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Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Wed Jan 13, 2016 6:20 pm
by Chem_Mod
In class today I forgot to mention this list I created to assist students.

Adiabatic (also called adiabatically isolated system)
An adiabatically isolated system has only adiabatic boundary sectors. Energy can be transferred as work, but transfers of matter and of energy as heat are prohibited. q = 0

Isothermal
An isothermal process is a change in a system where the temperature stays constant: ΔT = 0.

Isobaric
An isobaric process is a change in a system where the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0.

Isochoric
An isochoric process is a change in a system where the volume stays constant: ΔV = 0.

Intensive property
An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system.

Note: The ratio of two extensive properties of the same object or system is an intensive property. For example, the ratio of an object's mass and volume, which are two extensive properties, is density, which is an intensive property.

State Function
A state function describes a physical property of the system and is independent of how the system arrived at its present condition.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Tue Jan 19, 2016 11:23 am
by Stevie Wisz
Thank you!! :)

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Thu Jan 21, 2016 9:43 pm
by jennymai96
So for adiabatic system, the energy as heat is different from the energy as work? Thanks!

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Fri Jan 22, 2016 10:06 am
by Evelin Escobedo
This is going to be helpful when trying to keep track of the different vocab this quarter. Thanks!
Is this the main list for thermodynamics, or would it be recommended to extend the list on out own ?

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Jan 24, 2016 9:26 pm
by Melissa Kulon 2D
Thank you! Just to clarify, are the only terms that are NOT state functions, work and heat?

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Jan 24, 2016 10:47 pm
by chrispolo15
can someone elaborate on state functions? i'm still kind of confused. are they dependent or dependent?

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Tue Jan 26, 2016 1:56 am
by VivianYang2A
chrispolo15 wrote:can someone elaborate on state functions? i'm still kind of confused. are they dependent or dependent?


State functions are dependent on the state of the moment (temp/press/vol), but are independent of system "history"; I think it's more important to note that they are additive, like what we do with Hess's Law in enthalpy.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Thu Jan 28, 2016 1:43 am
by Rhiannon Imbeah 2I
Thank you for posting this!

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Thu Jan 28, 2016 11:40 am
by 204635822
chrispolo15 wrote:can someone elaborate on state functions? i'm still kind of confused. are they dependent or dependent?


For a state property, you only need to know initial and final values. The pathway is not important.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Thu Jan 28, 2016 11:33 pm
by Brianna
jennymai96 wrote:So for adiabatic system, the energy as heat is different from the energy as work? Thanks!

energy as heat is always separate from energy as work. For Adiabatic systems, since there is no heat transfer, q=0 and Delta U = w

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Jan 31, 2016 2:19 am
by carissa1F
can someone elaborate more on the adiabetic system and its conditions?

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Jan 31, 2016 11:59 pm
by Karina Saucedo 2I
Adiabatic as also defined in the textbook is, "not permitting or accompanied by the passage of energy as heat." This can be be categorized into two different processes, reversible and irreversible. Reversible is quasi-static where as the irreversible process is spontaneous since there is a big change in the external restriction. For reversible, quasi-static, it starts were gas pressure equals external pressure then there is a change externally where there is a slight decrease in the outside pressure. Therefore the gas expands just a bit before reaching equilibrium which occurs in a fast pace. This process is repeated until the desired pressure is reached. On the other hand if the outside pressure greatly decreased rapidly than the gas would expand until it reached equilibrium this process however will do so in a different manner than the reversible process.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Mon Feb 01, 2016 9:29 am
by Rachel Lipman
This is great! Thank you for sharing these key terms in such a simple and concise way! These terms are essential to memorize for future quizzes and tests.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Fri Feb 19, 2016 7:01 am
by Sochima1J
I agree! This is really helpful.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Feb 28, 2016 7:05 pm
by Crystal Ma
Thank you!!

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Mon Jan 29, 2018 9:35 am
by Katelyn 2E
will we be discussing these different types of systems each in detail or should we just know the general conceptual idea behind them such as is provided here? thank you!

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Tue Jan 30, 2018 3:07 pm
by Michelle Steinberg2J
Would someone be able to briefly explain the difference between isobaric, isochoric, and isothermal? I have these definitions written down and I've read through the textbook, but I feel as though I've memorized the differences and don't fully grasp the concept. Thanks!

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Tue Jan 30, 2018 4:45 pm
by Kailey Brodeur 1J
These 3 situations each have a different factor that remains the same. Isobaric refers to a system in which pressure remains constant, isochloric refers to a system in which volume remains constant, and isothermal refers to a system in which temperature remains constant. This means other factors are changing in order to change the entropy of a system. This is important because we use different equations in order to calculate entropy change based upon what the system's constants and variables are.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Mon Feb 12, 2018 4:33 pm
by Rishi Khettry 1L
To clarify, intensive properties are ratios. For example, density would be an intensive property because it is mass/volume. Where mass and volume are both extensive properties.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Tue Feb 13, 2018 6:02 pm
by Angela 1K
Michelle Steinberg2J wrote:Would someone be able to briefly explain the difference between isobaric, isochoric, and isothermal? I have these definitions written down and I've read through the textbook, but I feel as though I've memorized the differences and don't fully grasp the concept. Thanks!


As Dr. Lavelle explained in his post,
Isobaric : constant pressure
Isochoric: constant volume
Isothermal: constant temperature

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Fri Feb 08, 2019 4:26 pm
by Brian Kwak 1D
Just asking for clarification but for an Adiabatic isolated system as dr.lavelle stated that there can be exchange or more specificly loss of internal energy as work correct? So compared to an isolated system where there is no exchange of matter or energy because there is no surroundings therefore meaning that the internal energy is constant and doesn’t change for a Adiabatic isolated system the internal energy can DECREASE due to work correct? So between the two essentially the only difference would be that an Adiabatic system can lose internal energy as work because work is not within the limits of the Adiabatic boundaries correct? Verses the isolated system where there is absolutely no exchange of energy or matter because the system is “isolated” surroundings therefore meaning that there is no change at all in internal energy.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Wed Feb 13, 2019 11:27 am
by Nikki Bych 1I
I am having trouble distinguishing the difference between a state function and an intensive property, they seem very similar to me.

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Mar 10, 2019 8:07 pm
by Abby-Hile-1F
will we need to identify processes as isobaric, isochoric, or isothermal?

Re: Useful Summary of Thermodynamic Definitions

Posted: Sun Mar 17, 2019 9:10 am
by Matthew Casillas 1C
Abby-Hile-1F wrote:will we need to identify processes as isobaric, isochoric, or isothermal?
I don't believe so, I think they tell us in the question so we use specific equations.