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Gas molecules are higher energy and occupy the entirety of the volume of a container as they 'bounce' off of one another and off of the container; it has a lot to do with the decreased density and the increased speed of the particles when they're in their gaseous phase.
Think of it as what happens at each phase change. For example, you can hold an ice cube because it's solid and compact. When the ice melts it becomes water and it gets harder to contain. And when it becomes a gas (because of boiling) you can't really contain a gas because it diffuses throughout the area it has to work with. In terms of what we learned in class, gases occupy more "space" because they have higher entropy than liquids or solids.
In gases, the kinetic energy is higher than the intermolecular forces between them, allowing them to spread out unlike solids and liquids. Therefore, they take up more space since the individual gas molecules are bouncing all over the place.
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