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Because all the heat lost by water ( - sign) has to be gained by ice ( + sign). Even though it doesn't matter, it is conventional to put the negative sign on the side that lost heat, and since heat flows from hot to cold, in this case, you would put the negative sign on q water
If ice is placed in water, the system will attempt to equilibrate with heat flow from the water to the ice. Therefore, qWater = -qIce. This can also be derived from the fact that qWater + qIce = 0, since all heat is being exchanged between the 2 objects and nothing else.
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