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If a substance is in a gas phase, it means that the forces holding the molecules together have been overcome by the energy added. For instance, the hydrogen bonds in liquid water are broken when the water is heated, causing the water to enter a gaseous phase. So the dipole-dipole forces have the same attractive force regardless of state, but they are overpowered when the energy of the molecules in a substance passes a certain threshold.
Adding onto the previous answer, you can’t conclude that dipole-dipole interactions are stronger in the gas or solid phase. However, if you are given two samples of different polar molecules at the same temperature, if one of the samples is solid and one is gaseous, you can conclude that stronger dipole-dipole forces are likely present in the solid sample.
With gases, they occupy more space so the attraction between the molecules are weak. Solids on the other hand are more restricted in their movement, so they have stronger dipole-dipole interactions than gases would.
Dipole-dipole in a solid phase would be stronger. The bonds in a solid are tightly held and rigid unlike those of a gas. This would mean that the attraction between the molecules in the solid phase would be greater.
Nathan Rothschild_3D wrote:So is solid stronger or are they both the same? or does it depend on the molecule, not the state
I think it is safe to say that the intermolecular forces in a solid compound are generally stronger than in a gas phase
Tiffany Vo 3G wrote:With gases, they occupy more space so the attraction between the molecules are weak. Solids on the other hand are more restricted in their movement, so they have stronger dipole-dipole interactions than gases would.
So are all intermolecular bonds between gases generally weaker than those between solids?
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