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In Dr. Lavelle's lecture, I wrote down that "interionic and intermolecular attractive forces are responsible for the condensed phases (liquid/solid)." Would anyone be able to explain what that means, maybe with an application or example?
Dipole-Dipole interactions, Induced-Dipole Induced-Dipole interactions, hydrogen bonds, etc are responsible for binding molecules of different substances together. The more of these you have and the stronger they are, they more tightly bound this substance will be. For example, because H2S lacks hydrogen bonds while H2O has them, H2S has a lower boiling point than H2O. H2O's molecules are better able to stick together because of the additional hydrogen bonds, thereby helping it remain a liquid longer than H2S. Thus, stronger intermolecular forces keep a substance's molecules together, helping it remain in a condensed state better than other molecules which may lack such bonds.
A stronger IMF leads to a higher boiling point. Therefore, a compound with strong intermolecular forces would have a high boiling point causing more energy to be needed to change the state from liquid to gas.
An atom that is polar will have a dipole force that causes it to want to be near like atoms. These forces strength causes a solid of liquid to form. When there is not enough of those forces or the energy of the boiling point is put into the system, a gas will form.
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