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These two types of intermolecular forces are confusing me. How do you know if something is a permanent dipole vs. a temporary dipole that can be induced. (I know h2o is permanent but I don't understand with other molecules)
A dipole to dipole interaction is between two polar molecules, and polar molecules always have dipole moments. By thinking about the molecules structures/shape, like we did in class, you can predict if it is polar or non polar. A dipole induced dipole interaction is usually between a polar molecule and a non polar molecule. Since the polar molecule has a dipole moment, it is forcing the non polar molecule to also have a dipole moment due to electron repulsion.
A permanent dipole for a molecule occurs when one part of the molecule is more negative than the other part. For example, in water the hydrogen is more positive than the negative oxygen. A temporary dipole can be induced when it is in the presence of another dipole molecule. When the permanent dipole molecule's partial charges interact with another molecule, it creates a dipole on it since the partial charges either attract/repel electrons to one side.
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