Boltzmann Equation for Entropy:
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Microstates is a term used to describe the number of different possible arrangements of molecular position and kinetic energy at a particular thermodynamic state. A process that gives an increase in the number of microstates increases the entropy.
Because Boltzmann's equation calculates the residual entropy, which is the entropy of the sample at 0 Kelvin, we are assuming the entropy arises only from positional disorder in the sample (i.e. linked to the number of microstates) that survives at that temperature, we disregard the entropy resulting from thermal energy and motion. I would say this is also disregarding the rotational and kinetic energy, since motion theoretically ceases at 0 Kelvin. The entropy thus results solely from the possible positional arrangements.
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