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In my notes, it says that it's because delta U = 3/2(nR*delta T) and if delta T = 0, then delta U will be 0. I can understand that logic but where did that delta U = 3/2(nR*delta T) equation come from? And why is it 0?
To add on, I believe the 3/2 in your equation came from 'Ideal gas, Cv = (3/2) R' (which can be found on the formula sheet). Note that this 'C' value varies depending on what you're trying to solve for, i.e. 'Ideal gas, Cp = (5/2) R'.
In an isothermal process, the average kinetic energy of the molecules stay the same and since there is no force between the molecules, the potential energy also stays the same. Therefore, delta U=0.
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