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An induced dipole is when an atom with a regularly neutral charge is affected by a nearby atom/ion with a high charge that causes it to become slightly positive/negative. It affects London Dispersion forces because LDFs are pretty much when two induced dipoles are attracted to each other.
Induced dipoles, like London forces, are not considered dipoles. They are short term, induced dipoles. They are important when dealing with shape, such as rod shape is more affected by induced dipoles than spherical shapes. Dipoles result from electronegative pulling and are present in polar molecules. A common molecule I recommend looking up is a CH3Cl molecules. You can see the dipole created by the arrow to the Cl.
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