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Simply speaking, S is entropy, a measure of disorder. A low value of S means the level of disorder is small, while a high value of S means the level of disorder is high. One way to calculate S is the Boltzmann formula, which is S=klnW. W is the number of possible arrangements (in the case of a molecule, it could be the number of orientations, like OH, which has 2, O-H and H-O) of something. The value of W is a way to gauge disorder, and can be related to S with Boltzmann's formula, which is used calculate a useful quantitative value that can be used for other calculations.
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