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Dipole moments occur when there is a difference in charge between the two atoms or ions. The smaller the difference in electronegativity, the smaller the dipole moment is. The larger the difference in electronegativity, the larger the dipole moment.
Yes, if the difference in electronegativity values between the two atoms bonded together is greater than 0.5, there will be a dipole moment. If it is less than 0.5, like in a C-H bond, we would consider the bond to have a very weak dipole moment.
As for the trend in electronegativity, it typically increases as you go across a period and decreases as you go down a group. This is because as you go down a group, the outer electrons are in higher energy levels and thus farther away from the positive nucleus' attractive forces. As you go across the period, the electrons don't change in energy level (n is the same) meaning that the electrons are the same general distance away from the nucleus (they're all in the same orbital). However, as you move from left to right, the number of protons in the nucleus increases, thus increasing the attractive abilities of the atom on its outermost electrons.
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