulfate" represents the ion SO4 which has a 2- charge. Since Magnesium has a charge of 2+, it pairs 1:1 with a sulfate ion, so the formula for magnesium sulfate is MgSO4. "Hydrate" indicates a water molecule surrounding an ion in an aqueous environment and "hepta" is the prefix for seven, so "heptahydrate" indicates seven water molecules. Putting this together, 'magnesium sulfate heptahydrate' indicates MgSO4 7H2O.
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