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In the case of CO2 for example, the dipoles created by the Carbon and Oxygen are both pointing towards the central Carbon, they would cancel each other out and there would be no dipole moment. CO2 is nonpolar in this example.
If the dipole moments cancel each other out, the molecule is no longer polar, it is non-polar, and there is no dipole moment. I like to consider this in terms of electronegativity and the relative charges on molecules, instead of just memorizing facts.
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